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Encyclopedia > Faxian

"Faxian"(Chinese: 法顯; pinyin: Fǎxiǎn; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. 337 - ca. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India and Sri Lanka to bring Buddhist scriptures between 399 and 412 . His journey is described in his work A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his Travels in India and Ceylon in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... September 10 - Pope Celestine I succeeds Pope Boniface I as the 43rd pope. ... Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... There is great variety in Buddhist texts. ... Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. ... Events The Visigoths move into Gaul, led by Alarics brother Ataulf. ...


On Faxian's return to China he landed at Laoshan in modern Shandong province, 30km east of the city of Qingdao. After landing, he proceeded to Shandong's then-capital, Qingzhou, where he remained for a year translating and editing the scriptures he had collected. One of the mountains at the Laoshan scenic area. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... (Simplified Chinese: 青岛; Traditional Chinese: 青島; pinyin: QÄ«ngdÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal System Pinyin transliteration Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Qingzhou (青州) is the ancient capital of Shandong province, China. ...


His work is not only one of the world's greatest travel books, but is filled with invaluable accounts of early Buddhism, and the geography and history of numerous countries along the so-called Silk Roads at the turn of the 5th century CE. The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


The following is from the introduction to a translation of Faxian's work by James Legge: Ezra Pounds annotations on his copy of James Legges translation of the Book of Poetry (Shih Ching), in the Sacred Books of the East. ...

Nothing of great importance is known about Fa-hien in addition to what may be gathered from his own record of his travels. I have read the accounts of him in the Memoirs of Eminent Monks, compiled in A.D. 519, and a later work, the Memoirs of Marvellous Monks, by the third emperor of the Ming dynasty (A.D. 1403-1424), which, however, is nearly all borrowed from the other; and all in them that has an appearance of verisimilitude can be brought within brief compass.
His surname, they tell us, was Kung, and he was a native of Wu-yang in P’ing-Yang, which is still the name of a large department in Shan-hsi. He had three brothers older than himself; but when they all died before shedding their first teeth, his father devoted him to the service of the Buddhist society, and had him entered as a Sramanera, still keeping him at home in the family. The little fellow fell dangerously ill, and the father sent him to the monastery, where he soon got well and refused to return to his parents.
When he was ten years old, his father died; and an uncle, considering the widowed solitariness and helplessness of the mother, urged him to renounce the monastic life, and return to her, but the boy replied, “I did not quit the family in compliance with my father’s wishes, but because I wished to be far from the dust and vulgar ways of life. This is why I chose monkhood.” The uncle approved of his words and gave over urging him. When his mother also died, it appeared how great had been the affection for her of his fine nature; but after her burial he returned to the monastery.
On one occasion he was cutting rice with a score or two of his fellow-disciples, when some hungry thieves came upon them to take away their grain by force. The other Sramaneras all fled, but our young hero stood his ground, and said to the thieves, “If you must have the grain, take what you please. But, Sirs, it was your former neglect of charity which brought you to your present state of destitution; and now, again, you wish to rob others. I am afraid that in the coming ages you will have still greater poverty and distress;—I am sorry for you beforehand.” With these words he followed his companions into the monastery, while the thieves left the grain and went away, all the monks, of whom there were several hundred, doing homage to his conduct and courage.
When he had finished his noviciate and taken on him the obligations of the full Buddhist orders, his earnest courage, clear intelligence, and strict regulation of his demeanour were conspicuous; and soon after, he undertook his journey to India in search of complete copies of the Vinaya-pitaka. What follows this is merely an account of his travels in India and return to China by sea, condensed from his own narrative, with the addition of some marvelous incidents that happened to him, on his visit to the Vulture Peak near Rajagriha.
It is said in the end that after his return to China, he went to the capital (evidently Nanking), and there, along with the Indian Sramana Buddha-bhadra, executed translations of some of the works which he had obtained in India; and that before he had done all that he wished to do in this way, he removed to King-chow (in the present Hoo-pih), and died in the monastery of Sin, at the age of eighty-eight, to the great sorrow of all who knew him. It is added that there is another larger work giving an account of his travels in various countries.
Such is all the information given about our author, beyond what he himself has told us. Fa-hien was his clerical name, and means “Illustrious in the Law,” or “Illustrious master of the Law.” The Shih which often precedes it is an abbreviation of the name of Buddha as Sakyamuni, “the Sakya, mighty in Love, dwelling in Seclusion and Silence,” and may be taken as equivalent to Buddhist. It is sometimes said to have belonged to “the eastern Tsin dynasty” (A.D. 317-419), and sometimes to “the Sung,” that is, the Sung dynasty of the House of Liu (A.D. 420-478). If he became a full monk at the age of twenty, and went to India when he was twenty-five, his long life may have been divided pretty equally between the two dynasties.

