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Encyclopedia > Fatimah

Part of a series on Islam Fatima, or, in a more exact transliterion, Fāţimah (Arabic: فاطمة ), is originally an Arabic name, meaning She who weans, being the name of the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad; after the advent of Islam it became a common Muslim name for women. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Fatimah
Daughter of Muhammad Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Views: Death year in parentheses. ... For the Lost character, please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid () (plural Saadah) is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in... The Book of Fatimah, Mushaf of Fatimah or Fatimahs Mushaf is according to Shias tradition, a book written by Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammad. ... Hand of Fatima used as a pendant The symbol or design known in Islamic societies as the Hand of Fatima and in Jewish lore as the Hand of Miriam, or in both as Khamsa, from the Hebrew and Arabic words for five, serves as an ancient talismanic way of averting... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Fadak (Arabic: فدك) was a tract of land in Khaybar, an oasis in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Some Shia and Sunni sources narrated that during the Succession to Muhammad, when Abu Bakr sent a group of people headed by Khalid ibn Walid and Umar at Fatimahs house. ...

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Fatimah (Arabic: فاطمة‎; fāṭimah c. 605[1] or 615[2]632) was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadija.[1] She is regarded by Muslims as an exemplar for men and women.[3][4] She remained at her father's side through the difficulties suffered by him at the hands of the Quraysh of Mecca. After migration to Medina, she married Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin, and was mother to four of his children. She died a few months after her father, and was buried in Jannat al-Baqi in the city of Medina, though the exact location of her grave is unknown. Most Shias believe that she was injured when defending Ali against the first Khalifa that this incident lead to her death in her very young age.[5] Arabic redirects here. ... Events Aj Ne Ohl Mat becomes ruler of Palenque As a result of quarrel between Numan III, the Lakhmid ruler, and the Persian Chosroes the Persian border with Arabia is no long guarded. ... Events The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Khadija (Arabic: خديجه ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


She seems to have performed only three acts of political significance, each recorded in almost all sources, both Sunni and Shia, though in different versions. First, after the conquest of Mecca she refused her protection to Abu Sufyan; second, after the death of the Prophet she defended Ali's cause, opposed the election of Abu Bakr, and had violent disputes with him and particularly with Umar; third, she laid claim to the property rights of her father and challenged Abu Bakr's categorical refusal to cede them, particularly Fadak and a share in the produce of Khaybar.[6] Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Fadak (Arabic: فدك) was a tract of land in Khaybar, an oasis in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. ... Ruins of a Jewish Fortress at Khaybar Khaybar (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some 95 miles to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia. ...

Contents

Birth

See also: Genealogy of Khadijah's daughters

Fatima Al-Zahraa / Fatimah bint Muhammad (c. 605–632), the daughter of Muhammad, was born in Mecca to Khadija, the first wife of Muhammad. There are differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth, but the widely accepted view is that she was born five years before the first Qur'anic revelations, during the time of the rebuilding of the Kaaba in 605,[7][8] although this does imply she was over 18 at the time of her marriage which was unusual in Arabia.[5] Shia sources, however, state that she was born either two or five years after the first Qur'anic revelations,[9] but this timeline would imply her mother was over fifty at the time of her birth.[5] Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, had six children. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Khadija (Arabic: خديجه ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Wahy is the Arabic word for revelation. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ...


Fatimah is generally placed as the fourth of Muhammad's daughters after Zaynab, Ruqayya, and Umm Kulthum.[5] According to some Shi'a scholars, Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter.[10] this is a sahaba of Muhammad She is the daghter of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, however, it is disputed if she is the daghter of Muhammad or Khadijahs assumed previous husband. ... Ruqayyah is viewed as the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid by some Sunnis and some Shia but some Shia and non-Muslim argue she is the daughter of Khadijahs assumed previous husband (see Genealogy of Khadijas daughters). ... Daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ...


