FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
Logo
Logo
The FCC's official seal
The FCC's official seal
Agency overview
Formed June 19, 1934
Preceding Agency Federal Radio Commission
Agency Executive Kevin Martin, Chairman
Website
www.fcc.gov

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is a United States government agency, created, directed, and empowered by Congressional statute (see 47 U.S.C. § 151 and 47 U.S.C. § 154), and with the majority of its commissioners appointed by the current president. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... FCC may refer to: // Friends of Coyle Creek, a Canadian conservation group. ... Image File history File links US-FCC-Logo. ... Image File history File links US-FCC-Seal. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal Radio Commission Seal The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was a government body that regulated radio use in the United States from its creation in 1927 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1934. ... Kevin J. Martin Kevin Jeffrey Martin (born December 14, 1966 in Charlotte, North Carolina, raised in Weddington, North Carolina), is the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... Independent agencies of the United States government are those that exist outside of the departments of the executive branch. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Title 47 of the United States Code outlines the role of telegraphy in the United States Code. ... Title 47 of the United States Code outlines the role of telegraphy in the United States Code. ...


The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 as the successor to the Federal Radio Commission and is charged with regulating all non-Federal Government use of the radio spectrum (including radio and television broadcasting), and all interstate telecommunications (wire, satellite and cable) as well as all international communications that originate or terminate in the United States. It is an important factor in US telecommunication policy. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The Communications Act of 1934 was a United States federal law enacted as Public Law Number 416, Act of June 19, 1934, ch. ... Federal Radio Commission Seal The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was a government body that regulated radio use in the United States from its creation in 1927 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1934. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ... In telecommunications, information transfer is the process of moving messages containing user information from a source to a sink. ... The policy behind telecommunications is directed by decision makers in the Municipal, State, federal and International arenas; as well as the Legislative, Executive, Judicial branches of government and the Regulatory Commissions like the FCC. The governing principles behind telecom policy are: Economic Regulation of Natural Monopoly Antitrust Management of Government... The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ...


The FCC's jurisdiction covers the 50 states of the United States of America, the District of Columbia, and U.S. possessions. It is organized into seven Bureaus and ten Staff Offices.


'The Bureaus’ include processing applications for licenses and other filings, analyzing complaints, conducting investigations, developing and implementing regulations, and participating in hearings. To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... In law, a hearing is a proceeding before a court or other decisionmaking body or officer. ...

  • The Consumer & Governmental Affairs (CGB) develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, which is responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB also maintains collaborative partnerships with state, local, and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies.
  • The Enforcement Bureau (EB) is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, and terms and conditions of station authorizations. Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, and homeland security.
  • The International Bureau (IB) develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U.S. licensees. The International Bureau also oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements.
  • The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau (WTB) handles nearly all FCC domestic wireless telecommunications programs, policies, and outreach initiatives. Wireless services include: amateur radio; cellular networks; paging; Personal Communications Service; and Part 27 Wireless Communications Services (WCS) such as Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) and fixed, mobile, and broadcast services on the 700 MHz Band.
  • The Wireline Competition Bureau (WCB) develops policy concerning wireline telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau’s main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development, markets, and services.
  • Establishment of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau is a priority of Chairman Kevin Martin. The Bureau was launched in 2006.

Contents

Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... This is an article about the modern meaning of the term public safety. ... For the United States Cabinet department, see United States Department of Homeland Security. ... The electromagnetic spectrum is an aspect of the physical world, like land, water, and air. ... Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a (usually undesirable) disturbance caused in a radio receiver or other electrical circuit by electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. ... The Radio Regulations is an intergovernmental treaty text of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Geneva based specialised agency of the United Nations which coordinates and standardises the operation of telecommunication networks and services and advances the development of communications technology. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air or OTA) is the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery, by radio waves. ... Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to as direct-to-home signals. ... For the use of the term in networking, see Wireless networking. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pager. ... Personal Communications Service or PCS is the name for the 1900-MHz radio band used for digital mobile phone services in Canada and the United States. ... The term wireline usually refers to a cabling technology used by operators of oil and gas wells to lower equipment into the well for the purposes of a well intervention. ...

