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Encyclopedia > Fazlollah Zahedi
General Fazlollah Zahedi
General Fazlollah Zahedi

Mohammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963) was an Iranian general, Prime Minister, and politician. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (785 × 1054 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions originally uploaded on en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (785 × 1054 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions originally uploaded on en. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ...

Contents

Biography

Early Years

Born in Hamedan in 1896, he was the son of Abol Hassan "Bassir Diwan" Zahedi, a wealthy land owner at the city of Hamedan, Fazlollah Zahedi was appointed general of the Iranian army at the age of 25. During his service at the Imperial Russian-trained Iranian Cossack Brigade, one of his comrades in arms (his superior in fact) was Reza Khan, the later Reza Shah Pahlavi. The alliance, forged between the two men, was to endure a lifetime and continued to bind their sons, personally as well as politically. Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Zahedi (other transliteration: Zahidi) is a name attributed to descendants of Sheikh Zahed Gilani. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Zahedi (other transliteration: Zahidi) is a name attributed to descendants of Sheikh Zahed Gilani. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Cossack Brigade can refer to: a military brigade composed of Cossacks Free Cossack Brigade of Vadim Yakovlev Persian Cossack Brigade of Vsevolod Lyakhov (also known as Iranian Cossack Brigade) Category: ... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...


He served under Reza Pahlavi in the army later on, and was among the officers dispatched to Gilan who put an end to the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan of Mirza Kuchak Khan. Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Mirza Kuchek, the leader of the movement. ... Mirza Kuchek Khan before starting the rebellion (around 1914). ...


He was also involved in the overthrow of Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee's government in 1920. It was Colonel Zahedi who arrested Sheikh Khaz'al Khan and brought him to Tehran. Seyyed Ziaeddin Tabatabaee (Persian: سید ضیاءالدین طباطبایی) (1888 - 1969) was a Persian politician and the Prime Minister of Persia from February to May 1921 under Ahmad Shah, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty. ... Sheikh Khazal Khan Lieutenant-General Sheikh Khazal Khan ibn Haji Jabir Khan (1863?-1936), styled His Eminence, Muaz us-Sultana, and Sardar-e-Aqdas (Most Sacred Officer of the Imperial Order of the Aqdas), was the ruler of a virtually autonomous sheikhdom (officially called the Sheikhdom of Mohammerah... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


During Reza Shah's reign, General Zahedi was named (1926) military governor of Khuzestan province, holding the hub of Iran's oil industry, and in 1932 chief of national police, one of the nation's top internal posts. During World War II he was appointed (1941) commanding general of the Isfahan Division. Subsequent to the forced abdication of Reza Shah (1941), fuelled by British fears of an Alliance with Nazi Germany, Zahedi was arrested by British forces in 1942 for the same reasons, flown out of the country and interned in Palestine until the end of the war. A fierce nationalist, Zahedi fostered deep reservations and suspicions towards the Allied Forces. Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Return from Exile

Returned from exile in 1945, during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah (Reza Shah's son and successor), General Zahedi became Inspector of military forces in southern Iran. He became once more chief of national police (Shahrbani) in 1949, when Mohammad Reza Shah appointed him as chief of the Shahrbani Police Forces, in order to counter the growing threat of Sepahbod Haj Ali Razmara. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... Major General Razmara Sepahbod Haj Ali Razmara (Persian: حاجیعلی رزم‌آر ḤājÄ«`alÄ« Razmāra, March 7, 1951) was a military leader and Prime Minister of Iran. ...

General Zahedi (l) and Mohammad Reza Shah, April 1955.
General Zahedi (l) and Mohammad Reza Shah, April 1955.

