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Encyclopedia > Fatah
Fatah
فتح
Fatah emblem
Leader Mahmoud Abbas, Farouk Kaddoumi
Founded 1958 or 1959
Headquarters Ramallah
Official ideology/
political position
Secular Nationalism
International affiliation Socialist International (observer)
Website www.fateh.net

Fatah (Arabic: فتح), literally opening, is a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (Arabic: حركة التحرير الوطني الفلسطيني, literally: "Palestinian National Liberation Movement"). Fatah is a major Palestinian political party and the largest faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a multi-party confederation. In Palestinian politics it is on the center-left of the spectrum. It is mainly nationalist although not predominantly socialist. Fatah has maintained a number of militant groups since its founding. Its mainstream miltary branch is al-Assifa. Unlike its rival Islamist faction Hamas, Fatah is not recognized as a terrorist organization by any government, and it is also supported by the United States[1] and the European Union[2]. Created by a split from the Fatah in 1974, the Abu Nidal Organization (officially named Fatah - the Revolutionary Council) is an international organization named for its founder Abu Nidal. ... Not to be confused with Fatah or Fatah Revolutionary Council. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... The Fatah official emblem shows two fists holding rifles and a hand grenade superimposed on a map of the land they claimed as Palestine (roughly, the present State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Farouk al-Kaddoumi (alternative spelling, Faruq al-Qaddumi), a. ... Jan. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... JENIN Jenin TULKARM Tulkarm Tubas NABLUS Nablus Shomron Qalqilya QALQILYA Salfit ARIEL RAMALLAH Ramallah and Al-Bireh Matte Binyamin MODIIN ILLIT JERICHO Biqat HaYarden Jericho MAALE ADUMMIM JERUSALEM Jerusalem BETAR ILLIT BETHLEHEM Gush Etzion Bethlehem Megilot HEBRON Hebron Har Hebron YATTA The West Bank (Arabic: , , ‎, Hagadah Hamaaravit... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ... Arabic redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Islamic militant organization and political party. ...


In the January 25, 2006 parliamentary election, the party lost its majority in the Palestinian parliament to Hamas, and resigned all cabinet positions, instead assuming the role as the main opposition party. is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Islamic militant organization and political party. ... This politics-related article is a stub. ...

Contents

Meaning of name

The official Fatah flag has a yellow backround and its variant is white. The official emblem in the center of the flag shows two fists holding rifles and a hand grenade superimposed on a map of historic Palestine (i.e. British Mandate borders, including present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip)

The acronym "FATAH" is created from the complete Arabic name: HArakat al-TAhrir al-Watani al-Filastini, becoming "HATAF", which, since it means "sudden death" in Arabic, was reversed to become "FATAH".[3] The word Fatah is prominently used for the Islamic expansion in the first centuries of Islamic history, and so has strongly positive connotations for Muslims. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... Grenade redirects here. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


History

Establishment

Yasser Arafat was the main founder of Fatah and led the group until his death in 2004
Yasser Arafat was the main founder of Fatah and led the group until his death in 2004

The Fatah movement, which espoused a Palestinian nationalist ideology in which Palestine would be liberated by the actions of Palestinian Arabs, was founded in 1954 by members of the Palestinian diaspora — principally professionals working in the Gulf States who had been refugees in Gaza and had gone on to study in Cairo or Beirut. The founders included Yasser Arafat who was head of the General Union of Palestinian Students (GUPS) (1952-56) in Cairo University, Salah Khalaf, Khalil al-Wazir, Khaled Yashruti was head of the GUPS in Beirut (1958-62).[4] see http://commons. ... see http://commons. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... ... It has been suggested that Arab states of the Persian Gulf be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... The General Union of Palestinian Students (GUPS) is an organization run by Palestinian students since the early 1920s. ... Cairo University, the biggest in Africa Cairo University (formerly Fouad the First University) is an institute of higher education located in Giza, Egypt. ... Abu Iyad Salah Khalaf (Arabic صلاح خلف), also known as Abu Iyad (Arabic أبو إياد) (born 1933 – January 14, 1991) was deputy chief and head of intelligence for the Palestine Liberation Organization, and the second most senior official of Fatah after Yasser Arafat. ... Khalil Al-Wazir (October 10, 1935–April 16, 1988), better known by the kunya Abu Jihad (Arabic: father of the struggle) and Al-Wazir (the top minister), was a founder of the Palestinian group Fatah (which later formed the dominant part of the PLO), and later a top aide to... Khaled Yashruti (born 1937 in Akko, Palestine - died 1970 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian political activist and a leading member of the PLO. // Beyond the center-right Bagdad-controlled Palestinian Baath Party known as the Arab Liberation Front (ALF), there were some high-ranking members of Fatah itself who...