Offices

The FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. Even though the Bureaus and Offices have their individual functions, they regularly work together on FCC issues.

  • The Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ) is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission. The hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, and contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, and witnesses are cross-examined. At the conclusion of the evidentiary phase of a proceeding, the presiding Administrative Law Judge writes and issues an Initial Decision which may be appealed to the Commission.
  • The Office of Communications Business Opportunities (OCBO) promotes telecommunications business opportunities for small, minority-owned, and women-owned businesses. OCBO works with entrepreneurs, industry, public interest organizations, individuals, and others to provide information about FCC policies, increase ownership and employment opportunities, foster a diversity of voices and viewpoints over the airwaves, and encourage participation in FCC proceedings.
  • The Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) advises the Commission concerning engineering matters. Its chief role is to manage the electromagnetic spectrum, specifically frequency allocation and spectrum usage. OET conducts technical studies of advanced phases of terrestrial and space communications and administers FCC rules regarding radio devices, experimental radio services, and industrial, scientific, and medical equipment.
    • OET also organizes the Technical Advisory Council, a committee of FCC advisors from major telecommunication and media corporations.
    • In addition, the OET operates the Equipment Authorization Branch, which is tasked with overseeing equipment authorization for all devices using the electromagnetic energy from 9 kHz to 300 GHz. OET maintains an electronic database of all Certified equipment which can be easily accessed by the public.
  • The Office of General Counsel serves as the chief legal advisor to the Commission. The General Counsel also represents the Commission in litigation in United States federal courts, recommends decisions in adjudicatory matters before the Commission, assists the Commission in its decision making capacity and performs a variety of legal functions regarding internal and other administrative matters.
  • The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) recommends policies to prevent fraud in agency operations. The Inspector General recommends corrective action where appropriate, referring criminal matters to the United States Department of Justice for potential prosecution.
  • The Office of Legislative Affairs (OLA) is the FCC’s liaison to the United States Congress, providing lawmakers with information about FCC regulations. OLA also prepares FCC witnesses for Congressional hearings, and helps create FCC responses to legislative proposals and Congressional inquiries. In addition, OLA is a liaison to other Federal agencies, as well as state and local governments.
  • The Office of the Managing Director (OMD) is responsible for the administration and management of the FCC, including the agency's budget, personnel, security, contracts, and publications.
  • The Office of Media Relations (OMR) is responsible for the dissemination of Commission announcements, orders, proceedings, and other information per media requests. OMR manages the FCC Daily Digest, website, and Audio Visual Center.
  • The Office of the Secretary (OSEC) oversees the receipt and distribution of documents filed by the public through electronic and paper filing systems and the FCC Library collection. In addition, OSEC publishes legal notices of Commission decisions in the Federal Register and the FCC Record.
  • The Office of Strategic Planning & Policy Analysis (OSP), essentially a think tank within the FCC, identifies policy objectives for the agency and xerxes. OSP works closely with the FCC Chairman and is responsible for monitoring the state of the communications industry to identify trends, issues and overall industry health. OSP acts as expert consultants to the Commission in areas of economic, business, and market analysis. The Office also reviews legal trends and developments not necessarily related to current FCC proceedings, such as intellectual property law, the Internet, and electronic commerce. Previously OSP was called the Office of Plans and Policy (OPP). Robert Pepper, currently with CISCO, was the Chief of OPP from 1989 until 2005.
  • The Office of Workplace Diversity (OWD) develops policy to provide a full and fair opportunity for all employees, regardless of non-merit factors such as race, religion, gender, color, age, disability, sexual orientation or national origin, to carry out their duties in the workplace free from unlawful discriminatory treatment, including sexual harassment and retaliation for engaging in legally protected activities.

