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Encyclopedia > Federalist Papers
An advertisement for The Federalist
An advertisement for The Federalist

The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. They were published serially in New York City newspapers beginning in October 1787. A compilation, called The Federalist, was published in 1788. The Federalist Papers serve as a primary source for interpretation of the Constitution, as they outline the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government.[1] The authors of the Federalist Papers wanted to both influence the vote in favor of ratification and shape future interpretations of the Constitution. According to historian Richard Morris, they are an "incomparable exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in both breadth and depth by the product of any later American writer." [2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x1088, 641 KB) Summary An Advertisement of The Federalist - Project Gutenberg eText 16960. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x1088, 641 KB) Summary An Advertisement of The Federalist - Project Gutenberg eText 16960. ... This is a listing of the Federalist Papers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... New York, NY redirects here. ...


The articles were written by Alexander Hamilton (who probably wrote 51 of them), James Madison (29), and John Jay (5). They appeared under the pseudonym "Publius," in honor of Roman consul Publius Valerius Publicola.[3] Madison is generally credited as the father of the Constitution and became the fourth President of the United States.[4] Hamilton was an active delegate at the Constitutional Convention, and became the first Secretary of the Treasury. John Jay became the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, writer, and a jurist. ... Title page of an early Federalist compilation. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Publius Valerius Publicola (or Poplicola, his surname meaning friend of the people) was a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


Federalist No. 10, which discusses the means of preventing faction and advocates for a large republic, is generally regarded as the most important of the 85 articles from a philosophical perspective.[5] Federalist No. 84 is also notable for its opposition to a Bill of Rights. Federalist No. 51 may be the clearest exposition of what has come to be called "Federalism." James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... This article is about the general concept of a bill of rights. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ...

Contents

History

Origins

Alexander Hamilton, author of the majority of the Federalist Papers
Alexander Hamilton, author of the majority of the Federalist Papers

The Constitution was sent to the states for ratification in late September 1787. Immediately, it was the target of numerous articles and public letters written by Anti-Federalists and other opponents of the Constitution. For instance, the important Anti-Federalist authors "Cato" and "Brutus" debuted in New York papers on September 27 and October 18, respectively.[6] Hamilton began the Federalist Papers project as a response to the opponents of ratification, a response that would explain the new Constitution to the residents of New York and persuade them to ratify it. He wrote in Federalist No. 1 that the series would "endeavor to give a satisfactory answer to all the objections which shall have made their appearance, that may seem to have any claim to your attention." Download high resolution version (868x1224, 303 KB) A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... Download high resolution version (868x1224, 303 KB) A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United States. ... The Anti-Federalist Party, though not a true political party, but a faction, left a major legacy on the country by initiating the Bill of Rights. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ...


Hamilton recruited collaborators for the project. He enlisted Jay, who fell ill and was unable to contribute much to the series. Madison, who was in New York as a delegate to the Congress, was recruited by Hamilton and Jay and became Hamilton's major collaborator. Gouverneur Morris and William Duer were also apparently considered; Morris turned down the invitation and Hamilton rejected three essays written by Duer.[7] Duer later wrote in support of the three Federalist authors under the name "Philo-Publius," or "Friend of Publius." Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 8, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ... For other men with this name, see the disambiguation page: William Duer. ...


Hamilton also chose "Publius" as the pseudonym under which the series would be written. While many other pieces representing both sides of the constitutional debate were written under Roman names, Albert Furtwangler contends that "'Publius' was a cut above 'Caesar' or 'Brutus' or even 'Cato.' Publius Valerius was not a late defender of the republic but one of its founders. His more famous name, Publicola, meant 'friend of the people.'"[8] It was not the first time Hamilton had used this pseudonym: in 1778, he had applied it to three letters attacking Samuel Chase. Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Samuel Chase (April 17, 1741 – June 19, 1811), was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. ...


