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Vidigal (favela), a Rio de Janeiro favela. The tall building to the right is the Sheraton Rio luxury hotel.
Vidigal (favela), a Rio de Janeiro favela. The tall building to the right is the Sheraton Rio luxury hotel.

A favela is the Brazilian equivalent of a shanty town. Mostly, they have electricity, but in most cases it is illegally tapped from the public grid. Favelas are constructed from a variety of materials, ranging from bricks to garbage. Many favelas are very close and very cramped. They are plagued by sewage, crime and hygiene problems. Although many of the most infamous are located in Rio de Janeiro, there are favelas in almost every large or even mid-sized Brazilian town. In Rio one in every four cariocas (as Rio's inhabitants are called) lives in a favela.[1] As a general rule, Brazilian cities do not recognize the existence of favelas as a legal entity. The name originates from a species of plant with thorny leaves that grows in the semi-arid North-East region. Refugees and former soldiers involved in the Canudos Civil War (1895-1896) in Bahia would eventually settle on unreclaimed public land on a hill in Rio de Janeiro called Morro da Providência, because the government failed to provide any housing for them. The former soldiers named their new settlement Morro da Favela after the plant which had thrived at the site of a famous victory against the rebels.[2] Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Shanty town in Manila, Philippines. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Northern Bahia, showing the location of Canudos The War of Canudos was a conflict between the state of Brazil and a group of some 30,000 settlers who had founded their own community in the northeastern state of Bahia, named Canudos. ... Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ...


Over the years, many freed black slaves moved in, contributing to its current state of poverty by replacing refugees as the major ethnic group. However, long before the first settlement called "favela" came into being, poor blacks were pushed away from downtown into the far suburbs. Favelas were handy for them because they allowed them to be close to work, while keeping away from where they were not welcome. The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout human history. ...


A favela is fundamentally different from a slum or tenement, primarily in terms of its origin and location. While slum quarters in other Latin American countries generally form when poorer residents from the countryside come to larger cities in search of work, and while this also occurs to some extent with favelas, the latter are unique in that they were chiefly created as large populations became displaced. Favelas differ from ghettos such as those in the United States in that they are racially mixed, even though blacks make up the majority of the population - that is, in Brazil it is chiefly economic forces, rather than ethnic or cultural issues, that drive people there. Although favelas were first mostly made up of most Afro-Brazilians they slowly began to consist of many European immigrants arriving in the 19th century.[3] Another important distinction is that, in a typical favela, there is a peculiar form of social life that diverges from mainstream culture. Such a state of things was recognized as early as 1940.[citation needed] Slums in Delhi, India. ... Categories: Stub | House types ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Shanty towns are units of irregular self-constructed housing that are unlicensed and occupied illegally. They are usually on lands belonging to third parties, and are most often located on the urban periphery. Shanty town residences are built randomly, although ad hoc networks of stairways, sidewalks, and simple tracks allow passage through them. Most favelas are inaccessible by vehicle, due to their narrow and irregular streets and walkways and often steep inclines.


These areas of irregular and poor-quality housing are often crowded onto hillsides, and as a result, these areas suffer from frequent landslides during heavy rain. In recent decades, favelas have been troubled by drug-related crime and gang warfare. There are often common social codes in some favelas which forbid residents from engaging in criminal activity inside their own favela. Favelas are often considered a disgrace and an eyesore for local people within Brazil.[citation needed] This entry refers to the geological term landslide. ... DEA Operation Mallorca, 2005 Drug deal Illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways. ... Mara Salvatrucha suspect bearing gang tattoos is handcuffed. ...

Contents

History

Precarious houses in the favela of Complexo do Alemão in Rio de Janeiro.
Precarious houses in the favela of Complexo do Alemão in Rio de Janeiro.

