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Encyclopedia > Fat acceptance movement
Part of a series of articles on
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism
Religious intolerance · Xenophobia Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms
Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide (examples) · Ethnocide
Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war
 · Religious persecution · Blood libel · Paternalism
Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements
Policies

Discriminatory
Race / Religion / Sex segregation
Apartheid · Redlining · Internment · Ethnocracy Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... Ethnocracy is a form of government where all offices are held by a certain ethnic group purposefully and the other ethnic groups are subdued and sometimes killed by the state because of their race or cultural differences. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Affirmative action in the United States · Emancipation · Civil rights
Desegregation · Integration
Equal opportunity Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ...


Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota
Reservation (India) · Reparation
Forced busing
Employment equity (Canada) Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration
Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws
Test Act · Apartheid laws
Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Text of the act. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Anti-discrimination acts
Anti-discrimination law
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism
Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism
Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism
Androcentrism · Economic Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism
Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity
Multiculturalism · Oppression
Political correctness
Reverse discrimination · Eugenics
Racialism For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Not to be confused with suprematism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Discrimination Portal Image File history File links Portal. ...

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The fat acceptance movement, also the size acceptance movement or fat liberation movement or fat power, is a grassroots effort to change societal attitudes towards individuals who are fat.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The movement consists today of a diverse group of people, who have different beliefs about how best to address the widespread prejudice and discrimination against people whose girth is considered to be above average in contemporary Western societies.[9][10][11][12][13][14] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a political movement) is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Generally dated to the 1970s, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed an increase in activist organizations, publications, and conferences.[citation needed] The contemporary movement perceives negative societal attitudes as persistent, and based on the presumption that the rotund characteristics of a person's body reflect negative character traits of that person.[citation needed] Furthermore, these diet-touting trends have led to an increase in depression among those who feel that their weight is above the "socially acceptable norm".

Contents

Background

Fat activism covers several fronts but generally can be described as attempting to change societal, internal, and medical attitudes about fat people.


The movement argues that large people are targets of hatred and discrimination,[15][16][17][18] [19] with plus sized women in particular subject to more social pressure. Hatred is seen in multiple places including media outlets, where fat people are often ridiculed[20][21][22] or held up as objects of pity[23]. Discrimination comes in the form of lack of equal accessibility to transportation and employment. For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


The movement also argues[24][25][26][27] that people of all shapes and sizes can strive for fitness and physical health. Thus, it promotes "health at every size," which aims to place one's mental and physical health before physical appearance and size. Health at Every Size (HAES) is an approach to health that focuses on intuitive eating and joyful physical activity rather than dieting and weight loss. ...


Through the works of authors such as Paul Campos and Sandy Szwarc, the fat acceptance movement has argued that doctors should treat health problems of people of all sizes, recognizing that health issues are not defined by weight and are shared by people of all sizes, fat and thin. Some in the movement have argued that the health risks of fatness and obesity have been greatly exaggerated, and used as cover for cultural and aesthetic prejudices against fat. Paul Campos is a law professor, author and journalist. ... Sandy Szwarc is a registered nurse and culinary expert with a degree in biological science who has written articles for many publications such as The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, and Christian Science Monitor. ...


Fat activism faces challenges.[28] Organizations such as the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) and the International Size Acceptance Association (ISAA) are small in number, and people interested in the movement tend to be clustered in larger cities and spread across medium- to small-sized web communities. NAAFA changed leadership around the turn of the century.[citation needed] The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, or NAAFA, was founded in 1969 by William Fabrey in New York. ... The International Size Acceptance Association (ISAA) is a United States based NGO aimed at advancing Fat Acceptance, directed by Allen Steadham. ...


History

The history of this movement is difficult to chart because of its grassroots nature, although it originated in the late 1960s and 1970s[29][30]. Like other social movements from this time period, the fat acceptance movement, initially known as "Fat Pride," "Fat Power," or "Fat Liberation," often consisted of people acting in an impromptu fashion. To offer one example, a "Fat-in" was staged in New York's Central Park in 1967.[31] Called by a radio personality, Steve Post, the "Fat-in" consisted of a group of 500 people, eating, carrying signs and photographs of Sophia Loren (an actress famous for her figure), and burning diet books. Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is a motion picture and stage, Academy Award-winning actress, widely considered to be the most popular Italian actress. ...


