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Encyclopedia > Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Савезна Република Југославија
Savezna Republika Jugoslavija

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Federation


1992 – 2003
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Belgrade
44°49′N, 20°28′E
Language(s) Serbian
Government Republic
President
 - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić
 - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić
 - 19972000 Slobodan Milošević
 - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav Koštunica
Prime Minister
 - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić
 - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić
 - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović
 - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić
 - 2001 - 2003 Dragiša Pešić
History
 - Constitution April 27, 1992
 - Established April 281992
 - UN membership November 1, 2000
 - Reconstituted February 42003
Area
 - 2002 102,350 km2
39,518 sq mi
Population
 - 2002 est. 10,656,929 
     Density 104.1 /km² 
269.7 /sq mi
Currency Yugoslav dinar, Euro
ISO 3166-1=YU, ISO 3166-3=YUCS
International calling code = 381, UTC offset = +1

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija) or FRY was a federal state consisting of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro that existed from 1992 to 2003, when it was reconstituted as a State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - Secessions... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_and_Montenegro. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President Svetozar Marović Historical era Post-Cold War  - UN membership¹ November 1, 2000  - Established February 4, 2003  - Disestablished June 5, 2006 Area  - 2006 102,350 km2 39,518 sq mi Population  - 2006 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links originally uploaded by Avala. ... As there were various Yugoslavias, there were also various flags: Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia See also: Flags of the Yugoslav Socialist Republics Category: ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 568 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a locator map for en:Serbia and Montenegro and the en:Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and the largest city of Serbia. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... The President of Yugoslavia was Yugoslavias head of state from 1953 to 1991 in SFR Yugoslavia, and from 1992 to 2003 in FR Yugoslavia. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Dobrica Ćosić (1922-) is a Serbian writer who was also active in politics. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zoran Lilić is a Serbian politician. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Požarevac, Nedićs Serbia, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica   (Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница) (pronounced , born March 24, 1944, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) is the current Prime Minister of Serbia. ... // Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, 1918-1929 Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1929-1945 Prime Ministers and Premiers of the Federative Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia, 1945-1963 See List of leaders of communist Yugoslavia Premiers of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Milan Panic Milan Panic meeting with former President Bill Clinton Milan Panic (Serbian: Милан Панић) (born 1929) is a Serbian-American Costa Mesa, California-based pharmaceuticals tycoon. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Radoje Kontić (born May 31, 1937) is a Montenegran politician. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Momir Bulatović (born September 21, 1956) is a former President of Montenegro and Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zoran Žizić (born 1951) is a politician from Montenegro. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DragiÅ¡a PeÅ¡ić (born 1954 in Danilovgrad, Montenegro) is a Montenegrin politician who was Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... A map of UN member states and their dependencies as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (the Palestine Liberation Organization is a UN observer), and Western Sahara (status in dispute between... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitutional Charter of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro came into force on 4 February 2003, and united Serbia and Montenegro under one government, replacing the earlier Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Obverse of 10 Yugoslav Dinars issued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia during 1960s Reverse of 10 Yugoslav Dinars issued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia during 1960s Yugoslav dinar was the official valute in former Yugoslavia. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation) or EUR (disambiguation). ... ISO 3166-1, as part of the ISO 3166 standard, provides codes for the names of countries and dependent areas. ... ISO 3166-3 is an international standard that defines codes for outdated ISO 3166-1 country codes and is part of ISO 3166. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

After Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia broke away from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro reconstituted the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - Secessions... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The United Nations and many individual states, especially the United States, accepted it as constituting a state, but refused to recognise it (or the other republics [1]) as a successor of the former Yugoslavia. The United States and other members of the international community regarded the FRY as being Serbia, as it was dominated by Serbia, while Montenegro contributed little in international political affairs involving the FRY. The FRY was also suspended from a number of international institutions. This was due to the ongoing Yugoslav wars during the 1990s, which had prevented agreement being reached on the disposition of federal assets and liabilities, particularly the national debt. The FRY was not directly involved in conflicts in Croatia and Bosnia, but helped the Serbian states of Republika Srpska and Republika Srpska Krajina with supplies, military technology and men. The country was ravaged by hyperinflation, which reached its peak in 1993, but the economy subsequently recovered. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Succession of states is a concept in international politics regarding the acceptance by other states of a newly created states, based on a perceived historically relationship with a prior state. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Anthem: Bože Pravde2 (English: God of Justice) Patron Saint: Saint Stephen3 The location of Republika Srpska as part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Republic of Serbian Krajina (Republika Srpska Krajina, RSK) was an internationally unrecognized Serbian republic in Croatia. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


In 1995, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević represented the FRY and Bosnian Serbs at peace talks in Dayton, Ohio, USA, which negotiated the end of war in Bosnia with the Dayton Agreement. 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dayton, a surname and place name, may refer to: // Elias Dayton (1737-1807), Colonel and father of Jonathan and builder of Fort Dayton Jonathan Dayton (1760-1824), son of Elias, signer of the United States Constitution, and Speaker of the House Dayton Clarence Miller (1866-1941), an American physicist and... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, i. ...


In June of 1999, after NATO airstrikes, NATO and other troops, organized into KFOR, entered the province of Kosovo following the Kosovo War. Before the handover of power, some 300,000 Serbs and other non-Albanians were ethnically cleansed from the province. On March 17, 2004, unrest in Kosovo led to several deaths as Albanians clashed with Serbs and KFOR. An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATOs military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Violent unrest in Kosovo (a United Nations-administrated province of Serbia officially called Kosovo and Metohija) broke out on March 17, 2004. ...


The FRY was finally re-admitted to the United Nations in 2000 after several years of suspension (with SFRY succession talks still ongoing). 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement regarding continued co-operation, which, among other changes, promised the end of the name Yugoslavia. On February 4, 2003, the federal parliament of Yugoslavia created a loose confederation - State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. A new Constitutional Charter was agreed to provide a framework for the governance of the country. The State Union had a parliament and an army in common, and during the three years (till 2006), neither Serbia nor Montenegro held a referendum on the break-up of the union. The EU's high representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana said that he was happy with the agreement, because it stopped the disintegration progress in the former Yugoslav zone. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro (Скупштина Србије и Црне Горе/Skupština Srbije i Crne Gore) is the national assembly of Serbia and Montenegro. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Constitutional Charter of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro came into force on 4 February 2003, and united Serbia and Montenegro under one government, replacing the earlier Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ...


Divisions

The FRY was composed of four principal political units, consisting of two republics and two subordinate autonomous provinces:

Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and the largest city of Serbia. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Nickname: Serbian Athens Motto: Град по мери грађана City of the citizens (in English) Location of Novi Sad within Serbia Coordinates: Country  Serbia Province Vojvodina District South Bačka Established 1694 City status February 1, 1748 Politics    - Mayor Maja Gojković (SRS)  - City assembly SRS, DSS and SPS  - Municipalities 2 (Novi Sad and Petrovaradin) Area... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... PriÅ¡tina, also spelled Pristina (Albanian: Prishtinë / Prishtina; Serbian: PriÅ¡tina / Приштина,  ) is the capital and the largest city of Kosovo, a Serbian province under UN administration. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ...

Politics

The Federal Assembly of FRY was composed out of two Domes: the Council of Citizens and the Council of Republics. Whereas the Council of Citizens serves as an ordinary Assembly, representing the people of FRY, the Council of Republics was made equally by representatives from the Federation's constituent republics, to ensure Federal equality.