An order, sentence, decree, or judgment, given in an intermediate stage between the commencement and termination of a cause, is called interlocutory (1913 Webster). ... The federal Administrative Procedures Act (APA) of 1946 governs the way in which administrative agencies of the United States federal government may propose and establish regulations. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... Entrepreneurs created by Thomas Clarke in 2001. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... The Technical Advisory Council, or TAC, is a federal advisory committee of the Federal Communications Commission and the FCCs Office of Engineering and Technology (OET). ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... In law, particularly in common law jurisdictions, intellectual property is a form of legal entitlement which allows its holder to control the use of certain intangible ideas and expressions. ... Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ...

History

Communications Act of 1934

In 1934 Congress passed the Communications Act, which abolished the Federal Radio Commission and transferred jurisdiction over radio licensing to a new Federal Communications Commission. Title III of the Communications Act contained provisions very similar to the Radio Act of 1927, and the new FCC largely took over the operations and precedents of the FRC.


Report on Chain Broadcasting

In 1940 the Federal Communications Commission issued the "Report on Chain Broadcasting." The major point in the report was the breakup of NBC (See National Broadcasting Company), but there were two other important points. One was network option time, the culprit here being CBS. The report limited the amount of time during the day, and what times the networks may broadcast. Previously a network could demand any time it wanted from an affiliate. The second concerned artist bureaus. The networks served as both agents and employees of artists, which was a conflict of interest the report rectified. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the television network. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ...


Telecommunications Act of 1996

In 1996 Congress enacted the Telecommunications Act of 1996, in the wake of the break-up of AT&T resulting from the U.S. Justice Department's antitrust suit against AT&T. In part, the 1996 legislation attempted to create more competition in local telephone service by requiring Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers to provide access to their facilities for Competitive Local Exchange Carriers. The Telecommunications Act of 1996[1] was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications law in nearly 62 years, amending the Communications Act of 1934, and leading to media consolidation. ... ILEC, short for incumbent local exchange carrier, is a local telephone company in the United States that was in existence at the time of the break up of AT&T into the Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) also known as the Baby Bells. GTE was the second largest ILEC after... A Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC), in the United States, is a telecommunications provider company (sometimes called a carrier) that competes with other, already established carriers (generally the incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC)). Local exchange carriers (LECs) are divided into incumbent (ILECs) and competitive (CLECs). ...


This policy has thus far had limited success and much criticism. See. e.g. Robert crandall The development of the internet, cable services and wireless services has raised questions whether new legislative initiates are needed as to competition in what has come to be called 'broadband' services. Contress has monitored developments but not as of 2007 undertaken a major revision of applicable regulation.


Consolidation permissivity, indecency crackdowns

FCC logo used today in addition to the official seal.

The inauguration of Ronald Reagan as President of the United States in 1981 accelerated an already on-going shift in the FCC towards a decidedly more market-oriented stance. A number of regulations felt to be outdated were removed, most controversially the Fairness Doctrine in 1987. The FCC also took steps to increase competition to broadcasters, fostering broadcast alternatives such as cable television. Download high resolution version (704x711, 9 KB)FCC logo. ... Download high resolution version (704x711, 9 KB)FCC logo. ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Fairness Doctrine was a United States FCC regulation requiring broadcast licensees to present controversial issues of public importance in a manner deemed by the FCC to be honest, equitable and balanced. ...


In the early 2000s, the FCC began stepping up censorship and enforcement of indecency regulations again, most notably following the Janet Jackson "wardrobe malfunction" that occurred during the halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII. However, the FCC's regulatory domain with respect to indecency remains restricted to the public airwaves, notably VHF and UHF television and AM/FM radio. A dictionary definition of Indecent not conforming with accepted standards of behaviour or morality. ... Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American singer, actress, songwriter, record producer, dancer, activist, pop icon, and younger sister of the King of Pop, Michael Jackson. ... Janet Jackson covers her exposed breast immediately after Justin Timberlake tears off part of her wardrobe to expose it Super Bowl XXXVIII, which was broadcast live on February 1, 2004 from Houston, Texas, was noted for a controversial halftime show in which Janet Jacksons bare breast was exposed by... Date February 1, 2004 Stadium Reliant Stadium City Houston, Texas MVP Tom Brady, Quarterback Favorite Patriots by 7 National anthem Beyoncé Coin toss Earl Campbell, Ollie Matson, Don Maynard, Y.A. Tittle, Mike Singletary, Gene Upshaw Referee Ed Hochuli Halftime show Janet Jackson, Justin Timberlake, Outkast, P. Diddy, Kid Rock...