After retiring from the army, he was named Senator in 1950. Zahedi was appointed Minister of the Interior (1951) in Hossein Ala''s administration, a post he would retain when Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh became Prime Minister. Zahedi actively supported the new government's nationalisation of the oil industry, which had previously been owned by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, now BP. However, he was at odds with Mossadegh over his increasing tolerance for the outlawed communist party Tudeh, which had boldly demonstrated in favour of nationalisation. Both of these moves naturally antagonised the Western Powers, especially the United Kingdom and the United States. Zahedi finally broke with Mossadegh, with the latter accusing him of fostering plans for a coup. Meanwhile, sanctions levied by the Western Powers significantly curtailed Iranian oil exports, leading to an economic crisis. Disorder among several ethnic groups in southern Iran and labour unrest among oil-field workers put further pressures on the government. The United States under President Eisenhower, citing Mossadegh's allegedly pro-Moscow inclination, came to view constitutional government as a strategic threat. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Hosein Ala Hosein Alā was a Prime Minister of Iran during 1951. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... Disorder may refer to : Disease, an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress (see also: types of disorders) Chaos, unpredictability and in the metaphysical sense, it is the opposite of law and order Entropy, a state function of a thermodynamic system Lawlessness, a lack of...


1950's

At the behest of the British and American government, and assured of their support, the Shah demanded Mossadegh's resignation in February of 1953. Mossadegh refused, bringing to head a crisis that would end the era of constitutional monarchy and would replace it by direct rule of the Shah. The newly-formed CIA, along with the British spy agency MI6, took an active role in the developments, terming their involvement Operation Ajax. Zahedi and his followers, financed and armed by the foreign intelligence services, organised supporters of the Shah onto the streets, calling for the Prime Minister's ousting. There were such riots in Tehran and other cities. Fearing his arrest, Zahedi went into hiding. “CIA” redirects here. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6),[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ...


In August of 1953, Mossadegh attempted to convince the Shah to leave the country. The Shah refused, and formally dismissed the Prime Minister, in accordance with the foreign intelligence plan. Mossadegh refused to resign, however, and when it became apparent that he was going to fight, the Shah, as a precautionary measure foreseen by the British/American plan, on 15th August fled first to Baghdad and then to Rome, Italy, after signing two decrees, one dismissing Mossadegh and the other naming Zahedi to replace him as Prime Minister. Mossadegh again refused to step down. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Supported by the United Kingdom and the United States, and encouraged by the intelligence agents Kermit Roosevelt and Donald N. Wilber, Zahedi staged a counter coup on the 19 August 1953, drawing supporters from the military as well as the public. Relying for his legitimacy on the Shah's decrees, Zahedi sent out thousands of copies, along with the proclamation of himself as Prime Minister. The Shah returned triumphantly from exile on 22 August 1953. Coup redirects here. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ...


Many contemporary sources attribute the instigation of the counter coup entirely to foreign intelligence agencies, such as the U.S. American CIA (CIA Coup) and the British MI6. These sources point to many other coups in which the CIA was instrumental, such as those in Congo (1964), Chile (1973), and Algeria (1991). Supporters of the Shah, however, argue that the counter-coup was in fact a popular uprising, and that the foreign intelligence agencies' undeniable involvement was peripheral. It has been reported that the CIA's documentation of Operation Ajax was lost in a fire during the 1960's, to the incredulity of some observers. Nevertheless, these documents, invaluable for historians, have never been found. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ...


Final Exile

Having acquired an unprecedented power-base and, as a consequence, evoking increasing unease at home, the Premiership of General Zahedi ended in 1955. His final exile was sweetened by his last post, as Ambassador to the United Nations, in Geneva. An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


Ancestry

Zahedi's family descends from the Sufi mystics Sheikh Zahed Gilani (1216 - 1301) and Sheikh Safi Al-Din Ardebili, the eponym of the Safavid Dynasty. Through his mother, Djavaher Khanom, he traced his descent to the dynastic ruler Karim Khan Zand. Married to Khadijeh Pirnia, daughter of Mirza Hussein Khan Pirnia (titled Motamen-ol-Molk), and granddaughter to Mozzafar-al-Din Shah Qajar (1853 - 1907), Fazlollah Zahedi had a son, Ardeshir, and a daughter, Homa. Zahedi (other transliteration: Zahidi) is a name attributed to descendants of Sheikh Zahed Gilani. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The mystic Taj Al-Din Ebrahim Al-Kordi Al-Sanjani (1216 - 1301), titled Sheikh Zahed Gilani, was Grandmaster of the famed Zahediyeh Sufi Order at Lahijan. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Sheikh Safi al-Dins tomb Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili (of Ardebil) (1252-1334), eponym of the Safavid dynasty, was the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan Province in northern Iran. ... Ardabil (in persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) a historical city in north-western Iran. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Karim Khan Zand (Persian: کریم خان زند) was a king of Persia who reigned from 1760 until 1779. ... Mozaffareddin Shah Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (also Mozaffareddin Shah) (1853 – 1907) was the Shah of Persia between 1896 and 1907. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Ardeshir Zahedi Ardeshir Zahedi (born October 16, 1928) was an important Iranian diplomat during the 1960s and 1970s, serving as the countrys foreign minister and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom. ...


