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Encyclopedia > Feather

Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. They are the outstanding characteristic that distinguishes the Class Aves from all other living groups. Other Theropoda also had feathers (see Feathered dinosaurs). Look up feather in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs (see Dinosaur-bird connection). ...

A white feather
A white feather
Detail of the feathers of a young Yellow-headed Amazon.
Parts of a feather:1. Vane2. Rachis3. Barb4. Afterfeather5. Hollow shaft, calamus
Parts of a feather:
1. Vane
2. Rachis
3. Barb
4. Afterfeather
5. Hollow shaft, calamus

Contents

Download high resolution version (1024x1365, 174 KB)A single white feather closeup Photographer: jefras Source: Stock. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1365, 174 KB)A single white feather closeup Photographer: jefras Source: Stock. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (648x648, 156 KB) Summary Photo taken by me in August, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (648x648, 156 KB) Summary Photo taken by me in August, 2006. ... Binomial name Amazona oratrix (Ridgway, 1887) The Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix), also known as the Double Yellow-headed Amazon, etc. ...

Characteristics

Feathers are among the most complex structural organs found in vertebrates: integumentary appendages, formed by controlled proliferation of cells in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins. The β-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws — and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles — are composed of protein strands hydrogen-bonded into β-pleated sheets, which are then further twisted and crosslinked by disulfide bridges into structures even tougher than the α-keratins of mammalian hair, horns and hoof. Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... In zootomy, the integumentary system is the external covering of the body, comprising the skin, hair, scales, nails, sweat glands and their products (sweat and mucus). ... A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed appendage of the human or animal branch of a tree; a representative, branch or member of a group or organization. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... Diagram of β-pleated sheet with H-bonding between protein strands The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins — the first is the alpha helix — consisting of beta strands connected laterally by three or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... In chemistry, a disulfide is an ion formed by sulfur atoms. ... This article is about the body feature. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... Rear hooves of a horse Rear hoof of a giraffe A hoof (plural: hooves) is the foot of an ungulate, all of which walk more or less on their toes and have toes with a horny (keratin) covering. ...


Feathers insulate birds from water and cold temperatures. The individual feathers in the wings and tail play important roles in controlling flight. These have their own identity and are not just randomly distributed. Some species have a crest of feathers on their heads. Although feathers are light, a bird's plumage weighs two or three times more than its skeleton, since many bones are hollow and contain air sacs. Color patterns serve as camouflage against predators for birds in their habitats, and by predators looking for a meal. As with fish, the top and bottom colors may be different to provide camouflage during flight. Striking differences in feather patterns and colors are part of the sexual dimorphism of many bird species and are particularly important in selection of mating pairs. The remarkable colors and feather sizes of some species have never been fully explained. The cockatiel - an example of a crested bird species Several bird species exhibit prominent feathered crests upon their heads. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


There are two basic types of feather: vaned feathers which cover the exterior of the body, and down feathers which are underneath the vaned feathers. The pennaceous feathers are vaned feathers. Also called contour feathers, pennaceous feathers are distributed over the whole body. Some of them are modified into remiges, the flight feathers of the wing, and rectrices, the flight feathers of the tail. A typical vaned feather features a main shaft, called the rachis. Fused to the rachis are a series of branches, or barbs; the barbs themselves are also branched and form the barbules. These barbules have minute hooks called barbicels for cross-attachment. Down feathers are fluffy because they lack barbicels, so the barbules float free of each other, allowing the down to trap much air and provide excellent thermal insulation. At the base of the feather, the rachis expands to form the hollow tubular calamus, or quill, which inserts into a follicle in the skin. The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. ... Pennaceous feathers are also known as contour feathers and are present in most modern birds and in some species of maniraptoran dinosaurs. ... Red Kite (Milvus milvus) in flight, showing remiges and rectrices Flight feathers are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges (singular remex) while those on the tail are called rectrices (singular rectrix). ... Rachis type barley Rachis is also the alternate spelling of Ratchis, king of the Lombards, 744-749. ... Barbs are a series of branches fused to the rachis of a feather. ... Barbules are a part of the tree formed by feathers : the trunk, or axis, being the rachis and the barbs the main boughs, barbules are the secondary branches. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ... This article is about the organ. ...

