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Encyclopedia > Fat cells
Types of connective tissue
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Types of connective tissue

Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Obesity in animals, including humans, is not dependent on the amount of body weight, but on the amount of body fat - specifically adipose tissue. In mammals, two types of adipose tissue exist: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipose tissue also serves as an important endocrine organ[1] by producing recently-discovered hormones such as leptin, resistin and TNFα. Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ... In the human body there are four types of tissue: (1) Epithelial, (2) Connective, (3) Muscle, and (4) Nervous Tissue. ... Adipocytes are cells present in adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... For other uses, see Fat (disambiguation). ... The term Thermal Insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer. ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals (compare to brown adipose tissue). ... Brown fat is a type of adipose tissue present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation of appetite and metabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ...

Contents

Anatomical features

Adipose tissue is primarily located beneath the skin, but is also found around internal organs. In the integumentary system, which includes the skin, it accumulates in the deepest level, the subcutaneous layer, providing insulation from heat and cold. Around organs, it provides protective padding. It also functions as a reserve of nutrients. In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ...


In a severely obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus (or pannus). A panniculus complicates surgery of the morbidly obese, and may remain as a literal "apron of skin" if a severely obese person quickly loses large amounts of weight (a common result of bypass surgery). Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ... A person is defined by philosophers as a being who is in possession of a range of psychological capacities that are regarded as both necessary and sufficient to fulfill the requirements of personhood. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Pannus is a medical term for a hanging flap of skin. ... Gastric Bypass (GBP) refers to a group of similar operative procedures used to treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems (co-morbidities) which occur. ...


Adipose tissue has an "intracellular matrix," rather than an extracellular one. Adipose tissue is divided into lobes by small blood vessels. The cells of this layer are adipocytes. The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Adipocytes are cells present in adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ...


Physiology

Free fatty acid is "liberated" from lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and enters the adipocyte, where it is reassembled into triglycerides by esterising it onto glycerol. Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids. In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids and may be structural or catalytic in function. ... Lipoprotein lipase (EC 3. ... It has been suggested that Medium Chain Triglycerides be merged into this article or section. ... General formula of a carboxylate ester. ... Glycerol, also well known as glycerin and glycerine, and less commonly as propane-1,2,3-triol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ...


In humans, lipolysis is controlled though the balanced control of lipolytic B-adrenergic receptors and a2A-andronergic receptor mediated antilioplysis.


Fat cells have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, as well as determining insulin resistance. Abdominal fat has a different metabolic profile—being more prone to induce insulin resistance. This explains to a large degree why central obesity is a marker of impaired glucose tolerance and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (even in the absence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension). Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... It has been suggested that Medium Chain Triglycerides be merged into this article or section. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ... Metabolism (from Greek μεταβολισμός metabolismos) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells. ... Central obesity (or apple-shaped or masculine obesity) occurs when the main deposits of body fat are localised around the abdomen and the upper body. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Coronary heart disease. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation). ...


Recent advances in biotechnology have allowed for the harvesting of adult stem cells from adipose tissue, allowing stimulation of tissue regrowth using a patient's own cells. The use of a patient's own cells reduces the chance of tissue rejection and avoids the social trauma associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells. Stem cell division and differentiation. ... Human embryonic stem cells in culture. ...


Adipose tissue is the greatest peripheral source of aromatase in both males and females contributing to the production of estradiol. A peripheral is a type of computer hardware that is added to a host computer in order to expand its abilities. ... Aromatase belongs to the group of cytochrome P450 enzymes (EC 1. ...


