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A Samsung fax machine
A Samsung fax machine

Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, "make similar", i.e. "make a copy") is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for "make a copy at a distance", is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantenous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral. Fax may refers to: Fax, short for facsimile, a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies of documents over the telephone network. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Samfax. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Samfax. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Insert non-formatted text here For the machine that sends, receives, and produces facsimiles, see fax. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ...

Contents

Overview

A "fax machine" usually consists of an image scanner, a modem, and a printer combined into a single package. The scanner converts the content printed on a physical document into a digital image, the modem sends the image data over a phone line to another device, and the printer at the far end produces a copy of the transmitted document. In computing, a scanner is a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object (such as an ornament) and converts it to a digital image. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies. ...


Some fax machines can be connected to a computer, and the individual components -- the scanner, printer, and occasionally the modem -- can be used independently. Such devices are usually called multifunction printers or MFPs. Fax capabilities are also offered as options for many high-volume workgroup printers and photocopiers. An MFP (Multi Function Printer/Product/Peripheral), multifunctional, all-in-one (AiO), or mopier (Multiple Optical coPIER) or Multifunction Device (MFD), is an office machine that includes the following functionality in one physical body, so as to have a smaller footprint in a home or small-business setting (the SoHo... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ...


Although devices for transmitting printed documents electrically have existed, in various forms, since the mid to late 19th century (see "History" below), modern fax machines became feasible only in the mid-1970s as the sophistication increased and cost of the three underlying technologies dropped. Digital fax machines first became popular in Japan, where they had a clear advantage over competing technologies like the teleprinter, since at the time (before the development of easy-to-use input method editors) it was faster to handwrite kanji than to type the characters. Over time, faxing gradually became affordable, and by the mid-1980s, fax machines were very popular around the world. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... Operation of a typical Japanese romaji based IME. An input method editor (IME) is a program or operating system component that allows computer users to enter characters and symbols not found on their keyboard. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Although many businesses still maintain some kind of fax capability, the technology has faced increasing competition from Internet-based systems. However, fax machines still retain some advantages, particularly in the transmission of sensitive material which, due to mandates like Sarbanes-Oxley and HIPAA, cannot be sent over the Internet unencrypted. In some countries, because digital signatures on contracts are not recognized by law while faxed contracts with copies of signatures are, fax machines enjoy continuing popularity in business. Before the signing ceremony of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, President George Bush meets with Senator Paul Sarbanes, Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao and other dignitaries in the Blue Room at the White House on July 30, 2002. ... The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1996. ... A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a type of asymmetric cryptography used to simulate the security properties of a signature in digital, rather than written, form. ...


In many corporate environments, standalone fax machines have been replaced by "fax servers" and other computerized systems capable of receiving and storing incoming faxes electronically, and then routing them to users on paper or via secure email. Such systems have the advantage of reducing costs by eliminating unnecessary printouts and reducing the number of inbound analog phone lines needed by an office. A fax server is a set of software running on a server computer which is equipped with one or more fax-capable modems attached to telephone lines (or, more recently, software modem emulators which use T.38 (Fax over IP) technology to transmit the signal over an IP network). ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ...


Capabilities

There are several different indicators of fax capabilities: Group, class, data transmission rate, and conformance with ITU-T (formerly CCITT) recommendations. The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... ITU-T is the telecom standardization organization of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). ...


For those who do not own a fax machine themselves, a fax machine can be contacted by another fax machine with a series of unique numbers (like a telephone number). Fax machines cannot be contacted by home lines or mobiles.


Group

Analog

Group 1 and 2 faxes were sent in the same manner as a frame of analog television, with each scanned line transmitted as a continuous analog signal. Horizontal resolution depended upon the quality of the scanner, transmission line, and the printer. Analog fax machines are obsolete and no longer manufactured. ITU-T Recommendations T.2 and T.3 were withdrawn as obsolete in July 1996. Analog television (or analogue television) encodes television and transports the picture and sound information as an analog signal, that is, by varying the amplitude and/or frequencies of the broadcast signal. ...

  • Group 1 faxes conform to the ITU-T Recommendation T.2. Group 1 faxes take six minutes to transmit a single page, with a vertical resolution of 98 scan lines per inch. Group 1 fax machines are obsolete and no longer manufactured.
  • Group 2 faxes conform to the ITU-T Recommendations T.30 and T.3. Group 2 faxes take three minutes to transmit a single page, with a vertical resolution of 100 scan lines per inch. Group 2 fax machines are almost obsolete, and are no longer manufactured. Group 2 fax machines can interoperate with Group 3 fax machines.
Digital

Group 3 and 4 faxes are digital formats, and take advantage of digital compression methods to greatly reduce transmission times. A scan line is one line, or row, in a raster scanning pattern, such as a video line on a Cathode ray tube (CRT) display of a television or computer. ...