It is generally agreed upon that the first favela was created in November 1897 when 20,000 veteran soldiers were brought to Rio de Janeiro and left with no place to live.[4] Some of the older favelas were originally started as quilombos (independent settlements of fugitive African slaves) among the hilly terrain of the area surrounding Rio, which later grew as slaves were liberated in 1888 with no place to live. The favelas were formed prior to the dense occupation of cities and the domination of real estate interests.[5] The housing crisis of the 1940s forced the urban poor to erect hundreds of shantytowns in the suburbs, when favelas replaced tenements as the main type of residence for destitute cariocas (residents of Rio). The explosive era of favela growth dates from the 1940s, when Getúlio Vargas's industrialization drive pulled hundreds of thousands of migrants into the Federal District, until 1970, when shantytowns expanded beyond urban Rio and into the metropolitan periphery.[6] Most of the current favelas began in the 1970s, as a construction boom in the richer neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro initiated a rural exodus of workers from poorer states in Brazil. Heavy flooding in the low-lying slum areas of Rio also forcibly removed a large population into favelas, which are mostly located on Rio's various hillsides. Since favelas have been created under different terms but with similar end results, the term favela has become generally interchangeable with any impoverished areas. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Complexo do Alemão (Portuguese for German complex) is a group of favelas in northern Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Former crewmembers of the battleship Missouri pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony, held aboard the famous ship. ... A quilombo (from the Kimbundu word kilombo) is a Brazilian hinterland settlement founded by Quilombolas, or Maroons and, sometimes, a minority of marginalised Portuguese, Brazilian aboriginals, and/or other non-black, non-slave Brazilians. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (pron. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Rural exodus is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of agriculture. ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ...


Public Policy towards Favelas

The explosive growth of favelas triggered government removal campaigns. A program in the 1940s called Parque Proletário destroyed the original homes of favelados in Rio and relocated them to temporary housing as they waited for the building of public housing.[7] Eventually little public housing was built and the land that was cleared for it just become reoccupied with new settlements of favelados. In 1955, Dom Hélder Câmara, Archbishop of Recife and Auxiliary Bishop of Rio de Janeiro, launched the Cruzada São Sebastião (St. Sebastian's Crusade), a federally financed project to build an apartment complex in the largest favela at the time, Praia do Pinto. The goal of the Cruzada was to transform favela dwellers into more acceptable citizens by only housing those willing to give up the vices associated with favela life. Only two such projects ever became fully functional, one in Praia do Pinto and the other in the favela of Rádio Nacional in Parada de Lucas[8] Removal programs of the favelas flourished once again in the 1970s under the military dictatorship, disguised as a government housing program for the poor. What really happened was that more favelas were eliminated and its residents were displaced to urban territory lacking basic infrastructure.[9] the idea was to eliminate the physical existence of favelas by taking advantage of the cheaper prices of suburban land. The favela eradication program became paralyzed eventually because of the resistance of those who were supposed to benefit from the program and a distribution of income did not permit the poor to assume the economic burden of public housing that was placed on them.[10] DONT DO DRUGS NICK TAT IS GAY BAHAHAHA CAMARAS ARE EVILE and now there is a camera watcehing u MWhahahahahaha ... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km² (84. ...


Formation of Favela Society

The people who live in favelas are known as favelados. As previously stated, the original favelados were of African descent, and Black Brazilians still make up the majority. However, with the influx of service and manufacturing jobs during the late 19th century in the core of Brazil's major cities, European immigrants and poor white Brazilians settled in the favelas as well. This new influx of people diversified the face of the favelado. This altered image of the favelado broadened the inequalities and discrimination associated with the favelas from simply racial inequality and discrimination to economic.[11]
Favelas are associated with immense poverty. Brazil's favelas can be seen as the result of the unequal distribution of wealth in the country. Brazil is one of the most economically unequal countries in the world with the top 10 percent of its population earning 50 percent of the national income and about 34 percent of all people living below the poverty line. The Brazilian government has made several attempts in the 20th century to improve the nation's problem of urban poverty. One way was by the eradication of the Favelas and favelados that occurred during the 1970s while Brazil was under military governance. These favela eradication programs forcibly removed over 100,000 residents and placed them in public housing projects or back to the rural areas that many emigrated from.[12] Another attempt to deal with urban poverty came by way of gentrification. The government sought to upgrade the favelas and integrate them into the inner city with the newly urbanized upper-middle class. As these "upgraded favelas" became more stable, they began to attract members of the lower-middle class pushing the former favelados onto the streets or outside of the urban center and into the suburbs further away from opportunity and economic advancement. For example: in Rio de Janeiro, the vast majority of the homeless population is black, and part of that can be attributed to favela gentrification and displacement of those in extreme poverty.[13] Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ...