Hormones secreted by adipose tissue include:

A specialised form of adipose tissue in human infants, and some animals, is brown fat or brown adipose tissue. It is located mainly around the neck and large blood vessels of the thorax. This specialised tissue can generate heat by "uncoupling" the respiratory chain of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria, leading to the breakdown of fatty acids. This thermogenic process may be vital in neonates exposed to the cold, who then require this thermogenesis to keep warm as they are unable to shiver, or take other actions to keep themselves warm. Adiponectin (also referred to as Acrp30, apM1) is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA), the activators of plasminogen and hence fibrinolysis (the physiological breakdown of blood clots). ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation of appetite and metabolism. ... Estradiol (17-beta estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... A human infant Infant is a formal term for the word baby, the youngest category of a child. ... Brown fat is a type of adipose tissue present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... Brown fat is a type of adipose tissue present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain, or simply electron transport), is a series of protein complexers and lipid messengers spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane that accepts electrons from electron donors such as NADH or succinate, shuttles these electrons from within the mitochondrial matrix across the inner... The Electron Transport Chain. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ...


Attempts to stimulate this process pharmacologically have so far been unsuccessful, but might in the future be a target of weight loss therapy. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Therapy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cultural and social role

Excess adipose tissue on a human can lead to medical problems; however, a round or large figure does not of itself imply a medical problem, and is sometimes not primarily caused by adipose tissue. For a discussion of the aesthetic and medical significance of body shape, see dieting and obesity. Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of eating (and drinking) in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular, short-term objective. ...


See also

Endocrine system - edit
Adrenal gland | Corpus luteum | Hypothalamus | Kidney | Ovaries | Pancreas | Parathyroid gland | Pineal gland | Pituitary gland | Testes | Thyroid gland


European advertisement for one of a number of skin creams designed to treat cellulite. ... Body fat percentage is the fraction of the total body mass that is adipose tissue. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grays Fig. ... The corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body) is a small, temporary endocrine structure in animals. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive system that serves two major functions: exocrine - producing pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes. ... The four human parathyroid glands are adjacent to the thyroid. ... Diagram of pituitary and pineal glands. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in the small, bony cavity (sella turcica) at the base of the brain. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, or testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... The thyroid gland and its relations The thyroid is one of the larger endocrine glands in the body. ...

  Connective tissue  v · d · e 
classification: proper (loose/areolar, dense, adipose, reticular) embryonic (mucous, mesenchymal) specialized (cartilage, bone, blood)

extracellular matrix: ground substance (tissue fluid) fibers (collagen, reticular fiber, elastic fibers) In the human body there are four types of tissue: (1) Epithelial, (2) Connective, (3) Muscle, and (4) Nervous Tissue. ... Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types Areoloar tissue is the most common connnective tissue type and can be found in the skin as well as in places that connect epithelium to other tissues. ... Dense Connective Tissue is. ... Reticular connective tissue are a network of reticular fibers (fine collagen) that form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support the lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. ... Mucous connective tissue (or mucous tissue) is a type of connective tissue found during fetal development. ... Mesenchyme (also known as embryonic connective tissue) is the mass of tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm (the middle layer of the trilaminar germ disc) of an embryo. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... For other uses, see Bone (disambiguation), including Bones which redirects here. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... Chemical structure of one unit in a chondroitin sulfate chain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interstitial fluid. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Reticular fibres are the main structural fibre in connective tissues. ... Elastic fibers are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. ...


cells: resident (fibroblast, adipocyte, chondroblast, osteoblast), wandering cell A fibroblast is a cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. ... Adipocytes are cells present in adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A chondroblast is a cell, which originates from a mesenchymal stem cell and forms Chondrocytes, commonly known as cartilage cells. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ... In anatomy and histology, the term wandering cell (or ameboid cell) is used to describe cells that are found in loose connective tissue, but arent fixed in place. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
UGA Researchers First To Determine That Leptin Causes Death Of Fat Cells (585 words)
The hormone is produced by the body's fat cells and travels through the blood stream to the brain.
In their research, the UGA scientists injected one group of rats with leptin, a second group was placed on a low-calorie diet, while a third was given normal amounts of food and not treated with leptin.
In comparing the DNA of the fat cells of rats treated with leptin and the control groups, the fat cells of the leptin-treated rats clearly showed apoptosis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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