Feather microstructure showing interlocking
Feather microstructure showing interlocking

The Dyck texture is what causes the colors blue and green in most parrots. This is due to a texture effect in microscopic portions of the feather itself, rather than pigment, or the Tyndall effect as was previously believed. The Dyck texture alters color produced by pigment. Thus, an albino parrot will be white. The spectacular red feathers of certain parrots owe their vibrancy to a rare set of pigments found nowhere else in nature. Albinism is a rare lack of pigment in some or all of a bird's feathers. Shot of sunbeams breaking through nebula bank The term Tyndall effect is usually applied to the effect of light scattering on particles in colloid systems, such as suspensions or emulsions. ... An albino African penguin. ...


In some birds, the feather colors may be created or altered by uropygial gland secretions. The yellow bill colors of many hornbills are produced by preen gland secretions. Other differences that may only be visible in the ultraviolet region are also possible.[1]

Two feathers
Two feathers

A bird's feathers are replaced periodically during its life through molting. New feathers are formed through the same follicle from which the old ones were fledged. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 183 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Feather Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Two feathers Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/January-2006 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 183 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Feather Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Two feathers Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/January-2006 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... In birds, moulting or molting is the routine shedding of old feathers. ...


Some birds have a supply of powder down feathers which grow continuously, with small particles regularly breaking off from the ends of the barbules. These particles produce a powder that sifts through the feathers on the bird's body and acts as a waterproofing agent and a feather conditioner. Powder down has evolved independently in several taxa and can be found in down as well as pennaceous feathers. They may be scattered in plumage in the pigeons and parrots or in localized patches on the breast, belly or flanks as in herons and frogmouths. Herons use their bill to break the feathers and to spread them while cockatoos may use their head as a powder puff to apply the powder.[1] Waterproofing can be lost by exposure to emulsifying agents due to human pollution. Feathers can become waterlogged and birds may sink. It is also very difficult to clean and rescue birds whose feathers have been fouled by oil spills. Powder down feather are located at the back of the cockatiel just above the tail base beneath the outer feathers,these down feathers differ from the usual down as they are exceptinally fine and produce a dust between the frons,the bird takes this dust from its powder down feathers... Powder is a substance that has been crushed into very fine grains. ... A conditioner is something that improves the quality of another material. ... A. Two immiscible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... A beach after an oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. ...


Bristles are stiff, tapering feathers with a large rachis but few barbs. Rictal bristles are bristles found around the eyes and bill. They may serve a similar purpose to eyelashes and vibrissae in mammals. It has been suggested that they may aid insectivorous birds in prey capture or that it may have sensory functions, however there is no clear evidence.[2] In one study, Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) and they were found to catch insects equally well before and after removal of the rictal bristles.[3] A bristle is a stiff hair or feather. ... An eyelash or simply lash is one of the hairs that grow at the edge of the eyelid. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...

Feather tracts or pterylae and their naming
Feather tracts or pterylae and their naming

Feathers are not uniformly distributed on the skin of the bird except in the Penguin. In most birds the feathers grow from specific tracts of skin called pterylae while there are regions which are free of feathers called apterylae. The arrangement of these feather tracts, pterylosis, varies across bird families. Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ...


Evolution

Feathers most likely originated as a filamentous insulation structure, or possibly as markers for mating, with flight emerging only as a secondary purpose. It has been thought that feathers evolved from the scales of reptiles, but recent research suggests that while there is a definite relationship between these structures, it remains uncertain of the exact process. (see Quarterly Review of Biology 77:3 (September 2002): 261-95). In experiments where a virus was used to reduce the levels of certain proteins in chicken embryos, the chickens retained webbed feet, and the scutes developed into feathers. The scales, however, did not develop into feathers, and the research suggests that feathers did not evolve from reptilian scales. [4] In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... A scute (Latin scutum, shield) is a horny, chitinous, or bony external plate or scale, as on the shell of a turtle or the underside of a snake. ...