On June 15, 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law the Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005 sponsored by Senator Sam Brownback, a former broadcaster himself, and endorsed by Congressman Fred Upton of Michigan who authored a similar bill in the United States House of Representatives. The new law stiffens the penalties for each violation of the Act. The Federal Communications Commission will be able to impose fines in the amount of $325,000 for each violation by each station, which violates decency standards. The legislation raises the fine by a tenfold increase.[1][2] is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Bill Number S. 193 is a telecommunications bill designed to govern broadcast media. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Samuel Dale Brownback (b. ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... Stephen Frederick Upton, better known as Fred Upton, (born April 23, 1953), American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1987, representing Michigans 6th District (map). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... A dictionary definition of Indecent not conforming with accepted standards of behaviour or morality. ...


FCC commissioners since inception in 1934

The FCC is directed by five Commissioners appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate for 5-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The President designates one of the Commissioners to serve as Chairperson. Only three Commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them can have a financial interest in any Commission-related business.[3]


Current commissioners

Chairman Kevin Martin (R-NC), Commissioner Michael Copps (D-WI), Commissioner Jonathan Adelstein (D-SD), Commissioner Deborah Taylor Tate (R-TN), Commissioner Robert M. McDowell (R-VA).[citation needed] Three of them are Republicans and two are Democrats. All are appointed by the President. Kevin J. Martin Kevin Jeffrey Martin (born December 14, 1966 in Charlotte, North Carolina, raised in Weddington, North Carolina), is the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. ... Michael Copps is currently one of the United States FCC commissioners. ... Jonathan Steven Adelstein is currently one of the United States FCC Commissioners. ... Deborah Tate is the current United States FCC Commissioner. ... Mr. ...


Past commissioners

A complete list of commissioners is available on the FCC website. Notable commissioners have included:

Eugene Octave Sykes (1876 - 1945) was a U.S. administrator. ... Paul A. Walker served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from November 3, 1947 to December 28, 1947, and again from February 28, 1952 to April 17, 1953. ... Anning Smith Prall (born September 17, 1870 — July 23, 1937) was a representative from New York, born in Port Richmond, Staten Island. ... Rosel H. Hyde served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from April 18, 1953 to October 3, 1954, and again from May 1, 1966 to October 31, 1969. ... Wayne Coy served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from December 29, 1947 to February 21, 1952. ... John C. Doerfer served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from July 1, 1957 to March 10, 1960. ... Robert E. Lee (March 31, 1912 - April 15, 1993) was a Commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission from October 6, 1953 to June 30, 1981. ... George McConnaughey served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from October 4, 1954 to June 30, 1957. ... Frederick W. Ford served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from March 15, 1960 to March 1, 1961. ... Dean Burch served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from October 31, 1969 to March 8, 1974. ... Richard E. Wiley served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from March 8, 1974 to October 13, 1977. ... Charles D. Ferris served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from October 17, 1977 to February 4, 1981. ... Mark S. Fowler served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from May 18, 1981 to April 17, 1987. ... Alfred C. Sikes (born 1939), U.S. administrator; served as Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from August 8, 1989 to January 19, 1993. ... James Henry Quello (born April 21, 1914) was a Commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and, in 1993, served as the Acting Chairman of the Commission. ... Reed E. Hundt Reed E. Hundt (born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, March 3, 1948) was chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from 1993 to 1997. ... Chairman, United States Federal Communications Commission 1997 to 2001 Appointed to the Chairmanship by Bill Clinton in November, 1997 after the resignation of the previous chairman, Reed Hundt, William E. Kennard devoted his chairmanship to meeting two challenges of the Digital Age. ... Michael Powell Michael Kevin Powell (born March 23, 1963) is an American Republican politician. ...