Drugs and the Favela

Police presence in a favela
Police presence in a favela

The Colombian cocaine trade has impacted Brazil and in turn its favelas, which tend to be ruled by druglords. Regular shoot-outs between traffickers and police and other criminals, as well as assorted illegal activities, lead to murder rates in excess of 40 per 100,000 inhabitants in the city of Rio and much higher rates in some Rio favelas.[14] Traffickers ensure that individual residents believe they can guarantee their own safety through their actions and political connections to them. They do this by maintaining order in the favela and giving and receiving reciprocity and respect, thus creating an environment in which critical segments of the local population feel safe despite continuing high levels of violence. Image File history File links Bopeoper. ... Image File history File links Bopeoper. ...


Drug use is highly concentrated in these areas run by local gangs in each highly populated favela. Drug sales and use run rampant at night when many Favelas host their own baile, or dance party, where many different social classes can be found. These drug sales make up "a business that in some of the occupied areas rakes in as much as US$ 150 million per month, according to official estimates released by the Rio media."[15]


The Future of the Favelas

Since Brazil returned to democratic rule in the late 1980s a new attitude toward the favelas began to evolve. Urban planners today work with sociologists and activists on project Favela Bairro ("slum neighborhood"), which began in the 1990s. Rather than flattening slum settlements and forcing the inhabitants into public housing projects, under Favela Bairro the city is trying to improve living standards by upgrading the basic infrastructure, as well as providing basic social services. Slum dwellers are no longer treated as outcasts, and not all are gangsters or involved in the drug industry. The project's goal is to turn them into proud citizens of a safe and stable community.


As of 2005 under project Favela Bairro, $600 million has been committed to building parks and streets and establishing public works in 120 of the over 400 slums throughout Rio. Services previously difficult if not impossible to obtain--such as running drinking water, electricity, garbage removal, day care centers, and counseling for domestic violence, sexual abuse, teenage pregnancy, and drug and alcohol addiction--will be made accessible to the poor. Prices have risen almost 30 percent in the neighborhoods of some slums, particularly those with stunning views of the city. Businesses are mushrooming, some doubling since the project began[16]


Extant favelas

The best-known favelas are those in and around Rio de Janeiro, possibly because Rio's peculiar urban geography has placed many of them up the hills that face the city's prosperous seaside neighbourhoods and tourist spots, and thus made them readily visible. They provide a dramatic illustration of the gap between poverty and wealth, positioned side-by-side with the luxurious apartment buildings and mansions of Rio's social elite. Several hills in Rio are densely populated by favelas. In 2004, it was estimated that 19% of Rio's population lived within favelas. Rocinha, Pavão-Pavãozinho, Parada de Lucas, Maré and Turano are some of the most famous of Rio's favelas. For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... Vidigal, a favela similar to Rocinha Rocinha (literally, Portuguese for small ranch) is a favela located within the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, between the districts of São Conrado and Gávea. ...