  • Group 3 faxes conform to the ITU-T Recommendations T.30 and T.4. Group 3 faxes take between six and fifteen seconds to transmit a single page (not including the initial time for the fax machines to handshake and synchronize). The horizontal and vertical resolutions are allowed by the T.4 standard to vary among a set of fixed resolutions:
    • Horizontal: 100 scan lines per inch
      • Vertical: 100 scan lines per inch
    • Horizontal: 200 or 204 scan lines per inch
      • Vertical: 100 or 98 scan lines per inch ('Standard')
      • Vertical: 200 or 196 scan lines per inch ('Fine')
      • Vertical: 400 or 391 (note not 392) scan lines per inch ('Superfine')
    • Horizontal: 300 scan lines per inch
      • Vertical: 300 scan lines per inch
    • Horizontal: 400 or 408 scan lines per inch
      • Vertical: 400 or 391 scan lines per inch ('Ultrafine')
  • Group 4 faxes conform to the ITU-T Recommendations T.563, T.503, T.521, T.6, T.62, T.70, T.72, T.411 to T.417. They are designed to operate over 64 kbit/s digital ISDN circuits. Their resolution is determined by the T.6 recommendation, which is a superset of the T.4 recommendation.

Fax Over IP (FOIP) Can transmit and receive pre-digitized documents at near realtime speeds. Scanned documents are limited to the amount of time the user takes to load the document in a scanner and for the device to process a digital file. The resolution can vary from as little as 150 DPI to 9600 DPI+. This type of faxing is not like the e-mail to fax service that still uses fax modems at least one way.


Class

Computer modems are often designated by a particular fax class, which indicates how much processing is offloaded from the computer's CPU to the fax modem.

  • Class 1 fax devices do fax data transfer where the T.4/T.6 data compression and T.30 session management are performed by software on a controlling computer. This is described in ITU-T recommendation T.31.
  • Class 2 fax devices perform T.30 session management themselves, but the T.4/T.6 data compression is performed by software on a controlling computer. The relevant ITU-T recommendation is T.32.
  • Class 2.1 fax devices are referred to as "super G3"; they seem to be a little faster than the other 2 classes.

Data transmission rate

Several different telephone line modulation techniques are used by fax machines. They are negotiated during the fax-modem handshake, and the fax devices will use the highest data rate that both fax devices support, usually a minimum of 14.4 kbit/s for Group 3 fax. For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... In information technology, telecommunications, and related fields, handshaking is an automated process of negotiation that dynamically sets parameters of a communications channel established between two entities before normal communication over the channel begins. ...

ITU Standard Released Date Data Rates (bit/s) Modulation Method
V.27 1988 4800, 2400 PSK
V.29 1988 9600, 7200, 4800 QAM
V.17 1991 14400, 12000, 9600, 7200 TCM
V.34 1994 28800 QAM
V.34bis 1998 33600 QAM

Note that 'Super Group 3' faxes use V.34bis modulation that allows a data rate of up to 33.6 kbit/s. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “QAM” redirects here. ... An ITU-T fax protocol that uses TCM modulation at 12 and 14. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... V.34 is: The communication protocol from ITU for 28. ... “QAM” redirects here. ... V.34bis, also known as V.34plus is an ITU-T recommendation for a modem, building on the V.34 standard but allowing up to 33. ... “QAM” redirects here. ... V.34bis, also known as V.34plus is an ITU-T recommendation for a modem, building on the V.34 standard but allowing up to 33. ...


Compression

As well as specifying the resolution (and allowable physical size of the image being faxed), the ITU-T T.4 recommendation specifies two compression methods for decreasing the amount of data that needs to be transmitted between the fax machines to transfer the image. The two methods are:

Modified Huffman coding is used in fax machines to encode black on white images (bitmaps). ...

Modified Huffman

Modified Huffman (MH) is a codebook-based run-length encoding scheme optimised to efficiently compress whitespace. As most faxes consists mostly of white space, this minimises the transmission time of most faxes. Each line scanned is compressed independently of its predecessor and successor.


Modified Read

Modified Read (MR) encodes the first scanned line using MH. The next line is compared to the first, the differences determined, and then the differences are encoded and transmitted. This is effective as most lines differ little from their predecessor. This is not continued to the end of the fax transmission, but only for a limited number of lines until the process is reset and a new 'first line' encoded with MH is produced. This limited number of lines is to prevent errors propagating throughout the whole fax, as the standard does not provide for error-correction. MR is an optional facility, and some fax machines do not use MR in order to minimise the amount of computation required by the machine. The limited number of lines is two for 'Standard' resolution faxes, and four for 'Fine' resolution faxes.


The ITU-T T.6 recommendation adds a further compression type of Modified Modified READ (MMR), which simply allows for a greater number of lines to be coded by MR than in T.4. This is because T.6 makes the assumption that the transmission is over a circuit with a low number of line errors such as digital ISDN. In this case, there is no maximum number of lines for which the differences are encoded.