Publication

The Federalist Papers appeared in three New York newspapers: the Independent Journal, the New-York Packet and the Daily Advertiser, beginning on October 27, 1787. Between them, Hamilton, Madison and Jay kept up a rapid pace, with at times three or four new essays by Publius appearing in the papers in a week. Garry Wills observes that the pace of production "overwhelmed" any possible response: "Who, given ample time could have answered such a battery of arguments? And no time was given."[9] Hamilton also encouraged the reprinting of the essay in newspapers outside New York state, and indeed they were published in several other states where the ratification debate was taking place. However, they were only irregularly published outside New York, and in other parts of the country they were often overshadowed by local writers.[10] October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The high demand for the essays led to their publication in a more permanent form. On January 1, 1788, the New York publishing firm J. & A. McLean announced that they would publish the first thirty-six essays as a bound volume; that volume was released on March 2 and was titled The Federalist. New essays continued to appear in the newspapers; Federalist No. 77 was the last number to first appear in that form, on April 2. A second bound volume containing the last forty-nine essays was released on May 28. The remaining eight papers were later published in the newspapers as well.[11] January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ...


A number of later publications are worth noting. A 1792 French edition ended the collective anonymity of Publius, announcing that the work had been written by "MM Hamilton, Maddisson E Gay," citizens of the State of New York. In 1802 George Hopkins published an American edition that similarly named the authors. Hopkins wished as well that "the name of the writer should be prefixed to each number," but at this point Hamilton insisted that this was not to be, and the division of the essays between the three authors remained a secret.[12]


The first publication to divide the papers in such a way was an 1810 edition that used a list provided by Hamilton to associate the authors with their numbers; this edition appeared as two volumes of the compiled "Works of Hamilton." In 1818, Jacob Gideon published a new edition with a new listing of authors, based on a list provided by Madison. The difference between Hamilton's list and Madison's form the basis for a dispute over the authorship of a dozen of the essays.[13]


Disputed essays

See also: List of Federalist Papers
James Madison, Hamilton's major collaborator, later President of the United States and "Father of the Constitution"
James Madison, Hamilton's major collaborator, later President of the United States and "Father of the Constitution"

The authorship of seventy-three of the Federalist essays is fairly certain. Twelve are disputed, though some newer evidence suggests Madison as the author. The first open designation of which essay belonged to whom was provided by Hamilton, who in the days before his ultimately fatal duel with Aaron Burr provided his lawyer with a list detailing the author of each number. This list credited Hamilton with a full sixty-three of the essays (three of those being jointly written with Madison), almost three quarters of the whole, and was used as the basis for an 1810 printing that was the first to make specific attribution for the essays.[14] This is a listing of the Federalist Papers. ... Image File history File links Gilbert Stuart American, 1755 - 1828 James Madison, c. ... Image File history File links Gilbert Stuart American, 1755 - 1828 James Madison, c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Madison did not immediately dispute Hamilton's list, but provided his own list for the 1818 Gideon edition of The Federalist. Madison claimed twenty-nine numbers for himself, and he suggested that the difference between the two lists was "owing doubtless to the hurry in which [Hamilton's] memorandum was made out." A known error in Hamilton's list—Hamilton incorrectly ascribed No. 54 to Jay, when in fact Jay wrote No. 64—has provided some evidence for Madison's suggestion.[15] James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... John Jay, author of Federalist No. ...


Statistical analysis has been undertaken on several occasions to try to decide based on word frequencies and writing styles, and nearly all of the statistical studies show that all twelve disputed papers were written by Madison.[16][17]


Influence on the ratification debates

The Federalist Papers were written to support the ratification of the Constitution. Whether they succeeded in this mission is questionable. Separate ratification proceedings took place in each state, and the essays were not reliably reprinted outside of New York; furthermore, by the time the series was well underway, a number of important states had already ratified it, for instance Pennsylvania on December 12. New York held out until July 26; certainly The Federalist was more important here than anywhere else, but Furtwangler argues that it "could hardly rival other major forces in the ratification contests." Specifically, these forces included the personal influence of well-known Federalists, for instance Hamilton and Jay, and Anti-Federalists, including Governor George Clinton.[18] Further, by the time New York came to a vote, ten states had already ratified the Constitution and it had thus already passed – only nine states had to ratify it for the new government to be established among them. In light of that, Furtwangler observes, "New York's refusal would make that state an odd outsider."[19] December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... George Clinton is the name of several notable people: George Clinton (royal governor) (c. ...


As for Virginia, which only ratified the Constitution on June 25, Hamilton writes in a letter to Madison that the collected edition of The Federalist had been sent to Virginia; Furtwangler presumes that it was to act as a "debater's handbook for the convention there," though he claims that this indirect influence would be a "dubious distinction."[20] Probably of greater importance to the Virginia debate, in any case, were George Washington's support for the proposed Constitution and the presence of Madison and Edmund Randolph, the governor, at the convention arguing for ratification. June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ...