Regulatory powers

An additional logo
An additional logo

As to radio and television broadcasting, the Federal Communications Commission has one major regulatory weapon, revoking licenses, but short of that has limited leverage. (see FCC MB Docket 04-232). It is reluctant to do this since it operates in a near vacuum of information on most of the tens of thousands of stations whose licenses are renewed every eight years (previously, every three years). Broadcast licenses are supposed to be renewed if the station meets the "public interest, convenience, or necessity." The Federal Communications Commission rarely checks except for some obvious and outstanding reason; burden of proof would be on the complainant. Fewer than 1% of station renewals are not immediately granted, and only a small fraction of those are ultimately denied. Image File history File links Fcclogowords. ... Image File history File links Fcclogowords. ...


The Federal Communications Commission also licenses amateur radio operators and stations, and does use its power to fine amateur radio operators who flagrantly violate its rules. It also licenses commercial operators who operate and repair certain radiotelephone, television, radar, and Morse code radio stations. In recent years it has also licensed people who maintain or operate GMDSS stations. While the FCC maintains control of the written and Morse testing standards, it no longer administers the exams, having delegated that function to private organizations. Look up radiophone, radiotelephone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... The Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) is an internationally-agreed set of safety procedures and types of equipment used to increase safety and make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and aircraft. ...


Similar authority for regulation of U.S. government radio communications is vested in the President who has delegated it to National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that serves as the Presidents principal adviser on telecommunications policies pertaining to the United States economic and technological advancement and to regulation of the telecommunications industry. ...


Source: from Federal Standard 1037C Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ...


See also: frequency assignment, open spectrum, Ofcom (British equivalent), Mercedes divide, FCC MB Docket 04-232 Open spectrum (also known as free spectrum) is a movement to get the government to provide more unlicensed spectrum, radio frequency spectrum that is available for use by all. ... Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ... The phrase Mercedes Divide is from a quote uttered by FCC Chairman Michael Powell (politician) at the initiation of his chairmanship. ...


Spectrum auctions

Beginning in 1994, commercial spectrum has been allocated via competitive auctions rather than the previous method of "best public use." This was a cumbersome bureaucratic process in which competitors attempted to show that they were most capable of making best public use of the license they wished to obtain. The structure and licenses available in each auction are determined by vote of the Commission, with the licenses awarded to the highest bidders. Auctions are usually conducted on a simultaneous multiple-round basis, with all offered licenses being auctioned at the same time. Auctions proceed in bidding rounds of decreasing duration until no more bids are received. Revenues are deposited in the US Treasury to be spent by Congress. A Spectrum auction is a process whereby governments use an auction system to sell the rights to broadcast over specific electromagnetic wavelengths. ... The U.S. Treasury building today. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


The FCC has been criticized for awarding a digital TV (DTV) channel to each holder of an analog TV station license without an auction, as well as trading auctionable spectrum to Nextel to resolve public safety interference problems. Nonetheless, in 2009, all analog terrestrial broadcast licenses in the U.S. will be terminated, with terrestrial television subsequently available only from the digital channels. Digital television (DTV) uses digital modulation and compression to broadcast video, audio and data signals to television sets. ... Analog television encodes picture information as an analog signal, that is, by varying the voltages and/or frequencies of the signal. ... Sprint Nextel Corporation (NYSE: S), headquartered in Reston, Virginia, is one of the largest telecommunications companies in the United States. ...


Criticisms

The FCC has been criticized on many fronts, both for being too restrictive and too permissive in its regulation. The regulatory body was originally formed in order to allot segments of the radio spectrum which were deemed scarce. Today, the allottment of frequency band segments to specific uses hinders and prevents new spectrum uses for innovative technologies. Regulatory changes can have a dramatic effect on industries. For example, the requirement for televisions to be digital will make millions of analog sets obsolete overnight. A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ...


