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Encyclopedia > Fatima Zahra
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This article is about Muhammad's daughter. See Fatima for other meanings. Fatima may refer to: Fátima, Portugal, a town in Portugal Our Lady of Fatima, a famous Marian apparition at Fátima in 1917 Fatima Zahra, daughter of Muhammad and wife of the first Shia Imam. ...


Fatimah bint Muhammad or popularly Fatimah Zahra (Fatima the Radiant) (Arabic: فاطمة الزهراء) (Born Friday 20th of Jumada al-akhir 2 AH (614 CE) in Mecca or 14th Jumada al-awwal 606 CE - 3th Jumada al-thani 11 AH (632 CE) at Medina) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadijah. Jumada al-thani ( جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني ) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Mecca IPA: or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hijaz region. ... Jumada al-awwal ( جمادى الأول )is the fifth month in the Islamic calendar. ... Jumada al-thani ( جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني ) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as Prophets of Islam (Arabic: nabee نبي ; pl. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Khadija (Arabic: خديجه ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad and the first female convert to Islam, the new religion he had begun to preach. ...

Contents


Biography

She was born in Mecca around 614 (Shi'a tradition) or 606 CE (Sunni tradition). In 624, she was married to her father's cousin, Ali ibn Abu Talib. She was buried privately in a secret grave at Jannat al-Baqi. She was survived by two sons, the second Shi’a Imam Hassan ibn Ali and third Shi’a Imam Hussain ibn Ali and two daughters, Umm Kulthum binte Ali and Zaynab bint Ali. Image File history File links Bibi_Fatima_(AS). ... Mecca IPA: or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hijaz region. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... Jannat al-Baqi (جنة البقيع) (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a famous cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, located right across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام ,Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام ,Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Umm Kulthum bint Ali (Arabic: أم كلثوم بنت على ) was the fourth child of Ali ibn Abu Talib (the first Shi’a Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (the daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad). ... Daughter of Ali ibn abi Taleb. ...


Legacy

Amulet with two hands of Fatimah, bearing the inscriptions "Allah is the guardian", "Allah brings consolation in all trials". Hammered silver with filigree and cloisonné enamel decoration. 14th-15th century, Andalousia, Spain.
Amulet with two hands of Fatimah, bearing the inscriptions "Allah is the guardian", "Allah brings consolation in all trials". Hammered silver with filigree and cloisonné enamel decoration. 14th-15th century, Andalousia, Spain.

Muslims regard Fatima Zahra as the greatest woman who has ever lived, the leader of all women in Paradise, and a paragon of female virtue. She was the first wife of the first Shi'a Imam, the mother of the second and third, and the ancestor of all the succeeding Imams; indeed, the Fatimid dynasty is named after her[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (970x1290, 982 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fatima Zahra Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (970x1290, 982 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fatima Zahra Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


They also call her Al-Zahra, the Lady of Light. The khamsa, an amulet popularly believed to ward off evil and widely used in the Maghreb, represents the hand of Fatima. Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: خمسة, Khamsa, literally five-fold, Hebrew: חמש, Hamesh, literally five). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ...


Muslim views

Welcome, welcome,

Mother of all mothers of the world.


The city of Medina is full of flowers from the flower of Ahmad (Fatimah)(Alayhi Salaam), Medina (Arabic: ‎ or المدينة ; also transliterated into English as Madinah) is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia. ... A child (plural: children) is a young human,or an individual who has not yet reached puberty. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...


Bring flowers because the flower of Ahmad has come,


The house of Mostafa is illuminated. Heaven and earth and the sky are full of light, For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...


The whole universe, heaven and the skies were dark,


They became brilliant from the face of the mother of the seyyids.