Fatah's first major guerrilla attack came on January 3, 1965, when they attempted to sabotage the Israeli National Water Carrier, which had recently started operation and diverted vast amounts of water from the Jordan River which mostly bordered Jordan. The attack was thwarted by the Israeli Security Forces. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Completed in 1964, the National Water Carrier connects the Sea of Galilee with Israels water system. ... The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ...


Fatah became the dominant force in Palestinian politics after the Six-Day War in 1967. It dealt the coup de grâce to the pre-Baathist Arab nationalism that had inspired George Habash's Arab Nationalist Movement, the former dominant mainly Palestinian political party.[4] The November 1959 edition of Fatah's underground journal, Filastinuna Nida al-Hayat, indicated that the movement was motivated by the status of the Palestinian refugees in the Arab world: Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Look up coup de grâce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... George Habash (Arabic جورج حبش) (born August 2, 1926 in Lod), sometimes known by his nom de guerre Al-Hakim, الحكيم, meaning the doctor, is a Palestinian politician, formerly a militant, and the founder and former Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... The Arab Nationalist Movement (Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-Arab), also known as the Movement of Arab Nationalists and the Harakiyyin, was a pan-Arab nationalist organization influential in much of the Arab world, most famously so within the Palestinian movement. ...

The youth of the catastrophe (shibab al-nakba) are dispersed... Life in the tent has become as miserable as death... [T]o die for our beloved Fatherland is better and more honorable than life, which forces us to eat our daily bread under humiliations or to receive it as charity at the cost of our honour... We, the sons of the catastrophe, are no longer willing to live this dirty, despicable life, this life which has destroyed our cultural, moral and political existence and destroyed our human dignity.[5]

From the beginning the armed struggle, as manifested in the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine and the military role of Palestinian fighters under the leadership of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, was central to Fatah's ideology of liberating Palestine by a Palestinian armed struggle.[4] The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni (1907-1948) was a Palestinian nationalist and fighter who commanded the Arab Liberation Army in the war of 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially...


Fatah joined the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1967. It was immediately allocated 33 of 105 seats in the PLO Executive Committee. Founder Yasser Arafat became Chairman of the PLO in 1969, after the position was ceded to him by Yahya Hammuda.[4] According to the BBC, "Mr Arafat took over as chairman of the executive committee of the PLO in 1969, a year that Fatah is recorded to have carried out 2,432 guerrilla attacks on Israel."[6] The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The Executive Committee (PLO EC) is the highest executive body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization is the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization. ... Yahya Hammuda was the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Executive Committee from 24 December 1967 to 2 February 1969. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ...


Battle of Karameh

Throughout 1968, Fatah and other Palestinian armed groups were the target of a major Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Jordanian village of Karameh, where the Fatah headquarters – as well as a mid-sized Palestinian refugee camp – were located. The town's name is the Arabic word for "dignity", which elevated its symbolism to the Arab people, especially after the Arab defeat in 1967. The operation was in response to attacks against Israel, including rockets strikes from Fatah and other Palestinian militias into the occupied West Bank. Knowledge of the operation was available well ahead of time, and the government of Jordan (as well as a number of Fatah commandos) informed Arafat of Israel's large-scale military preparations. Upon hearing the news, many guerrilla groups in the area, including George Habash's newly formed group the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and Nayef Hawatmeh's breakaway organization the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), withdrew their forces from the town. Fatah leaders were advised by a pro-Fatah Jordanian divisional commander to withdraw their men and headquarters to nearby hills, but on Arafat's orders, Fatah remained, and the Jordanian Army agreed to back them if heavy fighting ensued.[4] The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... Al Karameh (or simply Karameh) is a town in Jordan, near the Allenby Bridge which spans the Jordan River, which defines the border with territory controlled by Israel. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinian Arabs call the Nakba (Arabic: , meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946... Arabic redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Naif Hawatmeh Nayef Hawatmeh (kunya Abu an-Nuf, b. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... Royal Jordanian Land Force is part of the Jordanian Armed forces (JAF). ...


