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Encyclopedia > February Revolution


The February Revolution in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its immediate result was the abdication of Czar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the end of the Romanov dynasty. A provisional, non-Communist government under Prince Georgy Lvov replaced the Czar, Prince Lvov being succeeded by Alexander Kerensky after the tumult of the July Days. The Provisional government was an alliance between liberals and socialists who wanted to instigate political reform, creating a democratically-elected executive and constituent assembly. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov Knyaz (Prince) Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov (Russian: Георгий Евгеньевич Львов; November 2, 1861 – March 7, 1925) was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, from March 23 to July 7, 1917. ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... The July Days took place between July 4 and 7 July in 1917 in Russia when sailors and industrial workers of Petrograd rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye Sobranie) was a democratically elected constitutional body convened in Russia after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II. It met for 13 hours, 4 p. ...


The February Revolution took place in March 1917 of the modern calendar (Gregorian calendar). In the calendar Russia was using at the time (Julian calendar), the events occurred in February, which would explain the revolution's name. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...


This revolution appeared to break out spontaneously, without any real leadership or formal planning. The tensions which had for so long been building up finally exploded into a revolution, and the western state of Petrograd (the City of St. Petersburg prior to the war) became the focal point of activity. An illustration of just how large Russia was is that it took some years for eastern parts of the country to realise that a revolution had actually taken place.[citation needed] Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


The February Revolution was followed in the same year by the October Revolution, bringing about Bolshevik rule and a change in Russia's social structure, while also paving the way for the USSR. Two revolutions were required in order to change the composition of the country: the first overthrew the Czar, and the second instituted a new form of government. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Long-term causes

Despite its occurrence at the height of World War I, the February Revolution traced its roots far beyond the immediate effects of the war. Chief among these was Imperial Russia‚Äôs failure, throughout the 19th century, to satisfactorily address the modernization of its archaic social, economic and political structures. The result was a continuum of low living standards for a majority of the population, high illiteracy rates and an unproductive primary-sector economy[1]. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Among the key problems facing Russia in the decades preceding the February Revolution were:

  • An inefficient, autocratic political structure, complicating attempts at reform[2]
  • An overwhelmingly rural population; 82% were peasants in 1897[3]
  • Economic and technological retardation relative to Western Europe[4]
  • Growth of opposition parties, which would provide a threat to governments that did not seem to represent the people
  • An outdated and disorganized army[5]
  • A corrupt bureaucracy[6]

From these conditions sprung considerable agitation among peasants as well as the small working and professional classes. This tension had erupted into general revolt with the 1905 Revolution, and did so again under the strain of total war in 1917. (Redirected from 1905 Revolution) The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a country-wide spasm of anti-government and undirected violence. ...


Short-term causes

Main article: World War I

It is argued that the 1917 February Revolution occurred largely because of the result of the First World War as well as the dissatisfaction with the manner in which the country was being run by the Tsarina, Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse, and Tsar Nicholas's ministers, who were acting on his authority whilst he was away at the Army Headquarters as Commander-in-Chief. A telegram from Mikhail Rodzianko to the Tsar on 26 February 1917, in which he begs for a strong, capable minister, serves to illustrate the lack of strong leadership under this arrangement. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Alexandra and her daughters, Olga, Tatiana, Anastasia, and Maria, 1913 Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (German: ) or Saint Alexandra, 6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918, under the title Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (Russian: ), was Empress consort of the Russian Empire and the wife of Nicholas II of Russia, the... Mikhail Vladimirovich Rodzianko (Russian: Михаи́л Влади́мирович Родзя́нко ) (1859 – 1924) was a Russian politician. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


The personal assumption of command by the Tsar in itself was a cause of much tension, for involvement in World War I was seen to be the root of the majority of the problems, (primarily economic) which Russia was experiencing internally, and the Tsar's personal association with the war served only to worsen further his already-wavering position.