Cidade de Deus (City of God), made famous in the 2002 film of the same name, is technically not a real favela, since it was originally a government-sponsored housing community designed to replace a favela, which subsequently ran down and took on many of the very social features of favelas it was intended to eradicate. Two run-down condominiums in the otherwise affluent Leblon district of Rio de Janeiro (very near Rocinha) are often sarcastically called favelas by locals. However, they are true condominiums, master-planned on deeded land with city utilities, owned individually by unit and managed by associations of their occupants. One, at the front gates of PUC-Rio, was actually built by the government. The other one, south of the horse track and soccer stadium, was donated to individual favela inhabitants by a wealthy benefactor. Cidade de Deus (City of God), is the name of a slum located in the district of Jacarepaguá, west zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... There are two meanings of condominium In international law, a condominium is a territory in which two sovereign powers have equal rights. ... Leblon Leblon (named after a French plantation owner, Le Blond, who owned this area) is an affluent neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, just west of Ipanema, another neighborhood in that city. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Vidigal, a favela similar to Rocinha Rocinha (literally, Portuguese for small ranch) is a favela located within the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, between the districts of São Conrado and Gávea. ... // Overview Cardeal Leme building The Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio) is a private non-profit Pontifical University. ...


Depiction in popular culture

A 1963 documentary, fish need to learn how to swim, marked the film debut of Gordon Parks. Gordon Parks at Civil Rights March on Washington, 1963. ...


In his 2006 book, Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World, Robert Neuwirth reports on the time he spent in the favelas as well as in squatter settlements in other parts of the world. He focuses on some of the positive aspects of life in these places and argues that many of the problems in these communities stem not from the fact that they are poor or illegal but from the way they are viewed by authorities. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Neuwirth is an American journalist and author. ...


The 2002 film City of God placed a spotlight on favelas, chronicling the cycle of poverty, violence, and despair in a Rio de Janeiro slum (although arguably Cidade de Deus does not meet the strict definition of a favela). The documentary Bus 174, also released in 2002, placed a focus on the poor conditions of favelas and their instigation of social stigmatization and street crime. Also see: 2002 (number). ... Movie poster of City of God Douglas Silva City of God (in Portuguese Cidade de Deus) is a Brazilian movie, released in its home country in 2002 and worldwide in 2003. ... Cidade de Deus (City of God), is the name of a slum located in the district of Jacarepaguá, west zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... Bus 174 (Portuguese, Ônibus 174) is a brazilian documentary film released on October 22, 2002. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The 2005 documentary, Favela Rising, directed by Jeff Zimbalist, has won several awards for its daring look at life in Brazil's slums. The film focuses on the work of Anderson Sá, a former drug trafficker who establishes the music group Afro Reggae. This group aims at using music and education to better the lives of youth and prevent further growth of gangs. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jeffrey Leib Nettler Zimbalist (born August 15th, 1978 in Northampton, MA) is an American documentary filmmaker. ...


The 2007 film Tropa de Elite (Elite Squad) shows the Brazilian elite force BOPE fighting against the druglord of the favela Babilônia, in 1997. The favela must be "cleaned" because Pope John Paul II would stay at the nearby Rio Archbishop's Residence during his visit to Rio de Janeiro. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Tropa de Elite (English working title: Elite Squad) is a Brazilian film released on October 5, 2007. ... BOPE (Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais, or Special Police Operations Battalion), is the elite group of the Military Police of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


The Brazilian television series City of Men takes place in a favela. City of Men (in Portuguese: Cidade dos Homens) was a Brazilian television program from Kátia Lund and Fernando Meirelles, the directors of the film City of God. ...


The skateboarding video game Tony Hawk's Downhill Jam has a skate course in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. Tony Hawk’s Downhill Jam is a video game based on the Tony Hawk series. ...


One of the levels in the PC game Counter-Strike (not included with the original game and available as a separate download) takes place in a Rio de Janeiro favela. Counter-Strike (CS) is a popular team-based mod of Valves first-person shooter (FPS) Half-Life. ...


The 2000 film BMW Vermelho gives an interesting insight into the economic and cultural aspects of living in a Favela from a comedic perspective when a Favela resident wins a BMW that he can neither use nor sell. http://posters.imdb.com/title/tt0275950/


In the game SOCOM II one of the areas of operation is in a Rio de Janeiro favela.

Panoramic view of the Favela da Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro.
Panoramic view of the Favela da Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2600x513, 1232 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rio de Janeiro Favela Rocinha ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2600x513, 1232 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rio de Janeiro Favela Rocinha ... Vidigal, a favela similar to Rocinha Rocinha (literally, Portuguese for small ranch) is a favela located within the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, between the districts of São Conrado and Gávea. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...