Matsushita Whiteline Skip

A proprietary compression scheme employed on Panasonic fax machines is Matsushita Whiteline Skip (MWS). It can be overlaid on the other compression schemes, but is operative only when two Panasonic machines are communicating with one another. This system detects the blank scanned areas between lines of text, and then compresses several blank scan lines into the data space of a single character.


Typical characteristics

Group 3 fax machines transfer one or a few printed or handwritten pages per minute in black-and-white (bitonal) at a resolution of 100x200 or 200x200 dots per inch. The transfer rate is 14.4 kilobits per second (kbit/s) or higher for modems and some fax machines, but fax machines support speeds beginning with 2400 bit/s and typically operate at 9600 bit/s. The transferred image formats are called ITU-T (formerly CCITT) fax group 3 or 4. Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


The most basic fax mode transfers black and white only. The original page is scanned in a resolution of 1728 pixels/line and 1145 lines/page (for A4). The resulting raw data is compressed using a modified Huffman code optimized for written text, achieving average compression factors of around 20. Typically a page needs 10 s for transmission, instead of about 3 minutes for the same uncompressed raw data of 1728×1145 bits at a speed of 9600 bit/s. The compression method uses a Huffman codebook for run lengths of black and white runs in a single scanned line, and it can also use the fact that two adjacent scanlines are usually quite similar, saving bandwidth by encoding only the differences. This article is about the picture element. ... A comparison of different paper sizes A4 is a standard paper size, defined by the international standard ISO 216 as 210×297 mm (roughly 8. ... Source coding redirects here. ... In computer science and information theory, Huffman coding is an entropy encoding algorithm used for lossless data compression. ...


Fax classes denote the way fax programs interact with fax hardware. Available classes include Class 1, Class 2, Class 2.0 and 2.1, and Intel CAS. Many modems support at least class 1 and often either Class 2 or Class 2.0. Which is preferrable to use depends on factors such as hardware, software, modem firmware, and expected use.


Fax machines from the 1970s to the 1990s often used direct thermal printers as their printing technology, but since the mid-1990s there has been a transition towards thermal transfer printers, inkjet printers and laser printers. A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head. ... Thermal transfer Barcode Printers Barcode Printers typically come in fixed sizes of 4 inches, 6 inches or 8 inches wide. ... An Epson inkjet printer Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ...


One of the advantages of inkjet printing is that inkjets can affordably print in color; therefore, many of the inkjet-based fax machines claim to have color fax capability. There is a standard called ITU-T30e for faxing in color; unfortunately, it is not yet widely supported, so many of the color fax machines can only fax in color to machines from the same manufacturer. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...


Alternatives

One popular alternative is to subscribe to an internet fax service. Fax service providers allow users to send and receive faxes from their personal computers using an existing email account. No software, fax server or fax machine is needed. Faxes are received as attached .TIF or .PDF files, or in proprietary formats that require the use of the service provider's software. Faxes can be sent or retrieved from anywhere at any time that a user can get internet access. Some services even offer secure faxing to comply with stringent HIPAA and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act requirements to keep medical information and financial information private and secure. Utilizing a fax service provider requires no paper, toner, fax line, etc. Internet fax uses the internet to receive and send faxes. ... This article is about TIFF, the computer image format. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1996. ... The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, also known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act, Pub. ...


Another alternative to a physical fax machine is to make use of computer software which allows people to send and receive faxes using their own computers. See Fax server and Unified messaging. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A fax server is a set of software running on a server computer which is equipped with one or more fax-capable modems attached to telephone lines (or, more recently, software modem emulators which use T.38 (Fax over IP) technology to transmit the signal over an IP network). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


History

Scottish inventor Alexander Bain is often credited with the first fax patent in 1843. He used his knowledge of electric clock pendulums to produce a back-and-forth line-by-line scanning mechanism. Alexander Bain (October 1811 – January 2, 1877), was a Scottish instrument inventor, technician, and clockmaker. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). ...


Frederick Bakewell made several improvements on Bain's design and demonstrated the device at the 1851 Great Exhibition in London. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


In 1861, the first fax machine, Pantelegraph, was sold by Giovanni Caselli, even before the invention of workable telephones. Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The pantelegraph was developed by Giovanni Caselli. ... Born in Siena, Italy in 1815, Giovanni Caselli studied physics at the University of Florence, and went on to invent the Pantelegraph machine. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