On the night of March 21, the IDF attacked Karameh with heavy weaponry, armored vehicles and fighter jets.[4] Fatah held its ground, surprising the Israeli military. As Israel's forces intensified their campaign, the Jordanian Army became involved, causing the Israelis to retreat in order to avoid a full-scaled war.[7] By the end of the battle, nearly 150 Fatah militants had been killed, as well as twenty Jordanian soldiers and twenty-eight Israeli soldiers. Despite the higher Arab death toll, Fatah considered themselves victorious because of the Israeli army's rapid withdrawal.[4] is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Black September

In the late 1960s, tensions between Palestinians and the Jordanian government increased greatly; heavily armed Arab resistance elements had created a virtual "state within a state" in Jordan, eventually controlling several strategic positions in that country. After their victory in the Battle of Karameh, Fatah and other Palestinian militias began taking control of civil life in Jordan. They set up roadblocks, publicly humiliated Jordanian police forces, molested women and levied illegal taxes – all of which Arafat either condoned or ignored.[8][9]


The Jordanian government moved to regain control over its territory, and the next day, King Hussein declared martial law.[9] By September 25, the Jordanian army achieved dominance in the fighting, and two days later Arafat and Hussein agreed to a series of ceasefires. The Jordanian army inflicted heavy casualties upon the Palestinians – including civilians – who suffered approximately 3,500 fatalities. Two thousand Fatah fighters managed to enter Syria. They crossed the border into Lebanon to join Fatah forces in that country, where they set up their new headquarters.[10] For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1960s and the 1970s, Fatah provided training to a wide range of European, Middle Eastern, Asian, and African militant and insurgent groups, and carried out numerous attacks against Israeli targets in Western Europe and the Middle East during the 1970s. Some militant groups that affiliated themselves to Fatah, and some of the fedayeen within Fatah itself, carried out civilian plane hijackings and terrorist attacks, attributing them to Black September, Abu Nidal's Fatah-Revolutionary Council, Abu Musa's group, the PFLP, and the PFLP-GC. Fatah received weapons, explosives and training from the USSR and some Communist regimes of East European states. China also provided some weapons. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli Defense Forces, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... Created by a split from the Fatah in 1974, the Abu Nidal Organization (officially named Fatah - the Revolutionary Council) is an international organization named for its founder Abu Nidal. ... Col. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic Al-Jabhah al-Shabiyyah Li-Tahrir Filastin الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين) is a secular, Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ...


Lebanon

Although hesitant at first to take sides in the conflict, Arafat and Fatah played an important role in the Lebanese Civil War. Succumbing to pressure from PLO sub-groups such as the PFLP, DFLP and the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), Fatah aligned itself with the Communist and Nasserist Lebanese National Movement (LNM). Although originally aligned with Fatah, Syrian President Hafez al-Assad feared a loss of influence in Lebanon and switched sides. He sent his army, along with the Syrian-backed Palestinian factions of as-Sa'iqa and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC) led by Ahmad Jibril to fight alongside the radical right-wing Christian forces against the PLO and the LNM. The primary component of the Christian militias was the Maronite Phalangists loyal to President Camille Chamoun.[11] Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a militant Palestinian group which is designated by the United States and European Union [1] as a terrorist organization. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... President Gamal Abdel Nasser Nasserism is an Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of the former Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... As-Saiqa (Arabic: الصاعقة meaning thunderbolt) is a Palestinian political and military faction supported by Syria. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization, backed by Syria. ... Ahmed Jibril Ahmed Jibril (Arabic: ; born 1928) is the founder and leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC), part of the left-wing, secular Palestinian rejectionist front, so-called because they reject proposals for a peaceful settlement with Israel. ... Maronites (Arabic: , transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maroun in the early 5th century. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... Camille Chamoun Camille Nimr Chamoun (b. ...