Feathered dinosaurs

Main article: Feathered dinosaurs

Several dinosaurs have been discovered with feathers on their limbs that would not have functioned for flight. One theory is that feathers originally developed on dinosaurs as a means of insulation; those small dinosaurs that then grew longer feathers may have found them helpful in gliding, which would have begun the evolutionary process that resulted in some proto-birds like Archaeopteryx and Microraptor zhaoianus. Other dinosaurs discovered with feathers include Pedopenna daohugouensis, Sinosauropteryx, and Dilong paradoxus, a tyrannosauroid which is 60 to 70 million years older than Tyrannosaurus rex. Currently the question is not whether birds are dinosaurs, but whether they are deinonychosaurians or are dromaeosaurids. It has been suggested that Pedopenna is older than Archaeopteryx, however, their age remains doubted by some experts. Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs (see Dinosaur-bird connection). ... Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs (see Dinosaur-bird connection). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... Species (type) Xu et al, 2003 Microraptor (small thief) is a genus of small, dromaeosaurid dinosaur known from well-preserved fossil remains recovered from Liaoning, China, and dating from the early Cretaceous Period (Barremian stage), 130-125. ... Pedopenna daohugouensis (Xu & Zhang 2005) was a small eumaniraptoran dinosaur from the Late Jurassic from the Daohugou beds in China. ... Binomial name Sinosauropteryx prima Ji Q. & Ji S., 1996 Sinosauropteryx prima (first Chinese lizard-feather) was the first non-avian dinosaur found with the fossilized impressions of feathers. ... Dilong paradoxus was an ancestor of Tyrannosaurus rex and had a covering of feathers. ... ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Synonyms Manospondylus gigas Dynamosaurus imperiosus Dinotyrannus megagracilis Nanotyrannus lancensis? Tyrannosaurus (IPA pronunciation or ; from the Greek τυραννόσαυρος, meaning tyrant lizard) is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur. ... Families Dromaeosauridae Troodontidae The Deinonychosauria were a successful clade of theropods in the Cretaceous period. ... Genera Achillobator Adasaurus Bambiraptor Cryptovolans Dromaeosaurus Deinonychus Gracilraptor Microraptor Pyroraptor Saurornitholestes Sinornithosaurus Utahraptor Variraptor Velociraptor Among the dinosaurs, the Dromaeosaurids or Dromaeosauridae (running lizards) were fast and agile dominant carnivores throughout the Cretaceous period. ...


Human uses

Shaft of Indian Peacock tail feather
Shaft of Indian Peacock tail feather

Feathers have a number of utilitarian and cultural and religious uses.


Utilitarian functions

Feathers are both soft and excellent at trapping heat; thus, they are sometimes used in high-class bedding, especially pillows, blankets, and mattresses. They are also used as filling for winter clothing, such as quilted coats and sleeping bags; goose down especially has great loft, the ability to expand from a compressed, stored state to trap large amounts of compartmentalized, insulating air. Bird feathers have long been used for fletching arrows and in the past were used for ink pens. Colorful feathers such as those belonging to pheasants have been used to decorate fishing lures and hats. During the 18th, 19th, and even 20th Centuries a booming international trade in plumes, to satisfy market demand in North America and Europe for extravagant head-dresses as adornment for fashionable women, caused so much destruction (for example, to egret breeding colonies) that a major campaign against it by conservationists caused the fashion to change and the market to collapse. For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Bedding refers to the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for warmth. ... This article is about the cushion. ... For other uses, see Blanket (disambiguation). ... A pillow top queen-size mattress. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... Coat can refer to any one of the following: The fur coat of a mammal. ... A sleeping bag is a protective bag for a person to sleep in, essentially a blanket that can be closed with a zipper or similar means, and functions as a bed in situations where it is impractical to carry around a full bed. ... Geese redirects here. ... For the English village see Fletching, East Sussex. ... An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... In-line spinner lure with ring, dish, body/weight and hook In terms of sport fishing, a lure is an object attached to the end of the fishing line and designed to resemble and move like an item of fish prey. ... A hat is an item of clothing which is worn on the head; a kind of headgear. ... Iraqi wearing a keffiyeh. ... an egret and a fish Genera Egretta Ardea An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. ...


Feathers of large birds (most often geese) have been and are used to make quill pens. The word pen itself is derived from the Latin penna for feather.[5] The French nom-de-plume for pen name has a similar origin. Geese redirects here. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ...


Cultural and religious uses

A feather from a Guinea fowl.
A feather from a Guinea fowl.

Eagle feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to American Indians in the USA and First Nations peoples in Canada as religious objects. In the United States the religious use of eagle and hawk feathers are governed by the eagle feather law (50 CFR 22), a federal law limiting the possession of eagle feathers to certified and enrolled members of federally recognized Native American tribes. Genera  Agelastes  Numida  Guttera  Acryllium The guineafowl are a family of birds in the same order as the pheasants, turkeys and other game birds. ... Genera Several, see text. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Genera Several, see text. ... For other uses, see Hawk (disambiguation). ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ...