Controversy also surrounded the role of Grigori Rasputin in the Russian royal family, with speculation arising regarding his relationship with the Tsarina in particular -- resulting in that most-intriguing assassination of Rasputin by members of the extended royal family. Furthermore, Alexandra's German heritage made her an unpopular figurehead for the Romanovs in Petrograd for the time that Nicholas (at the calling of Rasputin) was away at the front. Rasputin redirects here. ...


All political parties (apart from the Social Democratic Labour Party, divided between the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks) had supported, in August 1914, Russia's participation in World War I, alongside the United Kingdom and France, the three being allied in what was known as the Triple Entente. After a few initial victories, the Tsar's armies were confronted with some very serious defeats -- particularly in East Prussia. The factories were not productive enough, the railway system quite insufficient, and the overall logistics poor, all of which explained Russia's considerable losses. More than 1,700,000 Russian soldiers were killed, and 5,900,000 injured. Mutinies sprang up often, with general morale at its lowest, and the officers and commanders were at times most incompetent. Some units, indeed, went to the front line with ammunition that was incompatible with their weapons. Over 140,000 desertions occurred in just one year. The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


On the home front, the famine was threatening and commodities were becoming scarce. The Russian economy, which had just seen one of the highest growth rates in Europe, was henceforth blocked from the continent's market. The Duma, composed of liberal deputies, warned Tsar Nicholas II of the impending danger and counselled him to form a new constitutional government, like that which he had dissolved after some short-term attempts in the aftermath of the 1905 Revolution. The Tsar ignored the Duma's advice. Droughts and famines in Imperial Russia and USSR are known to have happened every 10-13 years, with average droughts happening every 5-7 years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Russia is a unique emerging market, in the sense that being the nucleus of a former superpower shows more anomalies. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


Events

February 1917 gathered all the preconditions for a popular uprising: Russia was in the midst of a harsh winter, there was a concerning lack of food and general lassitude towards the war, in the midst of the economic crisis, was prominent. The revolution began at the start of February with several strikes and demonstrations from the Petrograd workers. On February 22 (O.S.), the major plant of Petrograd, Putilov, announced a strike. The strikers were sacked, and some shops closed, resulting in further unrest at other plants. Some demonstrations were organised to demand bread, and these were supported by the industrial working force, finding in them a reason for continuing the strikes. Although some clashes with the Tsar's forces did occur, no one was injured on the opening day. In the days which followed, the strikes generalized themselves in all of Petrograd, and tension was rising rapidly. On February 23 (O.S.; March 7, N.S.), a series of meetings and rallies were held on the occasion of International Women's Day, which gradually turned into economic and political gatherings. Slogans, which had been, until this time, very much reserved, became more and more political: "End to the war!" they cried. "End to the autocracy!" Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... For other uses, see Demonstration. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A 1923 Soviet stamp featured the Soviet Fordson Logo of Kirov Plant The Kirov Plant or Kirov Factory is a major Russian machine-building plant in St. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ...


On this occasion, clashes with the police, finding the matter impossible to control, resulted in numerous casualties on both sides, and demonstrators armed themselves by looting the police headquarters. On February 25 (O.S.), after three days of such riotous anarchy, the Tsar sent a large battalion of soldiers to the city to quell the uprising. Although the soldiers resisted the first attempts at fraternization and killed many demonstrators, they progressively deserted their officers during the evenings and, sympathising with the crowds, joined them instead. Their entry helped to make the revolt more conventionally armed, and many of them were soon firing on the hapless police, who quickly succumbed and joined the demonstrations, too. Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ...


The Tsar initially refused to believe the reports sent to him by the Chairman of the Duma, which was still kicking and conscious of the massive problem which was developing. The chairman, Rodzianko told the Tsar in a telegram:


"The capital is in chaos. The government is unable to act; the transport service is broken down; the food and fuel supplies are completely disorganised. There is wild shooting on the streets. It is urgent that a new government is formed. There must be no delay. Hesitation is fatal." Nicholas, however, wrote thus in a telegram to his wife on 27 February: "Again, that fat-bellied Rodzianko has written me a load of nonsense, which I won't even bother to answer." is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 1, the Tsar decided to take a train to the government capital after hearing that his children, including the Tsarevich Alexei had contracted measles. The royal train was instructed to divert by a group of disloyal troops. When the Tsar finally reached his destination, the Army Chiefs, his remaining ministers (ie, those who had not fled on February 28 under the pretense of a power-cut) suggested in unison that he abdicate the throne, and this he did on March 2 (O.S.) (March 15, N.S.), for himself and his son, the Tsarevich. Nicholas nominated the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, his brother, to succeed him. The Grand Duke realised that he would have little or no support as ruler, so he declined the crown, stating that he would take it only if that was the general consensus of an elected government. The Tsar and his family were later placed in house arrest, and murdered during the civil war. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke (Russian: ) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Russia, being the youngest child and the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (St. ...


A provisional government was formed at the initiative of Alexander Guchkovs Progressive Block, and took control of the Russian state apparatus, but the socialists also formed the Petrograd Soviet (or workers' council). The Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government competed for the power over Russia. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov (October 14, 1862 - February 14, 1936) was a Russian politician, Chairman of the Duma and Minister of War in the Russian Provisional Government. ... An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ...


Effects: The Provisional Government and Petrograd's Soviet

The immediate effect of the February Revolution was a widespread atmosphere of elation and excitement in Petrograd.[7] Between February and April, the Provisional Government, which replaced the Tsar, cooperated successfully with the Petrograd Soviet. This was facilitated by the positive spirit throughout the capital, along with considerable cross-over membership between the two bodies.[8] A general consensus to prevent anarchy also prompted a constructive relationship.[9] This arrangement became known as the "Dual Authority". However, the practical supremacy of the Petrograd Soviet was asserted as early as March 1, when the Petrograd Soviet issued Order No. 1: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"All orders issued by the Military Commission of the State Duma [the Provisional Government] shall be carried out, except those which run counter to the orders and decrees issued by the Soviet"[10]

Order No. 1 thus ensured that the Dual Authority occurred on the Soviet's conditions. As the provisional government was not a publicly elected body (having been self-proclaimed by committe members of the old Duma),[11] it lacked the political legitimacy to question this arrangement.


The Provisional Government was initially chaired by a liberal aristocrat, Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov, a member of the Constitutional Democratic party (KD). He stepped down from power after the unrest called the July Days. He was succeeded by a Social Revolutionary, Alexander Kerensky. Kerensky declared freedom of speech, released thousands of political prisoners and did his best to maintain Russian involvement in World War I, but he faced numerous challenges, most of them related to the war: Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov, Knyaz (Prince) (Russian: Георгий Евгеньевич Львов) (November 2, 1861-March 7, 1925) was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, in the Russian Provisional Government from March 23 to July 21, 1917. ... The Constitutional Democratic Party (Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of Popular Freedom, informally Cadets) was a liberal political party in Tsarist Russia. ... The July Days took place between July 4 and 7 July in 1917 in Russia when sailors and industrial workers of Petrograd rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ...

  • There were some very heavy military losses still being experienced out on the front.
  • Dissatisfied soldiers were defecting (although, when they got back home, they were generally either imprisoned or sent to the front once more).
  • Other political groups were doing their utmost to undermine him.
  • There was a strong movement in favour of stopping Russia's involvement in the war, which was seen to be draining the country, and many who had initially supported it now wanted out.
  • There was a great shortage of food and supplies, which was very difficult to remedy in wartime conditions.
  • All of the abovementioned were highlighted by the soldiers, urban workers and peasants, who claimed that little had been gained by the February Revolution. Kerensky was expected to deliver on his promises of jobs, land, food and the like almost instanteously, and he had naturally failed to do so.

