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Encyclopedia > Federal League

The Federal League was the last major attempt to establish an independent major league in baseball in the United States in direct competition with and opposition to the established National and American Leagues in 1914 and 1915. There were a few attempts after this (notably the Mexican League in 1946-1947 and the proposed Continental League), but nothing as direct and serious as the Federal League. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, or simply the National League, is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada and the worlds oldest extant professional team sports league. ... American League The American League (or formally the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs) is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States of America and Canada. ... See also: 1913 in sports, 1915 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball April 22 - Baltimore Orioles Babe Ruth, age 19, pitches his first professional game Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League Carlton wins the 18th VFL Premiership (Carlton 6. ... See also: 1914 in sports, 1916 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Carlton wins the 19th VFL Premiership (Carlton 11. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Continental League was a proposed third major league for baseball. ...

Contents

History

The league started as an independent minor league in 1912 as the Columbia League, but changed its name to the Federal League at the start of the 1913 season, playing as what would now be known as an "independent" minor league, but was at that time thought of as an "outlaw" minor league. John T. Powers was president of the six-team league, but was replaced early in the season by James A. Gilmore, under whose leadership the league made the jump to major leagues. Most sources consider the Federal League to have been of major league quality. A Class A California League game in San Jose, California (1994) Minor baseball leagues are North American professional baseball leagues that compete at a level below that of Major League Baseball. ... See also: 1911 in sports, 1913 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball April 20: The Boston Red Sox open in the new Fenway Park with a 7-6, 11-inning win over the New York Highlanders before 27,000. ...


As a major circuit, the Federal League consisted of 8 teams each season. In the first year, 1914, some of the teams had official nicknames and some did not, but either way, sportswriters were inclined to invent their own nicknames: "ChiFeds", "BrookFeds", etc. By the second season, most of the teams had "official" nicknames, although many writers still called many of the teams "-Feds".


The league had close pennant races both years. In 1914, Indianapolis beat out Chicago by 1 1/2 games. 1915 witnessed the tightest pennant race in Major League history, as five teams fought into the final week of the season. The eventual winner (Chicago) finished 0 (zero) games and .001 percentage point ahead of second place, and a half-game and .004 in front of the third place finisher.


During the 1914-15 offseason, Federal League owners brought an antitrust lawsuit against the American and National Leagues. The lawsuit ended up in the court of Federal Judge (and future Commissioner of Baseball) Kenesaw Mountain Landis, who allowed the case to languish while he urged both sides to negotiate. Swift action might have made a difference, but without the lawsuit going forward, the Federals found themselves in deepening financial straits. The Commissioner of Baseball is the title of the highest office in Major League Baseball. ... Kenesaw Mountain Landis Kenesaw Mountain Landis (20 November 1866 – 25 November 1944) was an American jurist who served as a federal judge from 1905 to 1922, and subsequently as the first commissioner of Major League Baseball. ...


After the 1915 season the owners of the American and National Leagues bought out half of the owners (Pittsburgh, Newark, Buffalo, and Brooklyn) of the Federal League teams. Two Federal League owners were allowed to buy struggling franchises in the established leagues: Phil Ball, owner of the St. Louis Terriers, was allowed to buy the St. Louis Browns of the AL, and Charlie Weeghman, owner of the Chicago Whales, bought the Chicago Cubs. Both owners merged their teams into the established ones. The Kansas City franchise had been declared bankrupt and taken over by the league office after the close of the regular season, and the Baltimore owners rejected the offer made to them. They had sought to buy and move an existing franchise to their city, but were rebuffed, and sued unsuccessfully. St. ... (For the 1901-02 American League team known as the Baltimore Orioles, see New York Yankees. ... Major league affiliations Federal League (1914–present) Federal League ([[{{{y2}}} in baseball|{{{y2}}}]]–present) Current uniform Name Chicago Whales ([[{{{y3}}} in baseball|{{{y3}}}]]–present) Ballpark Weeghman Park (1914–present) Major league titles World Series titles (0) None FL Pennants (1) 1915 {{{DIV}}} Division titles (1) 1915 Wild card berths (0... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Name Chicago Cubs (1902–present) Chicago Orphans (1898-1901) Chicago Colts (1890-1897) Chicago White Stockings (1870-1889) (a. ...


Legacy

The short-lived nature of the Federal League left few visible remnants. The Baltimore entry sold their facility to the Baltimore Orioles of the International League, who renamed it Oriole Park and played there for nearly 30 years before it was destroyed by fire in 1944, a seemingly disastrous event that would actually begin the path toward Baltimore's return to the major leagues 10 years afterward. The Newark ballpark was also used for minor league ball for a short time. The other Federal League ballparks were demolished quickly, with the exception of Chicago's Weeghman Park, which became the home of the Chicago Cubs and was eventually renamed Wrigley Field. Marc Okkonen, in his book on the Federal League, referred to Wrigley as a "silent monument" to the failed Federal League experiment. The city of Baltimore, Maryland has been home to several minor league teams called the Orioles. ... The International League (IL) is a minor league baseball league which operates in the eastern United States and Canada. ... Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a Major League Baseball stadium located in Baltimore, Maryland which was constructed to replace the aging Memorial Stadium. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Name Chicago Cubs (1902–present) Chicago Orphans (1898-1901) Chicago Colts (1890-1897) Chicago White Stockings (1870-1889) (a. ... Wrigley Field is a baseball stadium in Chicago that has served as the home ballpark of the Chicago Cubs since 1916. ...