As a designer for the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), in 1924, Richard H. Ranger invented the wireless photoradiogram, or transoceanic radio facsimile, the forerunner of today’s "Fax" machines. A photograph of President Calvin Coolidge sent from New York to London on November 29, 1924 became the first photo picture reproduced by transoceanic radio facsimile. Commercial use of Ranger’s product began two years later. Radio fax is still in common use today for transmitting weather charts and information. RCA, formerly an initialism for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark used by two companies for products descended from that common ancestor: Thomson Consumer Electronics, which manufactures RCA-branded televisions, DVD players, video cassette recorders, direct broadcast satellite decoders, camcorders, audio equipment, telephones, and related accessories; and... Richard Howland Ranger (1899-1961) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ... A weather map received via radiofax, from the Bureau of Meteorology, 5100 kHz, WMC (Charleville). ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


An early method for facsimile transmission, the Hellschreiber, was invented in 1929 by Rudolf Hell, a pioneer in mechanical image scanning and transmission. The Hellschreiber or Feldhellschreiber was a facsimile-based teleprinter invented by Rudolf Hell. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rudolf Hell (December 19, 1901 – March 11, 2002) was a German inventor. ...


Prior to the introduction of the now ubiquitous fax machine, one of the first being the Exxon Qwip in the mid-1970s, facsimile machines worked by optical scanning of a document or drawing spinning on a drum. The reflected light, varying in intensity according to the light and dark areas of the document, was focused on a photocell to be converted to an electrical signal varying in frequency. This audio tone was then transmitted using a common telephone handset inserted in an acoustic coupler serving as a modem. At the receiving end, the same technique (handset in acoustic coupler) converted the varying tone into mechanical movement of a pen or pencil to reproduce the image on a blank sheet of paper on an identical drum rotating at the same rate. A pair of these expensive and bulky machines could only be afforded by companies with a serious need to communicate drawings, design sketches or signed documents between distant locations such as an office and factory. This article is about the fuel brand. ... A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... A transceiver is a device that has a transmitter and receiver which is combined into a one unit. ... The Novation CAT acoustically coupled modem In telecommunications, the term acoustic coupler has the following meanings: An interface device for coupling electrical signals by acoustical means--usually into and out of a telephone instrument. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ...


In 1985, Dr. Hank Magnuski, founder of GammaLink, produced the first computer fax board, called GammaFax. This article is about the year. ... Prior to founding NCast, Dr. Hank Magnuski was cofounder and CEO of GammaLink. ... GammaLink Inc. ... The first computer fax board, GammaFax, was produced in 1985 by GammaLink. ...


See also

Look up fax, facsimile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... 3D Fax was an early Windows program from InfoImaging Technologies. ... The term black fax (also known as a mobius fax) refers to a prank fax transmission, consisting of one or more pages entirely filled with a uniform black tone. ... The Called Subscriber Identification (CSID) is a string that identifies a fax as a recipient. ... Error correction mode (ECM) is an optional transmission mode built into Class 1 fax machines or fax modems. ... T.38 is an ITU recommendation for sending fax messages over IP networks in real time by encapsulating a standard T.30 fax data stream. ... A fax server is a set of software running on a server computer which is equipped with one or more fax-capable modems attached to telephone lines (or, more recently, software modem emulators which use T.38 (Fax over IP) technology to transmit the signal over an IP network). ... Faxlore is a sort of folklore: an urban legend that is circulated, not by word of mouth, but by fax machine. ... A Fultograph image. ... Junk faxes are unsolicited advertising via fax transmission. ... The telautograph is an analog precursor to the modern fax machine. ... The Transmitting Subscriber Identification (TSID) is a string that identifies a fax as a sender. ...

External links

  • A Brief History of Facsimile, at HFFAX wireless facsimile site
  • The historical evolution of Fax, at technikum29, museum of calculator, computer and communication technology
  • World's First Color Fax Machine, article "Tune in a Painting" in 1947 Popular Science
  • How Does a fax work?
  • Group 3 Facsimile Communication a '97 essay with technical details on compression and error codes, and call establishment and release.
  • Scanning & faxing dpi question
  • List for free internet fax service around the world

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fax Services (831 words)
Fax - Fax's fax auto delivery service allows a single copy or multiple copies of faxes to be distributed automatically to email accounts or other fax machines.
Fax - Fax's email to fax or data to fax service is the process of receiving email or other electronic data, converting it to a viewable file on your PC and delivering the information via fax service.
Fax - Fax's automated fax to email will receive all your faxes on a toll or toll free number and auto-convert these faxes to a.tiff/.tif file (which the default Windows viewer can open) and enclose them in the fax email or multiple fax email addresses.
Through the Wires: Fax Machine (900 words)
A fax means basically scanning a page to make an electronic representation of its text or graphics, compresses the data to save transmission time, and transmits it to another facsimile machine.
For several years, the fax machine was expensive and difficult to operate; perhaps explaining why it was never used much by businesses prior to the 1980’s.
The essential parts of a fax system are the transmitting devices that translate the graphic material into electrical impulses according to a set pattern, and a synchronized receiving device that retranslates these impulses and prints that.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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