Several groups were formed in this period that promoted a fat acceptance agenda. The "Fat Pride" group, NAAFA, initially called the National Association to Aid Fat Americans, subsequently renamed the National Association for Advancement of Fat Acceptance, was begun in 1969 by William Fabrey. This group was at its inception more of a social club. A more radical group, the Fat Underground, was founded in 1973. The group had begun as a chapter of NAAFA, but had quickly developed an activist philosophy more radical than the group. To be more specific, they were inspired by the philosophy of the Radical Therapy Collective, a feminist collective that believed that many psychological problems were caused by oppressive social institutions and practices. The group consisted of a number of members including the founding members Sara Fishman (then going by Aldebaran) and Judy Freespirit, and subsequently Lynn McAffee. They quickly developed into a group that took issue with the developing science against obesity. One of their central sayings, "A diet is a cure that doesn't work for a disease that doesn't exist," reflects their dedication to fat acceptance as well as fat activism.[32] The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, or NAAFA, was founded in 1969 by William Fabrey in New York. ...


Shortly afterwards, Fishman moved to New Haven, CT, where she, along with Karen Scott-Jones, founded the New Haven Fat Liberation Front, an organization similar to the Fat Underground in its scope and focus. In 1983, they collaborated to publish a germinal book in the field of Fat Activism, Shadow on a Tightrope.[33] The book consists of some activist position papers, initially distributed by the Fat Underground, as well as collections of poems and essays from other writers. This article is about the city in Connecticut. ...


The movement today

Fat liberation has been addressed as well in a number of zines, many representing activist communities. Among them are Marilyn Wann's Fat!So? beginning in 1993, Nomy Lamm's I'm So Fucking Beautiful, and the collectively produced 'zine FaT GiRL -- the 'zine for fat dykes and the women who want them. More Recently, Sabrina Darling has collaborated with other members of the new generation of fat liberation to release the zine Two By Four, Krissy Durden has produced the zine Figure 8 since 2001 and Max Airborne and Cherry Midnight have produced Size Queen: For Queen-size Queers and Our Loyal Subjects. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Marilyn Wann is one of the key players in the current fat activism movement. ... Nomy Lamm is an accordion-wielding singer/songwriter/activist, and a self-described “Fat-ass bad-ass jew dyke amputee. ...


In addition to zines, there has recently been a steady stream of books with a fat activist agenda including Wann's book of the same title as her zine (1998), Sondra Solovay's "Tipping the Scales of Justice: Fighting Weight-Based Discrimination" (2000);'Largely Happy -- changing your mind about your body' by Lynda Finn; 'Don't Diet' by Professor Dale Atrens and a collection of short stories by fat people (What Are You Looking At? 2003). Beginning in the earlier literature, there were criticisms of the prevailing scientific view that fat is unhealthy. A number of writers and activists have attacked this viewpoint, including more recently Paul Campos in his 'The Obesity Myth' (2004) republished as 'The Diet Myth', and Sandy Szwarc's in-depth examination of obesity research in the online magazine "Tech Central Station."[34]


In recent years, there is an emerging body of fat political and sociological studies, some with a fat activist agenda, developing within the academy. The American Popular Culture Association has an area in fat studies and regularly includes panels on the subject. In addition, student groups with a fat activist agenda have emerged in a number of colleges including Hampshire, Smith, and Antioch colleges.


Susan Stinson's novels and poetry such as Belly Songs (1993) and Venus of Chalk (2004) have integrated the insights of fat liberation into literature. Several collections of short writing on fat have been published in recent years, including 'What Are You Looking At?: The First Fat Fiction Anthology' (2003); Scoot Over, Skinny: The Fat Nonfiction Anthology' (2005); and Susan Koppelman's Strange History of Suzanne LaFleshe and other stories of women and fatness (2003).