Titles

Arabic calligraphy reading Fatimah az-Zahra.
Arabic calligraphy reading Fatimah az-Zahra.
See also: List of Shi'a titles for Fatima Zahra

Fatimah is given many titles by Muslims to show their admiration of her moral and physical characteristics. The most used title is "az-Zahra" (meaning "the shining one") and she is commonly referred to as Fatimah Zahra.[11][12] She was also known as Umm-ul-Abeeha (Mother of her Father) and "al-Batul" (the chaste and pure one) as she spent much of her time in prayer, reciting the Qur'an and in other acts of worship.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Muslims express their love and devotion to pivotal figures in Islamic history by giving these figures titles. ... Salat redirects here. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... In Arabic, Ibadah means obedience, submission, and humility. ...


Muslims regard Fatimah as a loving and devoted daughter, mother, wife, a sincere Muslim, and an exemplar for women.[3][13] It is believed that she was very close to her father and her distinction from other women is mentioned in many hadith.[14] After Khadijah, Muslims regard Fatimah as the most significant historical figure, considered to be the leader(Arabic: Sayyedih) of all women in this world and in Paradise.[15][16][17] It is because of her moral purity that she occupies an analogous position in Islam to that Mary occupies in Christianity. She was the only wife of Ali, who was the fourth caliph and whom Shias consider the first infallible Imam, the mother of the second and third Imams, and the ancestor of all the succeeding Imams; indeed, the Fatimid dynasty is named after her.[18] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Arabic مريم (Maryam); Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Geez: ማሪያም, Māryām; Syriac: Mart, Maryam, Madonna), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Saint Joseph (cf. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


Early life

Following the birth of Fatimah, she was personally nursed by her mother contrary to local customs where the newborn were sent to "wet nurses" in surrounding villages.[19] She spent her early youth under the care of her parents in Mecca in the shadow of the tribulations suffered by her father at the hands of the Quraysh.[5]


According to tradition, on one occasion while Muhammad was performing the salah (prayer) in the Kaaba, Abu Jahl and his men poured Camel placenta over him. Fatimah upon hearing the news rushed to her father and wiped away the filth while scolding the men.[20][5] On another occasion, she passed by Abu Jahl on the street who slapped her across the face. She went to Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Quraish and complained about Abu Jahl's behaviour. Abu Sufyan brought her to Abu Jahl and instructed her to slap him back which she did. When she narrated this incident to Muhammad, he had expressed satisfaction at Abu Sufyan's sense of justice.[21] Salat redirects here. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Religion stubs ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ...


Following the death of her mother, Fatimah was overcome by sorrow and found it very difficult to come to terms with her death. She was consoled by her father who informed her that he had received word from angel Gabriel that God had built for her a palace in paradise.[5] This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ...


Marriage

Many of Muhammad's companions asked for Fatimah's hand in marriage including Abu Bakr and Umar. Muhammad turned them all down saying that he was awaiting a sign of her destiny.[5] Ali ibn Abu Talib, Muhammad's cousin, also had a desire to marry Fatimah but did not have the courage to approach Muhammad due to his poverty. Even when he mustered up the courage and went to see Muhammad, he could not vocalise his intention but remained silent. Muhammad understood the reason for his being there and prompted Ali to confirm that he had come to seek Fatimah in marriage. He suggested that Ali had a shield, which if sold, would provide sufficient money to pay the bridal gift (mahr).[1] Muhammad put forward the proposal from Ali to Fatimah who remained silent and did not protest which Muhammad took to be a sign of affirmation and consent.[5][22] Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ...


The actual date of the marriage is unclear, but it most likely took place in 623, the second year of the hijra, although some sources say it was in 622. Fatimah is reported to have been between the ages of 9 and 19 at the time of her marriage while Ali was between 21 and 25.[1][23] Muhammad told Ali that he had been ordered by God to give his daughter Fatimah Zahra to Ali in marriage.[24] Muhammad said to Fatima: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me." [25] Ali sold his shield to raise the money needed for the wedding, as suggested by Muhammad.[5] However, Uthman, to whom the shield was sold, returned it back to Ali saying it was his wedding gift to Ali and Fatimah.[11] Muhammad himself performed the wedding ceremony and two of his wives, Aisha and Umm Salama, prepared the wedding feast with dates, figs, sheep and other food donated by various members of the Medinan community.[5] According to Seyyed Hussein Nasr, their marriage possesses a special spiritual significance for all Muslims because it is seen as the marriage between the greatest saintly figures surrounding Muhammad.[24] For other uses, see Hijra. ... Fāţimah Zahrā’ also called Faatemah Az-Zahraa (Arabic: ) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... Hind bint Abi Umayya (c. ...