Structure and content

In Federalist No. 1, which served as the introduction to the series, Hamilton listed six topics to be covered in the subsequent articles: Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ...

  1. "The utility of the UNION to your political prosperity" – covered in No. 2 through No. 14
  2. "The insufficiency of the present Confederation to preserve that Union"—covered in No. 15 through No. 22
  3. "The necessity of a government at least equally energetic with the one proposed to the attainment of this object"—covered in No. 23 through No. 36
  4. "The conformity of the proposed constitution to the true principles of republican government"—covered in No. 37 through No. 84
  5. "Its analogy to your own state constitution"—covered in No. 85
  6. "The additional security which its adoption will afford to the preservation of that species of government, to liberty and to prosperity"—covered in No. 85.[21]

Furtwangler notes that as the series grew, this plan was somewhat changed. The fourth topic expanded into detailed coverage of the individual articles of the Constitution and the institutions it mandated, while the two last topics were merely touched on in the last essay.


The papers can be broken down by author as well as by topic. At the start of the series, all three authors were contributing; the first twenty papers are broken down as eleven by Hamilton, five by Madison and four by Jay. The rest of the series, however, is dominated by three long segments by a single writer: No. 21 through No. 36 by Hamilton, No. 36 through 58 by Madison, written while Hamilton was in Albany, and No. 65 through the end by Hamilton, published after Madison had left for Virginia.[22]


Opposition to the Bill of Rights

The Federalist Papers (specifically Federalist No. 84) are remarkable for their opposition to what later became the United States Bill of Rights. The idea of adding a bill of rights to the constitution was originally controversial because the constitution, as written, did not specifically enumerate or protect the rights of the people, rather it limited the rights of the government and left all that remained to the states and the people. Alexander Hamilton, the author of Federalist No. 84, feared that such an enumeration, once written down explicitly, would later be interpreted as a list of the only rights that people had. Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Image of the United States Bill of Rights from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ...


However, Hamilton's opposition to the Bill of Rights was far from universal. Robert Yates, writing under the pseudonym Brutus, articulated this view point in the so-called Anti-Federalist No. 84, asserting that a government unrestrained by such a bill could easily devolve into tyranny. Other supporters of the Bill argued that a list of rights would not and should not be interpreted as exhaustive; i.e., that these rights were examples of important rights that people had, but that people had other rights as well. People in this school of thought were confident that the judiciary would interpret these rights in an expansive fashion. The matter was further clarified by the Ninth Amendment. Robert Yates (1738-1801) was a United States politician well known for his Anti-Federalist stances. ... The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United States. ... The Ninth Amendment may refer to the: Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution - part of the Bill of Rights. ...


Modern approaches and interpretations

Judicial use

John Jay, author of five of the Federalist Papers. Later, he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

Federal judges, when interpreting the Constitution, frequently use the Federalist Papers as a contemporary account of the intentions of the framers and ratifiers.[23] They have been applied on issues ranging from the power of the federal government in foreign affairs (in Hines v. Davidowitz) to the validity of ex post facto laws (in the 1798 decision Calder v. Bull, apparently the first decision to mention The Federalist).[24] As of the year 2000, The Federalist was quoted 291 times in Supreme Court decisions.[25] Image File history File links John_Jay_(Gilbert_Stuart_portrait). ... Image File history File links John_Jay_(Gilbert_Stuart_portrait). ... This article is about a journal. ... An ex post facto law (Latin for from a thing done afterward), also known as a retrospective law, is a law that is retroactive, i. ... The Case of Calder v. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


The amount of deference that should be given to the Federalist Papers in constitutional interpretation has always been somewhat controversial. As early as 1819, Chief Justice John Marshall said about the Federalist Papers in the famous case McCulloch v. Maryland that "the opinions expressed by the authors of that work have been justly supposed to be entitled to great respect in expounding the Constitution. No tribute can be paid to them which exceeds their merit; but in applying their opinions to the cases which may arise in the progress of our government, a right to judge of their correctness must be retained." And Madison himself believed not only that The Federalist was not a direct expression of the ideas of the Founders, but that those ideas themselves, and the "debates and incidental decisions of the Convention," should not be viewed as having any "authoritative character." In short, "the legitimate meaning of the Instrument must be derived from the text itself."[26] John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... Holding Although the Constitution does not specifically give Congress the power to establish a bank, it does delegate the ability to tax and spend, and a bank is a proper and suitable instrument to assist the operations of the government in the collection and disbursement of the revenue. ...