See also

Favelas For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... Cortiço is a Portuguese term commonly used in Brazil and Portugal to describe an area of urban housing where many people live in conditions of poor hygiene and poverty. ... Homes in a villa miseria in Rosario. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Colonias, as used along the U.S.-Mexican border, refer to rural, unincorporated settlements which often lack basic infrastructure and which are marked by poverty. ... Look up barrios in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... View of Kibera Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya is the largest slum in Africa with a population of perhaps one million. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Children in a township near Cape Town in 1989 In South Africa, the term township usually refers to the (often underdeveloped) urban residential areas that, under Apartheid, were reserved for non-whites (principally black Africans and Coloureds, who were put into separate townships or locations) who lived near or worked...

This is a list of favelas in Brazil. ... Heliópolis is a suburb in of São Paulo City, Brazil. ... Vidigal, a favela similar to Rocinha Rocinha (literally, Portuguese for small ranch) is a favela located within the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, between the districts of São Conrado and Gávea. ...

External links

Vidigal, a favela similar to Rocinha Rocinha (literally, Portuguese for small ranch) is a favela located within the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, between the districts of São Conrado and Gávea. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region State Minas Gerais Founded 1901 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ...

References

  1. ^ RIO DE JANEIRO: Microcosm of the Future. By: Foek, Anton. Humanist, Jul/Aug2005, Vol. 65 Issue 4, p31-34, 4p.
  2. ^ Neuwirth, R (2004) Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World, Routledge ISBN 0415933196
  3. ^ Ney dos Santos Oliveira.,"Favelas and Ghettos: race and Class in Rio de Janeiro and New York City., Latin American, vol 23 no. 4 Perspectives
  4. ^ Favelas commemorate 100 years - accessed December 25 2006
  5. ^ Ney dos Santos Oliveira., "Favelas and Ghettos:race and Class in Rio de Janeiro and New York City"
  6. ^ Pino, Julio Cesar. Sources on the history of favelas in Brazil.
  7. ^ Ney dos Santos Oliveira., "Favelas and Ghettos: race and Class in Rio de Janeiro and New York City"
  8. ^ Pino, Julio Cesar. Sources on the History of favelas in Brazil.
  9. ^ Ney dos Santos Oliveira., "Favelas and Ghettos:race and Class in Rio de Janeiro and New York City"
  10. ^ Housing Policy, Urban Poverty, and the State:The Favelas of Rio de Janeiro 1972-1976]
  11. ^ Oliveira, Ney dos Santos.1996.Favelas and Ghettos: Race and Class in Rio de Janeiro and New York City.Latin American Perspectives 23:75.
  12. ^ Perlman, Janice E,.2006.The Metamorphosis of Marginality: Four Generations in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.606 Annals 154:2
  13. ^ Oliveira, Ney dos Santos.1996.Favelas and Ghettos: Race and Class in Rio de Janeiro and New York City.Latin American Perspectives 23:82.
  14. ^ The Myth of Personal Security: Criminal Gangs, Dispute Resolution, and Identity in Rio de Janeiro's Favelas. By: Arias, Enrique Desmond; Rodrigues, Corinne Davis. Latin American Politics & Society, Winter2006, Vol. 48 Issue 4, p53-81, 29p.
  15. ^ [http://www.brazzilmag.com/content/view/5790/54/ Brazil - Brazzil Mag - Brazilian Army Caves in to Favela's Drug Dealers

  Results from FactBites:
 
Favela - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1142 words)
A favela is fundamentally different from a slum or tenement, primarily in terms of its origin and location.
Most of the current favelas began in the 1970s, as a construction boom in the richer neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro initiated a rural exodus of workers from poorer states in Brazil.
The best-known favelas are those in and around Rio de Janeiro, where they provide a dramatic illustration of the gap between poverty and wealth, positioned side-by-side with the luxurious apartment buildings and mansions of Rio's elite.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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