-- Song to Fatimah, cited in Kalinock 2003

Muslims regard her as a loving and devoted daughter, mother, and wife, a sincere Muslim, and an exemplar for Muslim women. In Iran, her birthday was chosen as the date for National Women's Day, and annual mowludi or birthday celebrations are held in her honor by Iranian women; the themes routinely reflected in sermons at these functions are those of Fatimah's example as a pious daughter and wife and caring mother, and her simple lifestyle.[2] It is believed that she was very close to Muhammad and her distinction from other women is mentioned in many of his Hadiths: "Fatima is a part of my flesh: whoever causes her to be upset, upsets me." [3] Her children, his grandsons the second Shi’a Imam Hassan ibn Ali and third Shi’a Imam Husayn ibn Ali were very dear to him. Shi'a and Sunni Muslims generally agree on these basic facts, but give very different detailed accounts of her life. Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... HÌ£usayn ibn ‘AlÄ« ibn AbÄ« Ṭālib (Arabic: ‎ )‎ 28th August (626 – 680) was the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ...


Both Shi'a and Sunnah honour her as a part of the Ahl al-Bayt. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sunni view


According to Sunni historians, Fatima Zahra was the youngest of four daughters whom Khadijah bore to Muhammad. She died of natural causes, at the age of twenty-three or twenty-four, surviving her father by only a few months. Sunni historians do not accept the accounts of her injuries and miscarriage at the hands of Umar and his men. In the Sunni view, Fatimah shares the position of primary example to all women with A'isha and Khadija. She was relegated as a lesser figure in terms of history and the hadith, as her position aligned her with Ali.


Shi'a view


According to some, but not all Shi'a scholars, Fatima Zahra was Muhammad's only daughter. [4]. The Sunni belief that he had other daughters by Khadijah denies Ali ibn Abu Talib the distinction of being Muhammad's only son-in-law. She is held in highest of esteem, as being the single most ideal example for all women; in terms of her purity and the eventual martyrdom of her son, she is considered to be the Muslim counterpart to the Christian Mary, mother of Jesus; indeed, one of her names is Maryam al-Kubrá, or "the greater Mary". [5] For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ...


A'isha

Shi'a state that Muhammad's young wife, Aisha, disliked both Fatima and her husband Ali [6]; that Aisha envied the relationship between Fatima and Ali, and also Muhammad's high regard for Fatima as deceased Khadijah bint Khuwaylid's only daughter. Shi'as state that Aisha was also jealous that Muhammad gave Ali more attention than Abu Bakr, Aisha father. [7] Aisha bint Abu Bakr (also spelled Ayşe, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Arabic: ‎ `āisha, she who lives) was the final wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadija al-Kubra [1] (Arabic: ‎ ) (555 or 565 [1] or 570 to 619 or 623 [1]) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Coup d'état — 632

When Muhammad died, Aisha and her father, Abu Bakr, intrigued to grab the leadership of the Muslim community in a Coup d'état. The Shi'a believe that Muhammad had wanted Ali to succeed him but his commands were ignored. see " Hadith of the Event of the Cloak" and Ghadir Khum After Abu Bakr assumed leadership, he asked Muslims to swear allegiance to him, as was the Arab custom of the time. Ali and his followers refused and were harassed and threatened by Abu Bakr's supporters. A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment, that mostly replaces just the top power figures. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ghadir(-e) Khum (Persian/Arabic: غدیر خم) or Qadir(-e) Khum is a location in Saudi Arabia between Mecca and Medina and an event wich for Shia Muslims from authentic Hadiths confirm one of the refrences to the direct successorship of Imam Ali after the Prophet Muhammad as Leader and Caliph of...


According to the Shi'a view, Umar ibn al-Khattab was not only one of Abu Bakr's most zealous supporters, but also his co-conspirator and in some cases his superior. Umar led a party of armed men against Ali's house in Medina and called for Ali and his men to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr, who they had decided would take power in the the meeting at Saqifah. Umar and Khalid ibn Walid threatened to burn the house down if they did not submit. AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ...