Their marriage lasted about ten years and ended when Fatima died. Although polygyny was permitted, Ali did not marry another woman while Fatimah was alive.[24] Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ...


Descendants

See also: Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib

Fatimah was survived by two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum.[5] Controversy surrounds the fate of her third son, Muhsin. Shias say that she miscarried following an attack on her house by Abu Bakr and Umar,[26] while Sunnis insist that Muhsin died in his infancy of natural causes.[27] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي) was the daughter of the first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima Zahra (the Islamic Prophet Mohammed’s daughter). ... Umm Kulthum bint Ali (Arabic: أم كلثوم بنت على ) was the fourth child of Ali ibn Abu Talib (the first Shi’a Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (the daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad). ... Al Muhsin or Mohsin, in Shia belief, was the unborn child of Fatima Al Zahra, the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


Modern descendants of Muhammad trace their lineage exclusively through Fatimah, as she was the only surviving child of Muhammad. Muhammad had no sons who reached adulthood.[28]


Fatimah's descendants are given the honorific titles sharif (meaning noble), sayyid (meaning lord or sir) and respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'as place much more emphasis and value on the distinction.[29] [30] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... For the Lost character, please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid () (plural Saadah) is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in...


Life before the death of Muhammad

Poverty

After her marriage to Ali, the wedded couple led a life of abject poverty in contrast to her sisters who were all married to wealthy individuals.[11] Ali had built a house not too far from Muhammad's residence where he lived with Fatimah. However, due to Fatimah's desire to be closer to her father, a Medinan (Haritha bin al-Numan) donated his own house to them.


At the beginning they were extremely poor. For several years after her marriage, she did all of the work by herself. The shoulder on which she carried pitchers of water from the well was swollen and the hand with which she worked the handmill to grin corn where often covered with blisters.[31] Fatima vouched to take care of the household work, make dough, bake bread, and clean the house; in return, Ali vouched to take care of the outside work (such as) gathering firewood, and bringing food.[32] Ali worked to irrigate other peoples lands by drawing water from the wells which caused him to complain of chest pains.[11] Their circumstances were akin to many of the Muslims at the time and only improved following the Battle of Khaybar when the produce of Khaybar was distributed among the poor. When the economic situations of Muslims become better, Fatimah gained some maids but treated them like her family and performed the house duties with them.[5] Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... Ruins of a Jewish Fortress at Khaybar Khaybar (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some 95 miles to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia. ...


Another reference to their simple life comes to us from the "Tasbih of Fatima", a divine formula that was first given to Fatima when she asked her father for a kaneez (servant girl) in order to help her with household chores. Her father (Muhammad) asked her if she would like a gift instead that was better than a servant and worth more than everything in the world. Upon her ready agreement, he told her to recite to end every prayer with the Great Exaltation "Allahu Akbar" 34 times, the Statement of Absolute Gratitude "Alhamdu-LilLah" 33 times and the Invocation of Divine Glory "Subhaan Allah" 33 times, totalling 100. This collective prayer is called the Tasbih of Fatima. [33]


Disagreements with Ali

It is reported that Fatimah had occasional disputes with her husband and often sought the intercedence of her father who showed signs of great satisfaction upon reconciling the couples differences. On one occasion, a member of the house of Hisham ibn al-Mughirah proposed that Ali marry a woman from their clan. Ali did not immediately reject the proposal and when word reached Muhammad he is reported to have said, "Fatima is a part of me and whoever offends her offends me." [34] Hisham ibn al-Mughirah was from the Banu Makhzum sub-clan of the Quraish tribe and was also one of Muhammads contemporary. ...