In the actions taken against broadcasters, the FCC is frequently criticized for violating the First Amendment guarantee of Freedom of Speech, both directly by censorship and enforcement action sometimes alleged to be politically motivated, and indirectly by the general intimidation that FCC action allegedly creates, particularly with the U.S. Congress considering multiplying fines exponentially. The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Intimidation is generally used in the meaning of criminal threatening. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... In mathematics, exponentiation is a process generalized from repeated multiplication, in much the same way that multiplication is a process generalized from repeated addition. ...


The FCC considered requiring all broadcasters to retain copies of all broadcasts for up to three months (FCC MB Docket 04-232). One critique of this proposal is that this action would wipe out smaller broadcasters because of the enormous expense of having to purchase new equipment with the necessary features for content storage and the need for facilities to store content.


Low-power broadcasting has also been a source of contention, as the FCC has set the power limits very low, while allegedly making it nearly impossible for anyone except large corporations or large nonprofit organizations to obtain a license. Although Stephen Dunifer won a case versus the FCC, few others have successfully argued against the Commission. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of broadcasting at very low power and low cost, to a small community area. ... In radio communication systems, Effective isotropically-radiated power (EIRP) is the amount of power that would have to be emitted by an isotropic antenna (that evenly distributes power in all directions) to produce the peak power density observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain. ... A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... Stephen Dunifer is the founder of Free Radio Berkeley in Berkeley, California. ...


Another critique is that the Commission has historically been dominated by lawyers, often from the telecommunications industry, due to the FCC's direct effects on commerce and public policy. This is in stark contrast to other technically-focused government agencies, such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which is often populated by engineers and physicists.[citation needed] Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ...


The FCC is also often criticized by Amateur Radio operators for rule changes affecting the Amateur Radio Service, or for its perceived lack of enforcement of violations within the service and in general. Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ...


On the issue of broadcast indecency, the FCC has taken heat from conservatives and family-oriented groups for not sufficiently censoring and restricting sexually explicit and violent material to which the groups believe children should not be exposed (a Family Viewing Hour was instituted in the 1970s and then discontinued). The Family Viewing Hour was an idea mandated by the Federal Communications Commission in 1975, stating that each television network in the United States has a responsibility to air family friendly programming in the first hour of the primetime lineup (8:00 to 9:00 p. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


While the FCC, under much criticism, has been tightening its control and censorship of broadcast television, neither the FCC nor any other regulatory body has the authority to censor the internet, allowing broadcasters to use the internet as a source for their un-edited creative expression. In December 2006, NBC and Saturday Night Live posted an uncensored video on the NBC website and YouTube under the headings “Special Treat in a Box” or “Special Christmas Box”, otherwise known by its uncensored name, "Dick in a Box". The censored version of the video played on NBC's Saturday Night Live, and was bleeped (censored) sixteen times. Lorne Michaels, the creator and executive producer of Saturday Night Live, predicted that other shows and networks, time and money permitting, would surely follow NBC’s lead in making available material that was deemed not ready for prime time, or even late night. This article is about the television network. ... This article is about the American television series. ... Justin Timberlake in the Dick in a Box video. ...


The NBC show Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip had a story line where the FCC was fining the fictional NBS network an absurd amount of money for an obscenity said by a U.S. Marine during a live news broadcast in Afghanistan. They badmouth the FCC for being upset for a real life reaction of a near death incident in wartime being accidentally picked up in a required News broadcast. (The FCC requires that Educational programming be provided for free by networks in exchange for the right to broadcast over the airwaves.) The problem becomes worse when they give them the option of losing the fee in exchange for a five second delay of live news feeds. Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip is an Emmy Award winner and Golden Globe Award nominated American television Comedy-drama series created and written by Aaron Sorkin. ...


In the "PTV" episode of Family Guy the FCC are portrayed as quite extreme, because apparently "one complaint equals one billion people." Soon, the FCC end up censoring real life because of Peter Griffin's TV channel, PTV. “PTV” is an episode from season four of the FOX animated television series Family Guy. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... Peter Löwenbräu Griffin is the protagonist in the American animated television series Family Guy. ...