The Memoirs of Eminent Monks (Simplified Chinese: 高僧传, Hanyu Pinyin Gāosēngzhuàn) is a compilation in AD 519 of biographies of monks in China from the introduction of Buddhism to China up to the Northern Wei Dynasty. ... Telephone Area Code for much of Southwestern Ontario, Canada including cities of Windsor and Kitchener Cerdic becomes king of Wessex The synagogues of Ravenna are burnt down in a riot; Theodoric the Great orders them to be rebuilt at Ravennas expense. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Not to be confused with the neighboring province of Shaanxi Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: Shānxī; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Franciscan friar wearing traditional garb at monastery of the Church of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, Israel. ... Monastery of St. ... Pali or Sanskrit word meaning discipline. The Vinaya is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... Griddhraj Parvat (also called, Gridhra-kuta Hill or locally known as Giddhaila Pahar) (Hindi: गृद्घराज पर्वत), which means the hill of vultures, is a hill of religious, archeological and ecological importance situated in Devrajnagar village of tehsil Ramnagar in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India. ... Rajgir is an ancient town, and has reference in Mahabharata,Buddhist and Jain texts. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... There were two Indian Buddhist masters named Buddhabhadra in China during the 5th century CE: Buddhabhadra (Shaolin Abbot) Buddhabhadra (translator) Category: ... Jingzhou (Simplified Chinese: 荆州; Traditional Chinese: 荊州; pinyin: ) is a city in the Hubei province of the Peoples Republic of China, on the banks of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal map spelling: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Media:Example. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Śākya (Sanskrit) or Sakya (Pāli) is the name (derived from Sanskrit Å›akya, capable, able) of an Indo-Aryan-speaking nation or janapada of the (the so-called warrior caste). The Śākyas formed independent tribes or kingdoms near the foothills of the Himālayas. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Events Jin Yuan Di succeeds Jin Min Di; end of the western and beginning of the eastern Jin Dynasty King Marian II of Iberia declares Christianity the official state religion Births February _ Constantine II, Roman Emperor Deaths Categories: 317 ... This article is about the year 419. ... The Song Dynasty (宋朝, Pinyin: Sòng cháo Wade-Giles: Sung) (420-479) was first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, followed by the Southern Qi Dynasty. ... For other uses, see 420 (disambiguation). ... Events First Shinto shrines built in Japan. ...

References

  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Translated by Samuel Beal. London. 1884. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969. (Also contains a translation of Faxian's book on pp. xxiii-lxxxiii).

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Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... Zhang Qian leaving emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618-712 CE. Zhang Qian (Chinese:張騫; died 113 BCE) was a Chinese explorer and imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; pinyin: ; Arabic name: محمود شمس Mahmud Shams) (1371–1433), was a famous Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean (Chinese: 三保太監下西洋) or... Fa Hien Cave is a cave in the district of Katutara, Sabaragamuwa Province, Sri Lanka, named after the Buddhist monk Faxian (Wade-Giles: Fa Hien). ... Hyecho (704-787) was a Korean buddhist monk from the Korean Kingdom of Silla. ... An artist impression of Yi Jing 义净(635~713), Tang dynasty Buddhist monk. ... Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, and stupas sorted by location. ... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ...

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FAXIAN (2459 words)
Faxian had now been many years away from his own land of Han; the people he had had to deal with were all inhabitants of strange countries; the mountains, the streams, plants, and trees on which his eyes had lighted were not those of old days; moreover, those who had traveled with
However, Faxian once more invoked the Hearer of Prayers and the Catholic Church in China, and was accorded the protection of their awful power until day broke.
Faxian began by reassuring them, and then quietly asked them, “What men are you?” They replied, “We are followers of Buddha.” “And what is it you go among the mountains to seek?” continued Faxian.
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