Phalangist forces killed twenty-six Fatah trainees on a bus in March 2005. In 1976, an alliance of Christian militias with the backing of the Lebanese Army besieged the Tel al-Zaatar refugee camp.[12] The PLO and LNM retaliated by attacking the town of Damour, a Phalangist stronghold. Over 330 people were killed and many more wounded.[11] The Tel al-Zaatar camp fell to the Christians after a six-month siege, and a massacre followed in which thousands of Palestinians were killed.[13] Arafat and Abu Jihad blamed themselves for not successfully organizing a rescue effort.[11] The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) consists of three branches: Lebanese Army Lebanese Air Force Lebanese Navy // General overview The Lebanese Armed Forces primary missions include maintaining security and stability in the country, guarding the countrys borders, port security, relief operations, rescue operations, fire fighting, and fighting drug smuggling. ... The Damour massacre took place on 20 January 1976 during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. ... The Tel al-Zaatar Massacre took place during the Lebanese Civil War on August 12, 1976. ...

Arafat addressing Fatah officers shortly before exile from Lebanon, 1982

PLO cross-border raids against Israel grew somewhat during the late 1970s. One of the most severe - known as the Coastal Road Massacre - occurred on March 11, 1978. A force of nearly a dozen Fatah fighters landed their boats near a major coastal road connecting the city of Haifa with Tel Aviv-Yafo. There they hijacked a bus and sprayed gunfire inside and at passing vehicles, killing thirty-seven civilians.[14][15] In response, the IDF launched Operation Litani three days later, with the goal of taking control of Southern Lebanon up to the Litani River. The IDF achieved this goal, and Fatah withdrew to the north into Beirut.[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dalal Al Mughrabi Dalal Mughrabi and Ehud Barak Charred remains of the hijacked bus Front end remains of the hijacked bus The Kamal Odwan Operation In 1970s the Israeli Mossad committed massacres inside and outside Palestine, the foremost of which was the assassination of the three Palestinian Leaders, martyrs... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... The Litani River in red The Litani River (Arabic: نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Lytany) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


After Israel withdrew from Lebanon, Fatah forces resumed firing rockets into the Galilee region of Israel, prompting another invasion in 1982. Beirut was soon besieged and bombarded by the IDF;[11] To end the siege, the US and European governments brokered an agreement guaranteeing safe passage for Arafat and Fatah – guarded by a multinational force – to exile in Tunis. Despite the exile many Fatah commanders and fighters remained in Lebanon.[11] For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


When Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, the faction was dispersed to several Middle Eastern countries with the help of US and other Western governments: Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq and others. In the period 1982-1993, Fatah's leadership resided in Tunisia.


Recognition of Israel

Yasser Arafat signed the Declaration of Principles with Israel in 1993 and exchanged mutual renunciations of terrorism with Israel and a mutual recognition between the PLO and Israel, and was allowed to return to the Palestinian territories from exile in Tunisia. The PNC met in a special session on 26 April 1996 to consider the issue of amending the Charter and assigned its legal committee the task of redrafting the Palestinian National Charter consistent with the Arafat letters in order to present it for approval.[17] A redrafted charter that does not call for the destruction of Israel has yet to be presented or approved and the official PNA website displays the original, unamended text of the PNC Charter. According to the US Department of State, "The Palestinian National Charter... [was] amended by canceling the articles that are contrary to the letters exchanged between the P.L.O. and the Government of Israel 9-10 September 1993."[18] Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


Presidential and legislative elections

Until his death, Arafat became the head of the Palestinian National Authority - the provisional entity that was created as a result of Oslo. Farouk Kaddoumi is the current Fatah chairman, elected to the post soon after Arafat's death in 2004. “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Farouk al-Kaddoumi (alternative spelling, Faruq al-Qaddumi), a. ...


Fatah has "Observer Party" status at the Socialist International. The official symbol of Socialist International. ...


Since 2000, the group is a member of the Palestinian National and Islamic Forces,[19] which includes both PLO and non-PLO factions, including Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, listed as terrorist organizations in the West.[20] The emblem of Palestinian National and Islamic Forces shows a map of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip superimposed on a ring of joined hands, encircled by the groups name in Arabic and English and two Palestinian flags with an image of the Dome of the Rock... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Islamic militant organization and political party. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of terrorist organizations. ...


Fatah endorsed Mahmoud Abbas in the Palestinian presidential election of 2005. Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... The 2005 Palestinian presidential election — the first to be held since 1996 — took place on January 9, 2005 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ...