Controversy

Unreleased reports

2003 study of commercial radio concentration

In 2003, the FCC Media Bureau produced a draft report analyzing the impact of deregulation in the radio industry.[4] The report stated that from March 1996 through March 2003, the number of commercial radio stations on the air rose 5.9 percent while the number of station owners fell 35 percent. The concentration of ownership followed a 1996 rewrite of telecommunications law that eliminated a 40-station national ownership cap.


The report was never made public, nor have any similar analyses followed, despite the fact that radio industry reports were released in 1998, 2001 and 2002. In September 2006, Senator Barbara Boxer, who had received a copy of the report, released it.[5] Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ...


2004 study of television media concentration

In 2004, the FCC ordered its staff to destroy all copies of a draft study by Keith Brown and Peter Alexander, two economists in the FCC's Media Bureau. The two had analyzed a database of 4,078 individual news stories broadcast in 1998, showed local ownership of television stations adds almost five and one-half minutes of total news to broadcasts and more than three minutes of "on-location" news.


The conclusion of the study was at odds with FCC arguments made when it voted in 2003 to increase the number of television stations a company could own in a single market. (In June 2004, a federal appeals court rejected the agency's reasoning on most of the rules and ordered it to try again.)


In September 2006, Senator Barbara Boxer, who had received a copy of the report "indirectly from someone within the FCC who believed the information should be made public," wrote a letter to FCC Chairman Kevin Martin, asked whether any other commissioners "past or present" knew of the report's existence and why it was never made public. She also asked whether it was "shelved because the outcome was not to the liking of some of the commissioners and/or any outside powerful interests?" Boxer's office said if she does not receive adequate answers to her questions, she will push for an investigation by the FCC inspector general.[6] Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ...


Action by FCC Chairman

In a letter in response to Senator Boxer, FCC Chairman Martin said "I want to assure you that I too am concerned about what happened to these two draft reports." The letter also said "I have asked the inspector general of the FCC to conduct an investigation into what happened to these draft documents and will cooperate fully with him." Martin added that he was not chairman at the time the reports were drafted, and that neither he nor his staff had seen them.[5]


NSA wiretapping

When it emerged in 2006 that AT&T, BellSouth and Verizon may have broken U.S. laws by aiding the National Security Agency in possible illegal wiretapping of its customers, Congressional representatives called for an FCC investigation into whether or not those companies broke the law. The FCC declined to investigate, however, claiming that it could not investigate due to the classified nature of the program — a move that provoked the criticism of members of Congress. “NSA” redirects here. ...


“Today the watchdog agency that oversees the country’s telecommunications industry refused to investigate the nation’s largest phone companies’ reported disclosure of phone records to the NSA," said Rep. Edward Markey (D-Mass.) in response to the decision. "The FCC, which oversees the protection of consumer privacy under the Communications Act of 1934, has taken a pass at investigating what is estimated to be the nation’s largest violation of consumer privacy ever to occur. If the oversight body that monitors our nation’s communications is stepping aside then Congress must step in.”[2] Edward John Markey (born July 11, 1946), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1976, representing the 7th District of Massachusetts. ...


Copyright issue

The character "Broadband" (FCC Kids Zone) looks like Doraemon, a popular manga character in Japan. Doraemon was created for print in magazines in 1969, which makes Doraemon predate the FCC's character. According to Japanese news media, both Shogakukan (copyright manager) and Fujiko-production (owner of the copyright) have warned the FCC over the alleged copyright infringement, but so far there has been no answer. Original run April 2, 1979 – Present Episodes Original: (596) Current: 1095 Related works The Doraemons Dorabase Kiteretsu Daihyakka Doraemon ) is a Japanese manga series created by Fujiko F. Fujio (the pen name of Hiroshi Fujimoto) which later became an anime series and Asian franchise. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... Headquarters of Shogakukan in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Shogakukan ) is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries, literature, manga, nonfiction, childrens DVDs, and other media in Japan. ... The Cathach of St. ...