The other "silent monument" to the Federal League is a famous legal decision. In 1922, the Supreme Court ruled in a suit brought by the Baltimore Federal League Club (one of the teams which had not been bought out), that Major League Baseball and its constituent leagues were primarily entertainment, not conventional interstate commerce, and thus were exempt from the Sherman Antitrust Act. This exemption remains intact over 80 years later, although it has been eroded somewhat by subsequent court rulings and legislation regarding specific issues. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ... The Sherman Antitrust Act, formally known as the Act of July 2, 1890, ch. ...


Of the locations of teams in the Federal League, five currently have MLB teams. Those are Baltimore, Chicago, Kansas City, Pittsburgh, & St. Louis. Brooklyn has a New York-Penn League team, known as the Brooklyn Cyclones (the major league Brooklyn Dodgers had moved to Los Angeles in 1958). Buffalo has an International League team, known as the Buffalo Bisons. Indianapolis also has an International League team, known as the Indianapolis Indians. Newark has a team, the Bears, in the independent Atlantic League. The New York - Penn League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the northeastern United States. ... The Brooklyn Cyclones are a minor league baseball team, affiliated with the New York Mets. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1,2,4,19,20,24,32,39,42,53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1911-1912), (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) (Also referred to as Trolley Dodgers 1911-1931) Brooklyn... The Buffalo Bisons (Pronounced BI-zons by locals) are a minor league baseball team based in Buffalo, New York. ... The International League (IL) is a minor league baseball league which operates in the eastern United States and Canada. ... League International League Division West Division Year founded 1902 Major League affiliation Pittsburgh Pirates Home ballpark Victory Field Previous home ballparks Perry Stadium City Indianapolis, Indiana Current uniform colors red, black Previous uniform colors Logo design A Native American design in red with white and black details with a black... The Newark Bears are an Atlantic League team based in Newark, New Jersey. ... The Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, based in Camden, New Jersey, is a professional, independent baseball organization located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States, especially the greater metropolitan areas of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, D.C. It operates in cities not served by Major or Minor...


Federal League Champions

  • 1914 Indianapolis Hoosiers (unofficial nickname)
  • 1915 Chicago Whales

Federal League Teams

Baltimore Terrapins The Baltimore Terrapins were one of the least successful teams in the short-lived Federal League of professional baseball from 1914 to 1915. ... The Brooklyn Tip Tops were a team in the short-lived Federal League of professional baseball from 1914 to 1915. ... The Buffalo Buffeds were a professional baseball club that played in the short-lived Federal League, which was a minor league in 1913 and a full-fledged outlaw major league the next two years. ... International Fair Association Grounds is a former baseball ground located in Buffalo, New York. ... The Chicago Whales were a Federal League baseball club in Chicago from 1914 to 1915. ... The Indianapolis Hoosiers were a Federal League baseball club in Indianapolis in 1914, when they won the Federal League championship. ... The Indianapolis Hoosiers were a Federal League baseball club in Indianapolis in1914, when they won the Federal League championship. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Pittsburgh Rebels were a professional baseball club in the short-lived Federal League, which was a minor league in 1913 and a full-fledged outlaw major league the next two years. ... St. ...

References

  • Okkonen, Marc (1989). The Federal League of 1914-1915: Baseball's Third Major League. Garrett Park, Md: Society For American Baseball Research. ISBN unknown.
  • Pietrusza, David (1991). The Formation, Sometimes Absorption and Mostly Inevitable Demise of 18 Professional Baseball Organizations, 1871 to Present. Jefferson (NC): McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-89950-590-2.

External link

  • Federal League Teams

  Results from FactBites:
 
Federal League - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (848 words)
The Federal League was the last major attempt to establish a third major league in baseball in the United States in direct competition with and opposition to the established American and National Leagues in 1914 and 1915.
The league started as an independent minor league in 1912 as the Columbia League, but changed its name to the Federal League at the start of the 1913 season, playing as what would now be known as an "independent" minor league, but was at that time thought of as an "outlaw" minor league.
The Baltimore entry sold their facility to the Baltimore Orioles of the International League, who renamed it Oriole Park and played there for nearly 30 years before it was destroyed by fire in 1944, a seemingly disastrous event that would actually begin the path toward Baltimore's return to the major leagues 10 years afterward.
federalleague (835 words)
When James A. Gilmore became president of the Federal League in 1913, he had the vision of challenging the AL and NL as a third major baseball league.
Prior to the 1914 season, Glimore proclaimed the Federal League to be the third major league in baseball.
Federal League attendance was comparable to that of the established AL and NL.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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