It is also reported that Muhammad re-iterated his affection for Fatimah when he was made aware that Ali had proposed to a daughter of Abu Jahl. From the pulpit Muhammad pronounced, "she is indeed a part of me" and that Ali would have to first divorce Fatimah before the marriage could go ahead. Ali was given the name of Abu Turab (the man of dust) by Muhammad. One of the explanations for this is linked to the disputes with Fatimah where, instead of arguing with Fatimah, Ali would go and put dust on his head.[35] Shia acknowledge the saying of Muhammad, "Fatima is a part of me and whoever offends her offends me", however the context of the reporting in reference to Ali is disputed.[36] Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Religion stubs ... Minbar in the Ortaköy mosque in Istanbul. ...


In the battlefield

Following the Battle of Uhud, Fatimah tended to the wounds of her father and husband, and took it upon herself to regularly visit the graves of all those who died in the battle and pray for them. Fatimah, along with her husband, was also called upon by Abu Sufyan to intercede on his behalf with Muhammad while attempting to make amends following the violation of the Treaty of Hudaybiyya. Abu Sufyan also asked for Fatimah's protection when she went to Mecca while it was under occupation which she refused under instruction from her father.[5] Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Treaty of Hudaybiyya (628) In the name of Allah. ...


In the Quran

See also: Ahl al-Bayt

Some verses in the Qur'an are associated to Fatimah and her household by classical exegetes, although she is not mentioned by name. Two of the most important verses include 33:33 and 3:61, J. D. McAuliffe states.[37] In the first verse, the phrase "people of the house" (ahl al-bayt) is ordinarily understood to consist of Muhammad, Fatima, her husband Ali and their two sons (Tabari in his exegesis also mentions a tradition that interprets "people of the house" as Muhammad's wives; for Ibn al-Jawzi, the order of these options is reversed).[37] The second verse refers to an episode in which Muhammad proposed an ordeal of mutual adjuration (mubāhala) to a delegation of Christians. Fatima, according to the "occasion for the revelation" of this verse, was among those offered by Muhammad as witnesses and guarantors.[37] Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (Arabic الطبري, AD 838-AD 923), was an author from Persia. ...


Muslim exegesis of the Qur'anic verse 3:42, links the praise of Mary, the mother of Jesus, with that of Fatima based on a quote attributed to Muhammad that lists the outstanding women of all time as Mary, Asiya (the wife of Pharaoh), Khadija and Fatima (the Shia commentaries insists upon the absolute superiority of Fatima).[37] This article is about the Islamic perspective on Mary. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


Life after the death of Muhammad

Caliphate of Abu Bakr

See also: Umar at Fatimah's house

For the few months that she survived following the death of her father, Fatimah found herself indirectly at the center of political disunity. Differing accounts of the events surrounding the commencement of the caliphate exist which were the cause of the Shia and Sunni split. The majority of Muslims at the time of Muhammed's death favoured Abu Bakr as the Caliph while a portion of the population supported Fatimah's husband, Ali.[5] Fatimah courageously defended Ali's, fiercely opposed the election of Abu Bakr, and had violent disputes with him and particularly with Umar.[6][opinion needs balancing] However, all these events are highly disputed by Sunnis and even some Shia. The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Some Shia and Sunni sources narrated that during the Succession to Muhammad, when Abu Bakr sent a group of people headed by Khalid ibn Walid and Umar at Fatimahs house. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


Following his election to the caliphate after a meeting in Saqifah, Abu Bakr and Umar with a few other companions headed to Fatimah's house to obtain homage from Ali and his supporters who had gathered there. Then Umar threatened to set the house on fire unless they came out and swore allegiance with Abu Bakr. [38] There isn't consensus among the sources about what happened next. Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ...