Diversity

With the major demographic shifts occurring in the country in terms of the racial-ethnic composition of the population, where 9 of the 10 largest cities, for example, now have "majority minority" populations, the FCC has also been criticized for ignoring the issue of decreasing racial-ethnic diversity of the media. This includes charges that the FCC has been watering down the limited affirmative action regulations it had on the books, including no longer requiring stations to make public their data on their minority staffing and hiring. In the second half of 2006, groups such as the National Hispanic Media Coalition, the National Latino Media Council, the National Association of Hispanic Journalists, the National Institute for Latino Policy, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and others held town hall meetings in California, New York and Texas on media diversity as its affects Latinos and other communities of color. They documented widespread and deeply-felt community concerns about the negative effects of media concentration and consolidation on racial-ethnic diversity in staffing and programming. See El Diario La Prensa's editorial on media diversity. At these Latino town hall meetings, the issue of the FCC's lax monitoring of obscene and pornographic material in Spanish-language radio and the lack of racial and national-origin diversity among Latino staff in Spanish-language television were other major themes. NiLP Offices in SEIU Local 32BJ Building in Manhattans SoHo neighborhood The National Institute for Latino Policy (NiLP) was established in 1982 as the Institute for Puerto Rican Policy (IPR) in New York City as a nonprofit and nonpartisan policy center focusing on critical Latino policy issues. ... LULAC is an organization which strives for rights for Hispanic Americans. ... El Diario la Prensa is the largest Spanish-language daily newspaper in New York City and the oldest in the United States. ...


FCC broadcasting tower database

The FCC database of broadcasting towers [3] is a very useful tool to get information about the height and year built of broadcasting towers in the USA. However, this database does not contain information about the structural types of towers. The FCC database also does not contain information about the height of towers used for non-broadcasting purposes like NDBs, LORAN-C transmission towers or VLF transmission facilities of the US Navy, or from towers not used for transmission at all like the BREN-Tower. A Non-directional Beacon, or NDB, is a radio broadcast station in a known location, used as a navigational aid by aircraft pilots. ... LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) is a terrestrial navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters. ... Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... BREN Tower BREN Tower is a guyed steel framework mast, 465 meters (1,527 feet) high, on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, USA. BREN stands for Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada. ...


References

  1. ^ Combs, Roberta. Christian Coalition of America, Washington Weekly Review, June 17, 2006
  2. ^ Bill Number S. 193. Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2005 (Introduced in Senate) from Congressional THOMAS DB. Retrieved on April 11, 2005.
  3. ^ FCC Commissioners, Additional Information. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  4. ^ Fifth Review of the Radio Industry, FCC Media Bureau, undated
  5. ^ a b John Dunbar, Senator says media study suppressed "Senator says media study suppressed", Associated Press, September 18, 2006
  6. ^ John Dunbar, "Lawyer says FCC ordered study destroyed", Associated Press, September 14, 2006

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • FCC website
  • Enforcement Policies Regarding Broadcast Indecency
  • FCC Rules(CFR Title 47) On-Line at GPO
  • The FCC Record online at the UNT Libraries Digital Collections
  • New Wave: The case for killing the FCC and selling off spectrum By Jack Shafer, 17 January 2007
  • Federal Communications Commission Meeting Notices and Rule Changes from The Federal Register RSS Feed
  • Cybertelecom :: FCC and the Internet
  • FCC Daily Digest provided as an RSS feed

  Results from FactBites:
 
Federal Communications Commission (3126 words)
The Communications Satellite Act of 1962, for example, gave the FCC new authority for satellite regulation and the recent passage of the Cable Act of 1992 required similar revisions to the 1934 Act.
In the long run, a commission is forced to come to terms with the regulated groups as a condition of survival." Critics say both the FRC and the FCC became victims of client politics as these two regulatory agencies were captured by the industries they were created to regulate.
FCC, the court ruled that the Doctrine was not codified as part of the 1959 Amendment to the Communications Act as previously assumed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m