Umar ibn al-Khattab and his men broke down the door. According to one narration of the Peshawar Nights debate, Abi'l-Hasan Ali Bin Husain Mas'udi was cited to have written that Fatima Zahra, who was pregnant at the time, was standing behind the door and she was pressed severely enough that she miscarried a son whom the Shi'a call Al Muhsin[8]. She cried out: For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Peshawar Nights is a Shia book depicting a imaginary argument between a Shia and a Sunni Muslim. ... Al Muhsin or Mohsin, in Shia belief, was the unborn child of Fatima Al Zahra, the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib. ...

"You have left the body of the Apostle of Allah with us and you have decided among yourselves without consulting us, and without respecting our rights. Before Allah, I say, either you get out of here at once, or with my hair dishevelled I will make my appeal to Allah."[9]

The Peshawar debate claim is that at this point Zubayr ibn al-Awwam went out, but was disarmed, and Ali was arrested [8]. They were both brought to Abu Bakr, but since situation critical due to the Fatimah event, they did not put a death ultimatum on Ali's homage. Ali held out and did not pay homage until Fatima's death [10] Abu Abdullah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was a Sahabi, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ...


Fatima Zahra wanted to defend the first Imam (Ali ibn Abi Talib) and by most accounts her words and her actions succeeded in protecting Ali from Umar and his men. When she faced Umar ibn al-Khattab and his soldiers, she set an example to all Shi'a (since she faced them as a Shi’a of Ali, not as the wife of Ali), and this action is a significant part of what has defined her role as a Shi'a and as a Muslim woman. [11].


Fadak and inheritance

Abu Bakr successfully seized power. They proceeded by stripping Fatima of all financial means: The land of Fadak, which Shi'a believe was a gift from Muhammad to her before the Conquest of Mecca,[12] was confiscated and any inheritance due to her was denied since Abu Bakr had conveniently been the only one to hear Muhammad state that "prophets do not leave an inheritance"[13]. Fadak was the name of a land in Khaybar, Saudi Arabia. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Fatima opposed this confiscation, and contested Abu Bakr's statements: She still had the merit of being Muhammads daughter and people where still watching, although they where in shock over how the events had turned out. However, even though Fatima and Ali successfully contested Abu Bakr's claim, Abu Bakr refused to return her property as this would jeopardize their newly gained power. Fatima made one last attempt: She interrupted Abu Bakr's speech in the mosque of Medinah, with a long speech of her own. After this speech, Abu Bakr repented and went to return the deed to the land. However, he was stopped by Umar, who grabbed Abu Bakr's beard and demanded an explanation, forcing him to stop jeopardizing the mission. Abu Bakr yet again changed his mind. [7]


Breach in relations

This caused a major breach in their relations, she refused to talk to Abu Bakr until her death, something noted in some Sunni hadith collections [14]. The question of this inheritance is one of the most debated points in the Sunni/Shi'a conflict. In effect, Abu Bakr's hands were tied: if he acknowledged her claim to Fadak, it would lend credence to her lineage's claim to the succession of Muhhammad.[15]


Shia continue that some time later, it became evident that Fatima would not be recovering from her wounds. She still had the people's heart as she was Muhammad's favorite and only biological daughter and was also the mother of Muhammad's only grandchildren. Abu Bakr and Umar went to her house to seek her pardon, and asked permistion to enter. Fatimah refused to answer them, but eventually the was door opened by Ali[16]. Fatimah, still angered that Abu Bakr was refusing her inheritance, angrily rebuked them:

"God be my witness that you two have offended me. In every prayer I curse you and will continue cursing you until I see my father and complain against you."[8].

By Allah (Arabic: Wallah) is Arabic expresion meaning [I promise] by God used to make a promise or express great credibility on a expresion. ... In Islam, one can pray for God to curse someone. ...