Recently, fat performance art has made an impact in the fight against sizeism. Groups like The Padded Lillies, Big Burlesque and the Fat Bottom Revue and radical cheerleading groups like F.A.T.A.S.S pdx and The Bod Squad have received significant attention, as have drag troupes like the Royal Renegades: The Philadelphia Drag Kings, who feature a variety of body types in their shows. The Resistin Radicatz, a radical cheerleading group, do a cheer in front of AFL-CIO headquarters in Washington before joining the Million Worker March at the Lincoln Memorial. ...


There has been a flourishing of national conferences devoted to the subject of fat activism, including NOLOSE, the conference of the former National Organization for Lesbians of SizE (now just known as NOLOSE); NAAFA's annual convention held alternately on the west and east coasts; and the largest conference, Stacy Bias's FatGirl Speaks in Portland, Oregon. Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ...


Finally, in recent years, growing online bloggers are promoting the ideas of a moderate version of fat acceptance. Some examples include Kate Harding's Shapely Prose, Big Fat Blog, and The F-Word.


Issues within the movement

As it has expanded, the fat acceptance movement has faced internal issues. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...


One point of contention in the movement is found between those fat people who are attempting to lose weight and those who are not. Opponents of weight loss attempts cite the high failure rate of all permanent weight loss attempts (95-98%), and the many dangers of "yoyo weight fluctuations" and weight loss surgeries. (There are many citations, starting with Sandy Szwarc's list of links at [4], as well as books by William Bennett, Joel Gurin, Paul Campos, etc. as delineated below. A USDA discussion of the recent U.C. Davis study suggesting that fat acceptance maintains and improves health more than dieting may be found at [5].) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bariatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity. ...


Due to intrinsic linguistic misunderstandings and differing definitions of the word "acceptance," some "fat activists" believe the phrase refers to any fat person fighting for equal rights and opportunities, regardless of whether or not that person believes that the pursuit of reduction in a person's body mass is feasible. Other "fat activists" define "fat acceptance" more strictly, applying that phrase only to fat people who are not pursuing a reduction in their body mass, and use phrases such as "fat activist" to describe fat people and "allies" working more generally on civil rights issues pertaining to fat people.


An additional issue with regard to language is that many in the fat acceptance movement find the terms "obese" and "overweight" offensive, as they are often used to make overtly prejudiced statements seem more clinical or scientific. The word "fat" is generally preferred.


In practice, the only way to know the position of any particular individual member of the group on weight loss attempts is to ask, or read specific position papers on the issue.


Criticism

Fat acceptance advocates' positions have sparked criticism.[citation needed] Some critics, while acknowledging that fat and obese individuals are subject to inappropriate discrimination or pressure, contend that fat acceptance advocates' goal of unconditional acceptance of obesity is itself unhealthy.[6] They contend that accepting fatness will make people less likely to aspire to achieve a healthy weight.[citation needed] Other criticisms state that obesity causes medical problems. Public health officials regard widespread obesity as posing significant costs to society. Despite advocates' claims to the contrary, some studies[citation needed] show that fat people are more likely than others to be in poor health, at a time when health care costs are rising: In 2006, the CDC estimated that 10 percent of current health care costs are due to obesity [7]. However, a recent Dutch study came to the conclusion that while obese individuals cause higher annual health care costs during their lifetime, their total health care costs over the span of a lifetime are lower than the costs caused by "healthy-living" (non-smoking with a BMI between 18.5 and 25) individuals due to higher average life expectancy of this group. [35] Additionally, the common fat acceptance mantra that "diets don't work" is considered by some critics to be an oversimplification that may discourage even responsible and potentially beneficial changes in eating habits. [8] A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ...