Children

His son Ardeshir Zahedi, a later politician and diplomat, was to marry Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi, daughter of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi from his first marriage to Princess Fawzia of Egypt, daughter to King Fuad I. His daughter Homa Zahedi was a member of the Parliament. Ardeshir Zahedi Ardeshir Zahedi (born October 16, 1928) was an important Iranian diplomat during the 1960s and 1970s, serving as the countrys foreign minister and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi (born October 27, 1940) is the first child of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and his first wife, Fawzia of Egypt. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... Princess Fawzia Her Royal Highness Princess Fawzia bint Fuad of Egypt (Arabic: فوزية بنت الملك فؤاد) (Alexandria, Egypt, November 5, 1921 -) was a Queen of Iran having been the first wife of the last Shah of Iran and a sister of King Farouk I. Though referred to as a princess out of courtesy, she... Categories: People stubs | 1868 births | 1936 deaths | Egyptian heads of state ...


See also

The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Persia and Iran (see Prime Minister of Iran): // Muhammad Mumin Khan Shamlu (1699 - 1707) Shah Quli Khan Zanganeh (1707 - 1715) Fath Ali Khan Daghestani (1715 - 1722) Muhammad Quli Khan Bigdili Shamlu (c. ...

References used

  • 'Alí Rizā Awsatí (عليرضا اوسطى), Iran in the past three centuries (Irān dar Se Qarn-e Goz̲ashteh - ايران در سه قرن گذشته), Volumes 1 and 2 (Paktāb Publishing - انتشارات پاکتاب, Tehran, Iran, 2003). ISBN 9-649340-661 (Vol. 1), ISBN 9-649340-653 (Vol. 2).
  • Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

External links

  • Secrets of History: The C.I.A. in Iran -- A special report.; How a Plot Convulsed Iran in '53 (and in '79). The New York Times, April 16, 2000.
  • New york Times article of 20th August 1953
  • Images of General Zahedi
  • Good historical Picture source
Preceded by
Mohammed Mossadegh
Prime Ministers of Iran
1953 August 19 – April 1955
Succeeded by
Hossein Ala'

  Results from FactBites:
 
Presidential Papers, Doc#537 To Fazlollah Zahedi, 11 November 1953. In The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower (356 words)
Presidential Papers, Doc#537 To Fazlollah Zahedi, 11 November 1953.
In his reply Zahedi would express deep appreciation for Eisenhower's personal greetings and Nixon's visit (Zahedi to Eisenhower, Dec. 11, 1953, AWF/I).
The Vice-President, Zahedi wrote, "was able to obtain a thorough understanding of the difficulties which during recent years have retarded the development and progress of the Iranian people" and to strengthen the belief of Iran "in the sincere and disinterested friendliness of the United States."
Fazlollah Zahedi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (873 words)
Born in Shiraz, Iran, he was the son of Abol Hassan "Bassir Diwan" Zahedi, a wealthy land owner at the city of Hamedan, Fazlollah Zahedi was appointed general of the Iranian army at the age of 25.
Zahedi proclaimed himself Prime Minister and the shah returned triumphantly to Iran, from his brief exile in Rome, on the 21st of August.
Zahedi's family descends from the Sufi mystics Sheikh Zahed Gilani (1216 - 1301) and Sheikh Safi Al-Din Ardebili, the eponym of the Safavid Dynasty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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