[discuss] – [edit]
Composition of the former Council of Citizens of the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Parties Seats
Democratic Opposition of Serbia 58
Socialist Party of Serbia 44
Serbian Radical Party 5
Socialist People's Party of Montenegro 28
Serbian People's Party 2
TOTAL 138
[discuss] – [edit]
Composition of the former Council of Republics of the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Parties Seats
Serbia 20
Democratic Opposition of Serbia 10
Socialist Party of Serbia 7
Serbian Radical Party 2
Serbian Renewal Movement 1
Montenegro 20
Socialist People's Party of Montenegro 19
Serbian People's Party 1
TOTAL 40

The Democratic Opposition of Serbia was an alliance of political parties in Serbia, formed as an alliance against the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia and its leader, Slobodan Milosevic. ... The Socialist Party of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Партија Србије or Socijalistička Рartija Srbije) is a political party in Serbia. ... The Serbian Radical Party (Serbian: Српска радикална странка or Srpska radikalna stranka) is a nationalist, far-right, political party in Serbia. ... The Socialist Peoples Party of Montenegro is a political party in Montenegro. ... The Serb Peoples Party of Montenegro (Serbian: Српска народна странка Црне Горе/Srpska narodna stranka Crne Gore or SNS) is the opposition party with the most representatives in the Parliament of Montenegro. ... The Democratic Opposition of Serbia was an alliance of political parties in Serbia, formed as an alliance against the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia and its leader, Slobodan Milosevic. ... The Socialist Party of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Партија Србије or Socijalistička Рartija Srbije) is a political party in Serbia. ... The Serbian Radical Party (Serbian: Српска радикална странка or Srpska radikalna stranka) is a nationalist, far-right, political party in Serbia. ... The Serbian Renewal Movement (Srpski Pokret Obnove) is a political party in Serbia. ... The Socialist Peoples Party of Montenegro is a political party in Montenegro. ... The Serb Peoples Party of Montenegro (Serbian: Српска народна странка Црне Горе/Srpska narodna stranka Crne Gore or SNS) is the opposition party with the most representatives in the Parliament of Montenegro. ...

Republic of Serbia

[discuss] – [edit]
Composition of the former Council of Citizens of the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Parties Seats
Democratic Opposition of Serbia 176
Socialist Party of Serbia 37
Serbian Radical Party 23
Party of Serbian Unity 14
TOTAL 250

The Democratic Opposition of Serbia was an alliance of political parties in Serbia, formed as an alliance against the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia and its leader, Slobodan Milosevic. ... The Socialist Party of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Партија Србије or Socijalistička Рartija Srbije) is a political party in Serbia. ... The Serbian Radical Party (Serbian: Српска радикална странка or Srpska radikalna stranka) is a nationalist, far-right, political party in Serbia. ... The Party of Serbian Unity (Serbian: Stranka srpskog jedinstva) is an extreme nationalist party in Serbia. ...

Republic of Montenegro

[discuss] – [edit]
Composition of the former Council of Citizens of the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Parties Seats
For European Montenegro 39
Together for Changes - Socialist People's Party-Serbian People's Party-People's Party 30
Liberal Alliance of Montenegro - Montenegro can do it 4
Democratic coalition - Albanians Together 2
TOTAL 75

The Democratic List for a European Montenegro (Demokratska Lista za Evropsku Crnu Goru) is a political alliance in Montenegro. ... Together for Change (Zajedno za Promjene) is a political alliance in Montenegro. ... The Socialist Peoples Party of Montenegro is a political party in Montenegro. ... The Serb Peoples Party of Montenegro (Serbian: Српска народна странка Црне Горе/Srpska narodna stranka Crne Gore or SNS) is the opposition party with the most representatives in the Parliament of Montenegro. ... The Peoples Party (Serbian: Narodna Stranka) is a conservative party in Montenegro. ... The Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (Liberalni Savez Crne Gore) is a liberal political party in Montenegro. ... Albanians Together (Albanci zajedno) is a political alliance of Albanians in Montenegro. ...

Economy

Mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry caused by the Kosovo War left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. Since the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the International Monetary Fund in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Požarevac, Nedićs Serbia, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ... The Democratic Opposition of Serbia was an alliance of political parties in Serbia, formed as an alliance against the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia and its leader, Slobodan Milosevic. ... [[Image:Example. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ...



The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the Milošević era. Since then, the two republics had separate central banks, different currencies - Montenegro adopted the euro, while Serbia used the Serbian dinar as official currency. Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation) or EUR (disambiguation). ...