Shia sources say upon seeing them, Ali came out with his sword drawn but was disarmed by Umar and their companions. Fatimah, in support of her husband, started a commotion and threatened to "uncover her hair", at which Abu Bakr relented and withdrew.[5]


Shia historians hold that Umar called for Ali and his men to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. When they did not, Umar broke in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken by being pressed between the door and the wall causing her to miscarry Muhsin which led to her eventual death.[39] Another version of the events says that Umar sent a force led by his slave-boy Qunfud to Fatimah's house instructing them to bring Ali to the mosque. Arriving at the house, Qunfud requested permission to enter, which was refused by Ali causing Qunfud to return to Abu Bakr and Umar and relate the events, who instructed them to go back and enter the house by force if necessary. Qunfud and his men returned but were this time refused permission by Fatimah which caused Qunfud to send his men back to Abu Bakr and Umar for further instructions who told them to burn the house down if necessary in order to bring Ali to them.[40] The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


Although historians cannot give a precise description of the actual events, and even though the various views have been mixed with legendary accounts, it was undoubtedly a key motivation for the hatred born by the Shias towards Umar and his supporters.[5]


Inheritance

Main article: Fadak

After the death of her father, Fatimah approached Abu Bakr and asked him to relinquish her share of the inheritance from Muhammad's estate. Fatimah expected the land of Fadak (situated 30 miles from Medina[41]) and a share of Khaybar would be passed onto her as part of her inheritance. However, Abu Bakr rejected her request citing a narration where Muhammad stated that prophets do not leave behind inheritance and that all their possessions become sadaqa to be used for charity. Fatimah was upset at this flat refusal by Abu Bakr and did not speak to him until her death ( some Sunni sources claim she had reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr before she died).[5] Shias contend that Fadak had been gifted to Fatimah by Muhammad and Abu Bakr was wrong in not allowing her to take possession of it.[42] Fadak (Arabic: فدك) was a tract of land in Khaybar, an oasis in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. ... Sadaqa is voluntary Islamic charity as opposed to zakat, or obligatory charity. ...


Death

Following the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad summoned Fatimah and informed her that he would be passing away soon but also informed her that she would be the first of his household to join him.[11][5] Some days after this discussion, Muhammad died, following which Fatimah was grief stricken and remained so for the remainder of her life until she died less than five months later, in the month of Ramadhan.[11] It was reported that Fatimah reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr prior to her death although the majority belief affirms her anger with him until her death.[43] This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca and the Succession to Muhammad. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. ...


There are two distinct views on the manner of her death between the Shias and Sunnis. Shias maintain that Fatimah died a while after her house being burnt and the trauma caused by the door opening on her whilst she was pregnant. Muhammad appeared in a dream and informed Fatimah that she would be passing away the next day. Fatimah informed her husband Ali and asked him not to allow those who had done injustice to her, to be involved in her janazah (prayer performed in congregation after the death of a Muslim) or take part in the burial.[44] Salat al-Janazah (Arabic: ) is a prayer recited by Muslims at Islamic funerals after the wrapping of the body and before the procession. ...


The next day when she died, her two sons were the first family members to learn of her death and immediately proceeded to the mosque to inform their father who, upon hearing the news, fell unconscious. When he regained consciousness, Ali, according to Fatimah's wishes, performed the janazah and buried her during the night on 3rd Jumada al-thani 11 AH (632) making out three other false graves to ensure her real grave could not be identified. With him were his family and a few of his close companions.[45] AH may mean: After Hijra, refers to the years after Muhammad made the pilgrimage to Medina; used in the Islamic calendar Allah Hafiz, Islamic Good Bye After Hours, in reference to stock trading Adolf Hitler Afghanistan, WMO country code Air Algérie (IATA airline designator) American History Anno Hegirae, indicating...