See also

This is a listing of the Federalist Papers. ... The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United States. ...

References

  • Adair, Douglass. Fame and the Founding Fathers. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1974. A collection of essays; that used here is "The Disputed Federalist Papers."
  • Furtwangler, Albert. The Authority of Publius: A Reading of the Federalist Papers. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1984.
  • Frederick Mosteller and David L. Wallace. Inference and Disputed Authorship: The Federalist. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1964.
  • Wills, Gary. Explaining America: The Federalist, Garden City, NJ: 1981.

Notes

  1. ^ Furtwangler, 17.
  2. ^ Richard B. Morris, The Forging of the Union: 1781-1789 (1987) p. 309
  3. ^ Furtwangler, 51.
  4. ^ See, e.g. Irving Brant, James Madison: Father of the Constitution, 1787-1800. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company (1950).
  5. ^ Wills, x.
  6. ^ Furtwangler, 48-49.
  7. ^ Furtwangler, 51-56.
  8. ^ Furtwangler, 51.
  9. ^ Wills, xii.
  10. ^ Furtwangler, 20.
  11. ^ The Federalist timeline at www.sparknotes.com.
  12. ^ Adair, 40-41.
  13. ^ Adair, 44-46.
  14. ^ Adair, 46-48.
  15. ^ Adair, 48.
  16. ^ Mosteller and Wallace.
  17. ^ Fung, Glenn, The disputed federalist papers: SVM feature selection via concave minimization, New York City, ACM Press, 2003. (9 pg pdf file)
  18. ^ Furtwangler, 21.
  19. ^ Furtwangler, 22.
  20. ^ Furtwangler, 23.
  21. ^ This scheme of division is adapted from Charles K. Kesler's introduction to The Federalist Papers (New York: Signet Classic, 1999) pp. 15-17. A similar division is indicated by Furtwangler, 57-58.
  22. ^ Wills, 274.
  23. ^ Lupu, Ira C.; "The Most-Cited Federalist Papers." Constitutional Commentary (1998) pp 403+; using Supreme Court citations, the five most cited were Federalist No. 42 (Madison) (33 decisions), Federalist No. 78 (Hamilton) (30 decisions), Federalist No. 81 (Hamilton) (27 decisions), Federalist No. 51 (Madison) (26 decisions), Federalist No. 32 (Hamilton) (25 decisions).
  24. ^ See, among others, a very early exploration of the judicial use of The Federalist in Charles W. Pierson, "The Federalist in the Supreme Court," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 33, No. 7. (May, 1924), pp. 728-735.
  25. ^ Chernow, Ron. "Alexander Hamilton." Penguin Books, 2004. (p. 260)
  26. ^ Madison to Thomas Ritchie, September 15, 1821. Quoted in Furtwangler, 36.

James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Further reading

  • Dietze, Gottfried. The Federalist: A Classic on Federalism and Free Government, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1960.
  • Epstein, David F. The Political Theory of the Federalist, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1984.
  • Gray, Leslie, and Wynell Burroughs. "Teaching With Documents: Ratification of the Constitution," Social Education, 51 (1987): 322-324.
  • Kessler, Charles R. Saving the Revolution: The Federalist Papers and the American Founding, New York: 1987.
  • Patrick, John J., and Clair W. Keller. Lessons on the Federalist Papers: Supplements to High School Courses in American History, Government and Civics, Bloomington, IN: Organization of American Historians in association with ERIC/ChESS, 1987. ED 280 764.
  • Schechter, Stephen L. Teaching about American Federal Democracy, Philadelphia: Center for the Study of Federalism at Temple University, 1984. ED 248 161.
  • Yarbrough, Jean. "The Federalist". This Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle, 16 (1987): 4-9. SO 018 489.
  • Webster, Mary E. The Federalist Papers: In Modern Language Indexed for Today's Political Issues. Bellevue, WA.: Merril Press, 1999.
  • White, Morton. Philosophy, The Federalist, and the Constitution, New York: 1987.