Last period

When Fatima was ill with the final sickness which caused her death, the wives of the Emigrants and Companions of the Muhammad went out visit her to ask how she was feeling. In reply to them, after asking for the blessings of God for her father, Muhammad, she said:

"By God I am alive while I have nothing but contempt for this world. I detest your men. After I tried to show them who their real enemy was and they did not listen, I put them aside." "How ugly are the sharp edges of swords when they are broken and then play with people's efforts and struggles which so many have undertaken, destroying the fortifications, breaking spears, making devious decisions and standing on the precipice of material and personal self-desires. What a terrible future they are preparing for by causing the warth of God and thereby bringing about permanent torment for themselves." ... "God says, ' If citizens are faithful and avoid wrong deeds, We will give blessings from heaven and earth to them. But they deny the truths so we captivated them for their deeds. From those who oppressed, the results of their actions will be returned to themselves. They cannot change the traditions of history. ' ... "It is then that the destroyer of rights will lose and those who will come in the future will find and realize the terrible results of what the ancestors have done. So you should be satified with your daily affairs and live in peace prior to the storm and terrible revolts." For then, the sharp swords of the dominations of the oppressors, anarchy and the rule of tyrants will overcome you. The oppressors will enslave you. No public assets except a small quantity will remain.. They will cultivate with force what you have planted with love. At that time you will only sigh for there will be nothing that you can do because you were blind and could not see the truth. They will oblige you because you have turned your faces from the right way and you did not accept it."[11]

Surat al-Araf (Arabic: سورة الأعراف ) (The Heights)[1] is the 7th sura of the Quran, with 206 ayat. ... Sura (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... Sirat al-Mustaqim is the Arabic term for the straight path. ...

Death

Fatima did not survive long after the demise of her father. Sources differ from one month to six months[17] . According to numerous Shi'a sources, because of the rift between her and the Abu Bakr faction, before her death she made these requests of her husband: Image File history File links Zehra. ...

  • O Ali, you will personally perform my funeral rites.
  • Those who have displeased me should not be allowed to attend my funeral.
  • My corpse should be carried to the graveyard at night.[18]

Ali did as she wished: she was buried at night, and accompanied to the grave by her relatives and sons. The burial was done secretly, so that Abu Bakr and Umar could not attend.


The Shi'a believe that Fatima died at the age of eighteen in Medina. This caused great grief to her husband. Eventually, in accordance with another part of her will, Ali married the woman of Fatima's choice, so that Fatima's children would be well take care of. After Fatima's death, Ali renewed the claim to the properties, but was again denied by Abu Bakr [19].


Shi'a gave Fatima Zahra many titles of praise. See List of Shi'a titles for Fatima Zahra zach Muslims express their love and devotion to pivotal figures in Islamic history by giving these figures titles. ... Zach can refer to: a given name, usually an abbreviation of the name Zachary an extremely annoying and ugly seventh grader at CAry Academy, known to be obsessed with duct tape Franz Xaver von Zach, an Austrian astronomer Nathan Zach, an Israeli poet Jan Zach, a Czech composer, violinist and...


See also

alex Sura (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... Surat al-Kawthar (Arabic: سورة الكوثر ) (Abundance) is the 108th sura of the Quran, and the shortest. ... Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: خمسة, Khamsa, literally five-fold, Hebrew: חמש, Hamesh, literally five). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ... The Book of Fatimah, Mushaf of Fatimah or Fatimahs Mushaf is according to Shias tradition, a book writen by Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammad. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... There are a number of uncertainties and disputes over Islamic historical dates. ... Alex is a short form of the given names Alexander or Alexandra. ...