The Sunnis, however, state that on the morning of her death, she took a bath, put on new clothes and lay down in bed. She asked for Ali and informed him that her time to die was very close. Upon hearing this news, Ali began to cry but was consoled by Fatimah who asked him to look after her two sons and for him to bury her without ceremony. After her death, Ali followed her wishes and buried her without informing the Medinan people.[11]


You can read the Ziarat of Hazrat Fatimah Tuz Zahara Salam Ulla Alaih by clicking here


For Nohas of Hazrat Fatimah (S.A), Click Here


Views

Shia view

Main article: Shi'a view of Fatimah
See also: The Fourteen Infallibles

Fatimah, regarded as "the Mother of the Imams", plays a special role in Shia piety. She has a unique status as Muhammad's only surviving child, the wife of Ali, their first Imam, and the mother of Hassan and Husain. She is believed to have been immaculate, sinless and a pattern for Muslim women. Although leading a life of poverty, the Shia tradition emphasizes her compassion and sharing of whatever she had with others.[46] This is a sub-article of Fatima Zahra and Shia Islam. ... According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... Infallibility, from Latin origin (in, not + fallere, to deceive), is a term with a variety of meanings related to knowing truth with certainty. ...


According to Mahmoud Ayoub, the two main images of Fatima within the Shia tradition is that of "Eternal Weeper" and "the Judge in the hereafter".[47] According to Shia tradition, the suffering and death of Fatimah was the first tragedy of Islam. She spent her last days mourning at the death of her father. Fatimah eternally weeps at the death of her two sons, who were murdered by the Ummayads. Shias believe they share in Fatimah's suffering by weeping for her sorrows. The tears of the faithful is also believed to console Fatimah.[48] Shias hold that Fatimah will play a redemptive role as the mistress of the day of judgment in the hereafter as a reward for her suffering in this world.[49]


See also

Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... The Book of Fatimah, Mushaf of Fatimah or Fatimahs Mushaf is according to Shias tradition, a book written by Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammad. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... The Islamic prophet Muhammads wife, Khadija, had six children. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d See:
    • Fatimah bint Muhammad. USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts.
    • "Fatimah", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online.
  2. ^ Ordoni (1990) pp.42-45
  3. ^ a b Sahih Bukhari 4:56:819
  4. ^ Fadlallah, chapter three
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Fatima", Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill Online.
  6. ^ a b "Fatema". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved on 2007-10-26. 
  7. ^ Parsa, 2006, pp. 8-14
  8. ^ See:
  9. ^ Ordoni (1990) pp.42-45
  10. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.32
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Fatimah bint Muhammad. USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts.
  12. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.98
  13. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.?
  14. ^ Sahih Bukhari 5:57:111
  15. ^ Sahih Bukhari 4:56:819
  16. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.117
  17. ^ Tahir-ul-Qadri (2006), pp.19-24
  18. ^ Esposito (1999) p.?
  19. ^ Ghadanfar, p?
  20. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.99
  21. ^ Ghadanfar, p?
  22. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.100
  23. ^ Ordoni (1990) pp.42-45
  24. ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein "Ali". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-10-12. 
  25. ^ Fatima Bint Muhammad
  26. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.?
  27. ^ Ghadanfar, p?
  28. ^ Armstrong (1993) p.?
  29. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Ali". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  30. ^ "Sayyid". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-01. 
  31. ^ Ashraf (2005), pp.42-43
  32. ^ Ordoni (1990), p.140
  33. ^ Tasbih-e-Fatima
  34. ^ al-Balād̲h̲urī, Ansāb, i, 403; Tirmid̲h̲ī, ii, 319, etc. From "Fatimah", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online
  35. ^ Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad , Cairo 1313, iv, 326; Buk̲h̲ārī, ed. Krehl, ii, 440, etc From "Fatimah", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online
  36. ^ "Among the many fabricated stories told against Imam Ali was that he had asked for Abu Jahl's (the chief of infidels) daughter's hand in marriage. When this news reached Fatima (A), she rushed to her father who found out the falsity of the story." - Fatima ['a] The Gracious by Abu Muhammad Ordoni Published by: Ansariyan Publications Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran
  37. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Fatima
  38. ^ Madelung, 1997, p. 43
  39. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.?
  40. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.?
  41. ^ Imam Malik's Muwatta, Book 41, Number 41.2.13
  42. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.101
  43. ^ See:
    • "Fatimah", Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill Online;
    • "Fatimah" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 31 Aug. 2007
  44. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.?
  45. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.103
  46. ^ John Esposito (1998) , p.112
  47. ^ Ayoub (1978) , p.40, 19
  48. ^ Ayoub (1978), p.45-46
  49. ^ Ayoub (1978), p.19

link Shia Website HusainiChannel.com The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr (714 - 796) was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in the Sunni sect of Islam. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ...