External links

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The Federalist Papers

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Text of the Federalist Papers


Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ...

Federalist Papers | List of Federalist Papers
Authors: Alexander Hamilton | James Madison | John Jay
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Related topics: Anti-Federalist Papers | United States Constitution
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Original text: Preamble ∙ Article 1 ∙ Article 2 ∙ Article 3 ∙ Article 4 ∙ Article 5 ∙ Article 6 ∙ Article 7 This is a listing of the Federalist Papers. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, writer, and a jurist. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... To the People of the State of New York: When the people of America reflect that they are now called upon to decide a question, which, in its consequences, must prove one of the most important that ever engaged their attention, the propriety of their taking a very comprehensive, as... John Jay, author of Federalist No. ... John Jay Federalist No. ... To the People of the State of New York: QUEEN ANNE, in her letter of the 1st July, 1706, to the Scotch Parliament, makes some observations on the importance of the UNION then forming between England and Scotland, which merit our attention. ... Federalist No. ... Federalist No. ... Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... 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James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... In Federalist 39, Publius attempts to describe the nature of the U.S. Government as proposed by the Constitution. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... John Jay, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United States. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Preamble to the United States Constitution The preamble to the United States Constitution consists of a single sentence (a preamble) which introduces the document and its purpose. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution states the establishment of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Two of the United States Constitution Article Two of the United States Constitution creates the executive branch of the government, comprising the President and other executive officers. ... Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. ... Article Four of the United States Constitution relates to the states. ... Article Five of the United States Constitution describes the process whereby the Constitution may be altered. ... Article Six establishes the United States Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, and fulfills other purposes. ... Article Seven of the United States Constitution describes the process by which the entire document is to be ratified and take effect. ...

Amendments: 1 ∙ 2 ∙ 3 ∙ 4 ∙ 5 ∙ 6 ∙ 7 ∙ 8 ∙ 9 ∙ 10 ∙ 11 ∙ 12 ∙ 13 ∙ 14 ∙ 15 ∙ 16 ∙ 17 ∙ 18 ∙ 19 ∙ 20 ∙ 21 ∙ 22 ∙ 23 ∙ 24 ∙ 25 ∙ 26 ∙ 27
 Formation  History of the Constitution • Articles of Confederation • Annapolis Convention • Philadelphia Convention • New Jersey Plan • Virginia Plan • Connecticut Compromise • Signatories
 Adoption  Massachusetts Compromise • Federalist Papers
 Amendments  Bill of Rights • Ratified • Proposed • Unsuccessful • Conventions to propose • State ratifying conventions
 Clauses  Case or controversy • Citizenship • Commerce • Commerce (Dormant) • Confrontation • Contract • Copyright • Due Process • Equal Protection • Establishment • Exceptions • Free Exercise • Full Faith and Credit • Impeachment • Natural–born citizen • Necessary and Proper • No Religious Test • Presentment • Privileges and Immunities (Art. IV) • Privileges or Immunities (14th Amend.) • Speech or Debate • Supremacy • Suspension • Takings Clause • Taxing and Spending • Territorial • War Powers
 Interpretation  Congressional power of enforcement • Double jeopardy • Enumerated powers • Incorporation of the Bill of Rights • Nondelegation • Preemption • Separation of church and state • Separation of powers • Constitutional theory • Executive privilege

  Results from FactBites:
 
Federalist Papers: Information from Answers.com (3661 words)
"Federalist 51" concluded a series of essays on the separation of powers by arguing that the task of maintaining equilibrium among the departments required giving the members of each branch the incentives and means to protect their constitutional powers.
Federalist, The, series of 85 political essays, sometimes called The Federalist Papers, written 1787–88 under the pseudonym “Publius.” Alexander Hamilton initiated the series with the immediate intention of persuading New York to approve the Federalist Constitution.
The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution.
Federalist Papers: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress) (1140 words)
The Federalist Papers were a series of eighty-five essays urging the citizens of New York to ratify the new United States Constitution.
The Federalist Papers are considered one of the most important sources for interpreting and understanding the original intent of the Constitution.
Known as the Federalist Papers, the first in a series of eighty-five essays by "Publius," the pen name of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, appeared in the New York Independent Journal on October 27, 1787.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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