In 2005, Hamas won landslide victories in nearly all the municipalities it contested. Fatah is "widely seen as being in desperate need of reform", as "the PA's performance has been a story of corruption and incompetence - and Fatah has been tainted." Political analyst Salah Abdel-Shafi told BBC about the difficulties of Fatah leadership: "I think it's very, very serious - it's becoming obvious that they can't agree on anything."[21] Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Islamic militant organization and political party. ... The January-May 2005 Palestinian local (municipal) election were organized by President of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat before his death on November 11, 2004. ... Salah Abdel-Shafi(b. ...


Fatah split

Marwan Barghouti is the founder of the al-Mustaqbal political party and leader of the Tanzim and al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades

On December 14, 2005, jailed Intifada leader Marwan Barghouti announced that he had formed a new political party, al-Mustaqbal ("The Future"), mainly composed of members of Fatah's "Young Guard." These younger leaders have repeatedly expressed frustration with the entrenched corruption in the party, which has been run by the "Old Guard" who returned from exile in Tunisia following the Oslo Accords. al-Mustaqbal was to compete against Fatah in the January 2006 Palestinian legislative election, presenting a list including Mohammed Dahlan, Kadoura Fares, Samir Mashharawi and Jibril Rajoub on December 14.[22] However, on December 28, 2005, the leadership of the two factions agreed to submit a single list to voters, headed by Barghouti, who began actively campaigning for Fatah from his jail cell. Image File history File links Marwan-barghouti. ... Image File history File links Marwan-barghouti. ... Marwan Barghouti Marwan Bin Khatib Barghouti ( مروان البرغوثي born June 6, 1959) is a Palestinian leader from the West Bank and a leader of the Fatah movement. ... Marwan Barghouti, locked up in an Israeli prison, leads the new party Al-Mustaqbal are a new Palestinian Arab political party launched in December 2005, headed by Marwan Barghouti. ... Tanzim (Organization in Arabic) is a faction of the Palestinian al-Fatah movement. ... The Al_Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al_Fatah faction. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Marwan Barghouti Marwan Bin Khatib Barghouti ( مروان البرغوثي born June 6, 1959) is a Palestinian leader from the West Bank and a leader of the Fatah movement. ... Marwan Barghouti, locked up in an Israeli prison, leads the new party Al-Mustaqbal are a new Palestinian Arab political party launched in December 2005, headed by Marwan Barghouti. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Mohammed Dahlan is a Palestinian, born in 1961 in a refugee camp in Khan Younis. ... Qadura Fares is a Palestinian Authority minister. ... Jibril Rajoub was Yasir Arafats National Security Advisor, a member of the Fatah Revolutionary Council. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reactions to the news have been split. Some have suggested that the move could be a positive step towards peace, as Barghouti's new party could help reform major problems in Palestinian government. Others have raised concern that it could wind up splitting the Fatah vote, inadvertently helping Hamas. Barghouti's supporters argue that al-Mustaqbal will split the votes of both parties, both from disenchanted Fatah members as well as moderate Hamas voters who do not agree with Hamas' political goals, but rather its social work and hard position on corruption. Some observers have also hypothesized that the formation of Mustaqbal is mostly a negotiating tactic to get members of the young guard into higher positions of power within Fatah and its electoral list. A variant theory, highly plausible, is that after the elections, Mustaqbal will either be partially re-incorporated into Fatah, or will function as part of a Parliamentary coalition with it in opposition to Hamas and other political rivals.[23]


Some editorialist's have drawn a parallel between Barghouti's split from Fatah and the upheaval in Israeli party politics resulting from Ariel Sharon's leaving the Likud to form Kadima.[24][25]   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Forward) is a political party in Israel. ...


Armed factions

Fatah martyr poster in Bethlehem
A poster of a Christian Fatah martyr

While Quwwat Al-Sa'eqa is the official armed body of Fatah movement, many of the other factions have never been officially recognized by Fatah's major leading bodies: The Revolutionary Council and The Central Committee. At many instances, some of those factions were considered rebellious and outlawed by the Fatah official bodies, especially the Black September group. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (810x515, 70 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fatah Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (810x515, 70 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fatah Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (742x936, 97 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fatah Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (742x936, 97 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fatah Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Tanzim (Organization in Arabic) is a faction of the Palestinian al-Fatah movement. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Fatah Hawks are a Palestinian militant group, an offshoot of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade which has links to the dominant Fatah Movement. ... Force 17 is an elite VIP terror unit of the Palestinian Fatah movement and later of the Office of the Chairman of the Palestinian Authority. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ...


