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Encyclopedia > Faustin Soulouque
Portrait of Faustin Soulouque 1782-1867
Portrait of Faustin Soulouque
1782-1867

Faustin-Élie Soulouque (1782? - August 6, 1867) was a career officer and general in the Haitian army. He was made President of Haiti on March 1, 1847. On April 18, 1852 he was crowned Emperor of Haiti under the name of Faustin I. He was forced to abdicate by revolutionaries on January 15, 1859. Image File history File links Souloque. ... Image File history File links Souloque. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...

Contents


Early Years & Military Career

Born in Petit-Goâve in 1782 as Faustin-Élie Soulouque, he was one of two sons born to Marie-Catherine Soulouque. He was freed by his owner Felicite Sonthonax on August 29, 1793. As a free citizen he enlisted in the black revolutionary army and fought as a private during the Haitian War of Independence between 1803-1804. During the conflict Soulouque became a respected soldier and as a consequence in 1806 he was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Army of Haiti and made Aide de Camp to General Lamarre. In 1810 he was appointed to the Horse Guards under President Petion. During the next four decades he continued to serve in the Haitian Military, rising to the rank of Colonel under President Guerier, until finally promoted to the highest command in the Haitian Army, attaining the rank of Lieutenant General and Supreme Commander of the Presidential Guards under then President Riche. 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


President of Haiti

In 1847 President Riche died. During his tenure he had acted as a figure head for the Boyerist ruling class, who immediately began to look for a replacement. Their attention quickly focused on Faustin Soulouque, whom the majority considered to be a somewhat dull and ignorant man. At 65 he seemed to be a malleable candidate and was subsequently enticed to accept the role offered him, taking the Presidential Oath of Office on March 2, 1847. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Empire

Faustin I Emperor of Haiti 1849-1859The Illustrated London News, February 16, 1856
Faustin I
Emperor of Haiti 1849-1859
The Illustrated London News, February 16, 1856

At first Faustin seemed to fill the role of puppet well. He retained the cabinet level ministers of the former president, and continued the programs of his predecessor. Within a short time however, he overthrew his backers and made himself absolute ruler of the state. Supported by a gang of highly loyal militia known as "zinglins", Soulouque continued to consolidate his power over the government, a process which culminated in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies proclaiming him Emperor of Haiti on August 26, 1849. In December of 1849 Faustin married his long time companion Adélina. On April 18, 1852 at the capital Port-au-Prince, both emperor and empress were crowned in an immense and lavish ceremony, in emulation of the coronation of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. During his subsequent reign, Faustin attempted to create a strong centralized government, which while retaining a profoundly Haitian character, borrowed heavily from European traditions, especially those of the First French Empire. One of his first acts after being declared emperor was to established a Haitian nobility. By September 1850, Faustin had granted Letters Patent creating 4 Princes of the Empire, 59 Dukes, 2 Marquis, 99 Counts, 215 Barons, and scores of Hereditary Chevaliers and lesser nobles. In order that he might reward loyalty to his regime as well as add to the prestige of the Haitian Monarchy, on September 21, 1849 he established the Military Order of St Faustin and the Civil Order of the Haitian Legion of Honor. Later, in 1856 he created the Orders of St. Mary Magdalene and the Order of St. Anne. That same year he founded the Imperial Academy of Arts. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (485x760, 310 KB)http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (485x760, 310 KB)http://www. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... September is the ninth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with 30 days. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Faustin's foreign policy was centered on preventing foreign intrusion into Haitian politics and sovereignty. The independence of the Dominican Republic (then called Santo Domingo) from Haiti was, in his view, a direct threat to that security. Faustin launched three invasions into Dominican territory with the objective of seizing the eastern half of the island and annexing it to Haiti. However, each of the attempts ended in defeat for the Haitian Army.


During his reign Faustin also found himself in direct confrontation with the United States over Navassa Island which the U.S. had seized on the somewhat dubious grounds that guano had been discovered there. Navassa Island Navassa Island is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


Exile in Jamaica & Death

In 1859 a revolution led by Fabre Geffrard, succeeded in defeating Faustin's Imperial Army and forced the emperor to abdicate his throne on January 15, 1859. Refused aid by the French Legation, Faustin was taken into exile aboard a British warship on January 22, 1859. Soon afterwards, the emperor and his family arrived in Jamaica. Allowed to return to Haiti, Faustin died at Petit-Goâve on August 6, 1867 and was buried at Fort Soulouque. 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Imperial Family

Faustin's marriage to Adélina produced one daughter, Princess Célita Soulouque, who had no issue. The emperor had one brother Prince Jean-Joseph Soulouque. Who in turn had eleven sons and daughters. The eldest son, Prince Mainville-Joseph Soulouque, was created Prince Imperial of Haiti and heir apparent to the throne.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Soulouque, (1019 words)
An illiterate former slave, he became president in 1847 and then declared himself emperor as Faustin I. His reign was corrupt, sanguinary, and terror-ridden; his court was a caricature of Napoleon's.
While recounting the history of Petit Goave, which in 1867 was the home to Emperor Faustin Soulouque and served as the capital when the island was one nation called Saint-Dominque, the President extended his condolences to...
As Trollope was sailing towards Kingston from Cuba, the deposed Haitian emperor Faustin Soulouque was being ferried to the Jamaican capital on a British steamer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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