References

Books and jourals
  • Al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih Bukhari, Book 4, 5, 8. 
  • Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1987 to 1996). History of the Prophets and Kings , V.2. SUNY Press. 
  • Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-250886-5. 
  • Ashraf, Shahid (2005). Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. ISBN 8126119403. 
  • Ayoub, Mahmoud (1978). Redemptive Suffering in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of (Ashura) in Twelver Shi'Ism. 
  • Esposito, John (1990). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. 978-0195107999. 
  • Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path, 3rd, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195112344. 
  • Fadlullah, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn. Fatimah al-Ma`sumah (as): a role model for men and women. London: Al-Bakir Cultural & Social Centre. 
  • Ghadanfar, Mahmood Ahmad. Great Women of Islam. Darussalam. 9960897273. 
  • Ibn Hisham, Abdul Malik (1955). Al Seerah Al Nabaweyah (Biography of the Prophet). Mustafa Al Babi Al Halabi(Egypt). (In Arabic)
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960. 
  • Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad Kazim Qazwini (1992). Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN B000BWQ7N6. 
  • Parsa, Forough (فروغ پارسا) (2006). "Fatima Zahra Salaamullah Alayha in the works of Orientalists" (فاطمهٔ زهرا سلامالله علیها در آثار خاورشناسان)". Nashr-e Dānesh 22 , No. 1. 0259-9090. (In Persian)
  • Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad (2006). Virtues of Sayyedah Fatimah. Minhaj-ul-Quran Publications. ISBN 9693202252. 
Encyclopedias
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. 
  • Amin, Hassan (1968-73). Islamic Shi'ite Encyclopedia. Beirut: SLIM Press. 
  • Vacca, V. "Fāṭima". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • MSN Encarta. 
  • "Fāṭima". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an 1st Edition, 5 vols. plus index.. (2001-2006). Ed. McAuliffe, Jane Dammen et al.. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISSN 90-04-14743-8. 
  • Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1568590504. 

For other uses, see Al-Bukhari (name) Popularly known as just Bukhari, Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (810-870), he was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry,[1] most known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni regard as the most authentic (Arabic... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Karen Armstrong (b. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah (b. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... The Encyclopaedia of the Quran (EQ) is a scholarly work with essays on the most important themes and subjects, and an encyclopaedic dictionary of Quran terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia University started in 1974 at its Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies with the goal to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. ...

External links

  • Fatimah, article at Enyclopaedia Britannica Online
  • Fatimah by Jean Calmard, article at Enyclopaedia Iranica

Shia sources

Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah (Arabic: محمد حسين فضل الله ) (born November 16, 1935) is a leading Lebanese Shiite Muslim scholar. ... Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi is one of the most influential Ayatollahs currently in Iran. ... Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fatimah bint Muhammad (RA) (4500 words)
Fatimah's life with Ali was as simple and frugal as it was in her father's household.
Fatimah also knew that the Prophet was without food for long periods and she in turn would take food to him when she could.
Fatimah was grief-striken and she would often be seen weeping profusely.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (4166 words)
Fatimah, may God be pleased with her, was given the title of "az-Zahraa" which means "the Resplendent One".
Fatimah was the only one of her sisters who was not married to a wealthy man. In fact, it could be said that Fatimah's life with Ali was even more rigorous than life in her father's home.
Fatimah also knew tha t the Prophet was without food for long periods and she in turn would take food to him when she could.
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