The Aqsa Martyrs Brigades have close links to Fatah but do not always follow the mainstream and are often involved suicide bombings against Israel despite the Fatah condemnation. They are listed as a terrorist organization by the United States.


The Fatah Hawks have not been active since 1995 and have been virtually replaced by the Tanzim. Both the Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and the Tanzim are led by Marwan Barghouti. Force 17 plays a role akin to the Presidential Guard for major Fatah leaders.


See also

Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... The following is a list of members of Fatah, a Palestinian political party and militia founded sometime between 1958-1959. ... The term Palestinian Civil War can either refer to: The 1947-48 Palestinian Civil War The 2006-2007 Fatah-Hamas conflict Category: ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=55797
  2. ^ http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1181813074587&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. Fatah. Retrieved July 30, 2006. "Fatah [...] inverted acronym of Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini [...]"
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Said K. AbusrishAburish, Said K. (1998) Arafat, From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.41-90. ISBN 1-58234-049-8.
  5. ^ Baumgarten, 2005, p. 32)
  6. ^ Fatah: Political heavyweight floored. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  7. ^ Bulloch, John (1983). Final Conflict. Faber Publishing, pp.165. 
  8. ^ Sayigh, Yezid (1997). Armed Struggle and the Search for State, the Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198296436.
  9. ^ a b Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.100–112. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  10. ^ Rasheda, Mahran. Arafat, the Difficult Number (in Arabic). Dar al-Hayan, pp.175–181. ISBN 0141272625. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.150–175. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  12. ^ Harris, William (1996). Faces of Lebanon. Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions. Markus Wiener Publishers, pp.162–165. ISBN 1558761152. 
  13. ^ Disputed; In Faces of Lebanon. Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions pp.162–165, William Harris states "Perhaps 3,000 Palestinians, mostly civilians, died in the siege and its aftermath". This source states that 2,000 were killed[1] while this page suggests several thousand.[2]
  14. ^ What happened at Ma'alot, Kiryat Shmona, and other terrorist targets in the 1970s?. Palestine Facts. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  15. ^ 133 Statement to the press by Prime Minister Begin on the massacre of Israelis on the Haifa - Tel Aviv Road- 12 March 1978. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1978-05-12).
  16. ^ Time Line: Lebanon Israel Controls South. BBC News. BBC MMVII (2007-10-09). Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  17. ^ [3]
  18. ^ [4]
  19. ^ Statement issued by the National and Islamic Forces February 10, 2001
  20. ^ "Country reports on terrorism", U.S. State Dept., April 27, 2005
  21. ^ Fatah faces reform crossroads. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  22. ^ Fatah officials negotiate with Barghouti. Jerusalam Post. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  23. ^ Main Palestinian Faction Splits Sharply Ahead of Election. New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  24. ^ [5]
  25. ^ [6]
  • Baumgarten, Helga (2005). The three faces/phases of Palestinian nationalism, 1948-2005. Journal of Palestine Studies, 34(4), 25-48.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Said K. Aburish (Arabic: ‎) (born 1935, Bethany) is a Palestinian journalist and writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fatah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1483 words)
Fatah became the dominant force in Palestinian politics after the 1967 Six-Day War dealt the coup de grâce to the Arab nationalism that had inspired George Habash's Arab Nationalist Movement.
Fatah joined the PLO and won the leadership role in 1969, after which the other consitutent members the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine were marginalized.
Fatah received weapons, explosives and training from the former USSR and the former Communist regimes of East European states.
Yasser Arafat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5800 words)
In 1968, Fatah was the target of an Israeli Defense Force operation in the Jordanian village of Al-Karameh in which 150 Palestinians and 29 Israeli soldiers were killed.
By the late 1960s, Fatah had come to dominate the PLO, and at the Palestinian National Congress in Cairo on February 3, 1969 Arafat was appointed Palestinian Liberation Organization leader, replacing Ahmad Shukeiri.
The Fatah movement continued to launch attacks against Israeli civilians and the security forces within the West Bank and Gaza Strip; moreover, in the late 1970s numerous leftist Palestinian organizations appeared which carried out attacks against civilian targets both within Israel and outside of it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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