The complexity of the FRY's political relationships, slow progress in privatisation, and stagnation in the European economy were detrimental to the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, were an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment was a key political economic problem. Corruption also presented a major problem, with a large black market and a high degree of criminal involvement in the formal economy. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


Reference

  1. ^ White, Mary Jo (2000). 767 Third Avenue Associates v. United States: BRIEF FOR AMICUS CURIAE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA SUPPORTING APPELLEES AND SUPPORTING AFFIRMANCE IN PART AND REVERSAL IN PART. Retrieved on February 3, 2007. “Since 1992, the United States has taken the position that the SFRY has ceased to exist, that there is no state representing the continuation of the SFRY, and that five successors have arisen -- the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (“FRY(S&M)”), the Republic of Slovenia ("Slovenia"), the Republic of Croatia ("Croatia"), the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina ("Bosnia-Herzegovina"), and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ("FYROM")”

February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...

External links

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General and governmental links

  • Official government site
  • List of official sites of administration

Other external links

Yugoslavia (1929 - 1941; 1945 - 2003) Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vojvodina, and Boka Kotorska were part of Austria-Hungary
(until 1918)
See State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and Banat, Bačka and Baranja




Free State of Fiume
(Rijeka)
(1920-1924)
Annexed by Italy in 1924, became part of Yugoslavia in 1947
Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Historic mpap of the Bay, 16th century Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocche di Cattaro) in western Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... Banat, Bačka and Baranja map The Banat, Bačka and Baranja was a de facto existing province of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between October 1918 and March 1919. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Free state of rijeka. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
(1918-1929) The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
(1929-1941)


Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...

Nazi Germany annexed parts of Slovenia
(1941-1945)
Fascist Italy annexed parts of Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro
(1941-1943) Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
(1943-1946) The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
(1946-1963) The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1963-1992) Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - Secessions... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

Slovenia
(since 1991) 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Independent State of Croatia
(1941-1945) It has been suggested that Hanging in NDH be merged into this article or section. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Croatia
(since 1991)
Also, Republic of Serbian Krajina (1991-1995) 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Serb Krajina (Serbian: Република Српска Крајина, РСК; sometimes also translated Republic of Serbian Krajina) was a self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia during the 1990s. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
(since 1992)
Composed of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska since 1995, and of the Brčko District since 2000 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde2 (English: God of Justice) Patron Saint: Saint Stephen3 The location of Republika Srpska as part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language Serbian, Bosnian (Serbo-Croation) and Croatian Official script Cyrillic alphabet, Latin alphabet Capital Brčko Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  208 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density  80,000  ? Ethnic groups (current est. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Hungary annexed Bačka, Baranja, Međimurje, and Prekmurje
(1941-1944/1945) Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... Međimurje (Međimurska županija, Muraköz in Hungarian) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia. ... The municipalities of Slovenia in Prekmurje Prekmurje is the easternmost region of Slovenia. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1992-2003)
1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Serbia and Montenegro
(2003-2006) 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Serbia
(since 2006) Kosovo a de facto UN protectorate since 1999 Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

Autonomous Banat
(1941-1944) Banat region, 1941-1944 The Banat was an autonomous region within German-occupied Serbia between 1941 and 1944. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Kingdom of Serbia
(until 1918) Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Nedić's Serbia
(1941-1944)

Republic of Užice
(1941) Nedićs Serbia (Nedićeva Srbija) is the popular name for the Serbian nazi puppet state that existed between 1941 and 1944, on the teritory of parts of todays Serbia. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...

Albania annexed most of Kosovo, western Macedonia and south-eastern parts of Montenegro
(1941-1944) For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Kingdom of Montenegro
(until 1918) Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Montenegro (occupied by Italy)
(1941-1945) Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Montenegro
(since 2006) Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city)  Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Modern Republic of Macedonia was part of Kingdom of Serbia
(until 1918) Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Bulgaria annexed most of modern Republic of Macedonia and south-eastern parts of Serbia
(1941-1944) For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Republic of Macedonia
(since 1991) For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


 
 

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