References

  1. ^ Esposito, John; ed. Oxford History of Islam Oxford; 1999 ISBN 0195107993
  2. ^ Kalinock, Sabine. "Between party and devotion: Mowludi of Tehran women." Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. Fall 2003, Vol. 12 Issue 2, p173-187.
  3. ^ Sahih Bukhari Translation, Vol. 5, Book 57, Number 111
  4. ^ See Genealogy of Khadijah's Daughters for further discussions. and also see here
  5. ^ Kassam-Hann 2002, p 84.
  6. ^ Umar abu Nasr, cited in Jafri 1970 p95
  7. ^ a b Thomson, Ahmad (1993). Fatima Az-Zahra. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 1897940068.
  8. ^ a b c Peshawar Nights [1] on Al-Islam.org
  9. ^ Jafri 1979 p 52, citing Baladhuri,1 pp585 f; Ya'qubi II, p126; al-Tabari I p1818; Abu Bakral Jawhari in his Sharh Nahj al-Balagha II p47,50,56f. Iqd IV p259f. al-Imama Wa's-Siyasa, I, pp 12-13
  10. ^ Jafri 1979 p53 citing Yaqubi II 126 Baladhuri I 586, al-Tabari I 1825 Iqdd IV 260 and Hadith II 22; he points out that this is the most common and oldest written tradition, but that there are a few more recent variations on this.
  11. ^ a b Shariati, Ali. Fatima is Fatima. Tahrike Tarsile Quran' 1982 ISBN 0940368099 Excerpts online accessed 11 July 2006.
  12. ^ Jafri 1979 p 62; citing Yaqubi II p 127, Tabarsi Ihtijaj I pp 131-149 and others.
  13. ^ Jafri 1979 p 62; citing Bukhari and Yaqubi.
  14. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim
  15. ^ Jafri 1979 p 63
  16. ^ Tarikh al-Khulafa, vol 1 p 20 cited in Muhammad al-Tijani Then I was Guided, chapter "The Opinion of the Companions about each other".
  17. ^ Jafri, S.H.M. The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam. Longman, New York; 1979 ISBN 0582780802 p59.
  18. ^ at-Tabari I p1825; Bukhari Sahih V p288 and others, cited in Jafri 1979 p63
  19. ^ Sahih Muslim

alex zepeda was here Sahih Bukhari is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers). ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, had six children. ... Peshawar Nights is a Shia book depicting a imaginary argument between a Shia and a Sunni Muslim. ... Al-Islam. ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri was an Arabian historian, a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Masudi refers to one of his works in. ... Comments on the Peak of Eloquence (book by Abd al-Hamid) Sharh Nahj al-balaghah : al-muqtataf min Bihar al-anwar by Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi Majlisi; ‘Ali Ansariyan; Murtadá Haj‘ali Fard [1] Peak of Eloquence with comments (book by Muhammad Abduh) Peak of Eloquence with comments (Habib... Sahih Bukhari is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers). ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ... History of the Caliphs (Arabic: Tarikh al-khulafa) is a famous book writen by Suyuti, the classic Sunni scholar. ... Dr. Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi was a Tunisian student who was raised in a family that followed the rites of the Sufi Tijaniyyah order, based on the teachings of Sidi Ahmed al-Tidjani. ... And Then I was Guided is a famous book on by Muhammad al-Tijani. ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ...


External links

Sunni links:

  • A biography of Fatimah. — USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
  • Sunni refutation of the Shi'a view — alinaam.org.za

Shi'a links: The USC-MSA USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts [14] contains the most known online hadith database [15], ranking highest in the Google search engine [1]. // History The USC is derived from the University of Southern California [2] while the MSA is derived from Muslim Student Association [3] of the...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fatima Zahra (887 words)
Fatima took the death of the Holy Prophet to heart, and she passed away in early 633 C E, barely six months after the passing away of the Holy Prophet.
Fatima Zahra is regarded as one of the four perfect women of all times, the other three women being: Asiyah the wife of the Pharaoh of Egypt who mothered Moses; Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ; and Khadija the first wife of the Holy Prophet of Islam, and the mother of Fatima Zahra.
Fatima resembled the Holy Prophet in countenance, in elegance of speech, and in general deportment.
Fatima Zahra - Definition, explanation (324 words)
Fatima married Ali ibn Abi Talib, who later became the fourth Caliph.
A collection of articles and audio resources on Fatima, a daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, from a...
Biography of Fatima Az-Zahra, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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