Various birds and their plumages serve as cultural icons throughout the world, from the hawk in ancient Egypt to the bald eagle and the turkey in the United States. In Greek mythology, Icarus tried to escape his prison by attaching feathered wings to his shoulders with wax, which was melted by the Sun. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Icarus and Daedalus by Frederic Leighton In Greek mythology, Icarus (Latin, Greek – Íkaros, Etruscan – Vicare, German – Ikarus) was son of Daedalus, famous for his death by falling into the sea when he flew too close to the sun, melting the wax holding his artificial wings together. ...


See also

Red Kite (Milvus milvus) in flight, showing remiges and rectrices Flight feathers are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges (singular remex) while those on the tail are called rectrices (singular rectrix). ... The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. ... Diagram of pinioning, from Wild Waterfowl and its Captive Management Vol. ... There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Delhey K, A. Peters, and B. Kempenaers (2007) Cosmetic coloration in birds: occurrence, function and evolution. Am. Nat. 169:S145-158. PDF
  2. ^ Lederer R. J. (1972) The role of avian rictal bristles. Wilson. Bull. 84, 193-97 pdf
  3. ^ Conover, M. R., and D. E. Miller (1980) Rictal bristle function in willow flycatcher. Condor 82:469-471.
  4. ^ Feathers, scutes and the origin of birds
  5. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company. [1]

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Feather
  • McGraw, K. J. 2005. Polly want a pigment? Cracking the chemical code to red coloration in parrots. Australian Birdkeeper Magazine 18:608-611.
  • DeMeo, Antonia M. Access to Eagles and Eagle Parts: Environmental Protection v. Native American Free Exercise of Religion (1995) [2]
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR), Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries PART 22—EAGLE PERMITS [3]
  • Stokes, DaShanne. (In Press) Legalized Segregation and the Denial of Religious Freedom
  • U.S. v. Thirty Eight Golden Eagles (1986) [4]

For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast... It has been suggested that keel (bird) be merged into this article or section. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1024 pixel, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), Rondeau Provincial Park, 2005; de: Zitronenwaldsänger Photograph: Mdf first upload in en wikipedia on 23:23, 24... Paleornithology is the scientific study of bird evolution and fossil birds. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ... Families Enaliornithidae Baptornithidae Hesperornithidae Synonyms Odontornithes Marsh, 1873 (partim) Odontolcae Marsh, 1875 Gaviomorphae Cracraft, 1982 (partim) Hesperornithes are an extinct and highly specialized subclass of Cretaceous toothed birds. ... A bird hybrid is basically a bird that has two different species as parents. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... For a list of birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and (usually) known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Since 1500, over 140 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Deep cup nest of the Great Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Families Fregatidae Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae For prehistoric families, see article text. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Species See text For other uses, see Flamingo (disambiguation). ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Genera Pterocles Syrrhaptes Sandgrouse is also the name of the journal of the Ornithological Society of the Middle East - see Sandgrouse (journal) The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. ... Families Columbidae The bird order Columbiformes the includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire, long classified as a second family Raphidae. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Families Musophagidae Cuculidae Opisthocomidae The near passerine bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below: Order Cuculiformes Family Musophagidae: turacos and allies Family Cuculidae: cuckoos Family Opisthocomidae: Hoatzin However, the taxonomy of this group is now controversial. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Families see text The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes a number of birds with global distribution (except Antarctica). ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Brachypteraciidae Coraciidae Leptosomidae Meropidae Momotidae Todidae Bucerotidae Upupidae Phoeniculidae The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colourful near passerine birds including the kingfishers, the Hoopoe, the bee-eaters, the rollers, and the hornbills. ... Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Genera Apaloderma Euptilotis Harpactes Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. ... Genera Colius Urocolius The mousebirds are a small group of near passerine birds which have no clear affinities to other groups, and are therefore given order status. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... This page lists living orders and families of birds, class Aves (for extinct birds, please see Extinct birds and Prehistoric birds). ... // The following are the regional bird lists by continent. ... Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa, prepared as a skin (shmoo), skeleton, and spread wing Bird collections are curated repositories of scientific specimens consisting of birds and their parts. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... The extinction of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow was caused by habitat loss. ... Aviculture is the practice of keeping and often breeding pet birds, generally companion parrots, and the culture that forms around it. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Feather - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1061 words)
Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds.
Feathers are among the most complex structural organs found in vertebrates: integumentary appendages, formed by controlled proliferation of cells in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins.
The β-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws — and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles — are composed of protein strands hydrogen-bonded into β-pleated sheats, which are then further twisted and crosslinked by disulfide bridges into structures even tougher than the α-keratins of mammalian hair, horns and hoof.
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