To pressure the Government, the Estonian population living in Petrograd organized, on March 26, a massive -- there were 40,000 participants, including 12-15,000 soldiers -- demonstration, where tri-colored flags of blue, black, and white were waved. The Provisional Government confirmed its giving local authority to Estonia on March 30, 1917. March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Vladimir Lenin, exiled in neutral Switzerland, arrived in Petrograd on April 3. He immediately began to undermine the provisional government, issuing his April's Theses the next month. These theses were in favour of "revolutionary defeatism", as opposed to the "imperialist war" (whose "link to the Capital" must be demonstrated to the masses) and the "Social-Chauvinists" (such as Georgi Plekhanov the grandfather of Russian socialism), who supported the war. Lenin redirects here. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bolshevik leader Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Aggressive or fanatical patriotism, particularly during time of war, in support of ones own nation (eg. ... G. V. Plekhanov Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Георгий Валентинович Плеханов) (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. ...


Lenin also took control of the Bolshevik movement and stirred up the proletariat against the government with simple but meaningful slogans such as "Peace, bread and land", "End the war" and "All land to the peasants". Finally, he announced the necessary creation of a new International to replace the defunct Second International, dissolved in 1916 after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference. The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915. ...


Initially, neither Lenin nor his ideas enjoyed widespread support. In July, the Petrograd garrison refused to follow the army's plans to continue the war against Germany, demonstrating fiercely against them, and Lenin attempted to exploit the mutiny and, by supporting the garrison, arrange a Bolshevik coup. Kerensky, however, still had enough support to bring a halt to the resultant unrest. Faced with exile once more, Lenin fled to Finland. With the Petrograd Soviet (and other socialist movements, based in all large cities) generally opposed to the provisional government and its Prime Minister, Kerensky found himself now with two formidable opponents in the Soviets and the Bolsheviks.


Another trying issue with which Kerensky was faced arose when General Lavr Kornilov, Commander-in-Chief of the army, attempted to seize power by marching with an army toward Petrograd. Kerensky asked the Soviets and Bolsheviks for assistance. The Soviets called out their volunteers, the Trotsky-founded "Red Guards". The propaganda efforts by the revolutionaries made Kornilov lose the support of his troops and much of the public, which feared that he would try to restore the Tsar. The army of Kornilov suffered from sabotage and desertions, and capitulated immediately when it reached Petrograd. Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Russian: Лавр Георгиевич Корнилов) (August 18, 1870–April 13, 1918) was a senior Russian army general during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War. ...


Kerensky was unable to deal with the problems that he and Russia faced. Pressure from the right (such as those behind the Kornilov Affair), from the left (mainly the Bolsheviks) and pressure from the Allies, to continue the war against Germany, put the government under increasing strain. The conflict between the "diarchy" became obvious, and, ultimately, the regime and the Dual Authority formed between the Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government instigated by the February Revolution was replaced in the October Revolution. The Kornilov Affair (Russian: Корниловщина, Kornilovshchina) was a confused struggle between Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army, General Lavr Kornilov and Aleksandr Kerensky in August/September, 1917, in between the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the October Revolution. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...


See also

The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a country-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Cover of Arthur Ransomes autobiography Arthur Mitchell Ransome (January 18, 1884 – June 3, 1967), was a British author and journalist, best known for writing the Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books, which tell of school-holiday adventures of children, mostly in the Lake District and the Norfolk... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Lenin redirects here. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Lynch, Michael, Reaction and Revolution, 1894-1924, (London, 2005), 6
  2. ^ ibid 9
  3. ^ ibid 6
  4. ^ ibid 9
  5. ^ ibid 7-8
  6. ^ ibid 8
  7. ^ ibid 91
  8. ^ ibid 90
  9. ^ ibid 91
  10. ^ http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/1917/03/01.htm
  11. ^ http://www.marxists.org/glossary/orgs/p/r.htm

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
history: February revolution 1917 - what lessons for today? (2683 words)
One of the most vital lessons of the February revolution and its aftermath is that had the leaders of the most conscious workers' party at that stage, the Bolsheviks (the majority), pursued the policies of the workers' leaders today, no Russian revolution would have taken place.
One of the unmistakable features of a revolution is the direct intervention of the mass of the working class and the poor - usually discontented but forced into submission by capitalism in 'normal' periods - in determining their own fate.
The February revolution was, in effect, the beginning of the socialist revolution in Russia and worldwide.
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