Notable advocates

  • Jo Morley, founder of Big People UK [London, UK]
  • Stacy Bias, founder of FatGirl Speaks [Portland, ORE]
  • Paul Campos, author of books such as The Obesity Myth
  • Debbie Notkin, writer of the texts for Women En Large and the body image blog Body Impolitic
  • Sandy Szwarc, author of Junk Food Science blog and articles challenging widely-held beliefs on fat and health[10]

Paul Campos is a law professor, author and journalist. ... Charlotte Cooper (b. ... Laurie Toby Edison Laurie Toby Edison (1942-) has been a photographer since 1989. ... Nomy Lamm is an accordion-wielding singer/songwriter/activist, and a self-described “Fat-ass bad-ass jew dyke amputee. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sandy Szwarc is a registered nurse and culinary expert with a degree in biological science who has written articles for many publications such as The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, and Christian Science Monitor. ... Marilyn Wann is one of the key players in the current fat activism movement. ... FAT!SO? is a book by fat activist Marilyn Wann, published in 1999 by Ten Speed Press. ...

External Links

  • Fat Liberation Archives - "Print, audio and video material dating from the origins of fat politics in the early 1970's."
  • NAAFA - National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, founded in 1969.
  • ISAA - International Size Acceptance Assocation, founded in 1997.
  • ASDAH - Association for Size Diversity and Health, founded in 2003.
  • CSWD - Counsel on Size & Weight Discrimination
  • COFRA - Coalition of Fat Rights Activists
  • No Lose - "Where fighting fat phobia is seen as integrally linked to other social justice issues such as the women's movement, anti-racist and anti-imperialist struggles of people of color at home and around the world, queer and transgender movements, class struggle, disability rights movements and more."
  • Big Fat Blog - The fat acceptance weblog, focusing on mainstream media coverage of fat, public policies that affect fat people, and fat activism.
  • Junkfood Science - Skeptical analysis of the medical literature and health care policies on fat.
  • Shapely Prose - Focusing on fat acceptance in the media, public policy, discussion of the personal experience of fat people, especially women, and the intersection of fat acceptance with other social movements/groups (e.g. feminism.)
  • Notes from the Fatosphere - An aggregate feed of current fat acceptance blogs, including those listed above.
  • Radiance Magazine Online - The Magazine for Large Women. Search their online back issues for articles relating to fat acceptance.
  • Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity "A non-profit research and public policy organization devoted to improving the world’s diet, preventing obesity, and reducing weight stigma." Responsible for much of the scientific research on weight bias, stigma, and discrimination, though not identified as a "fat acceptance" organization.
  • Hanne Blank - notable author of Big Big Love and Zaftig, erotic works of fiction for people of size is also considered a size acceptance advocate, even though she recently came under fire for her attempts in fat reduction, which she documents in her blog The Fickle Finger Of Fat

Notes

  1. ^ Saguy, A.C., & Riley, K.W. (2005). "Weighing both sides: Morality, mortality and framing contests over obesity" Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law. 30(5):869-921.[1]
  2. ^ Neumark-Sztainer, D. (1999). "The weight dilemma: A range of philosophical perspectives" International Journal of Obesity. 23(Suppl.2):S31-S37.
  3. ^ Stürmer, S., Simon, B., Loewy, M., & Jörger, H. (2003). "The dual-pathway model of social movement participation: The case of the fat acceptance movement" Social Psychology Quartely. 66(1):71-82.
  4. ^ http://www.size-acceptance.org/mission.html
  5. ^ http://www.naafa.org/documents/brochures/naafa-info.html#whatis
  6. ^ http://www.cswd.org/index.html
  7. ^ http://www.fatrights.org/
  8. ^ http://www.reason.com/news/show/123151.html
  9. ^ Friedman, Roberta R (2008). "Weight Bias: The Need for Public Policy." Rudd Report: Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity, Yale University.[2]
  10. ^ Himes, S.M., and Thomson, J.K. (2007), "Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: A content analysis", Obesity, 15(3):712-718.
  11. ^ Finkelstein, L.M., Demuth, R.L.F., and Sweeny, D.L.(2007), "Bias against overweight job applicants: Further exploration of when and why", Human Resource Management, 46(2):203-222.
  12. ^ King, E.B., Shapiro, J.R., Hebl, M.R., Singletary, S.L., and Turner, S. (2006), "The stigma of obesity in customer service: A mechanism for remediation and bottom-line consequences of interpersonal discrimination", Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3):579-593.
  13. ^ Schwartz, M.B., Chambliss, H.O., Brownell, K.D., Blair, S.N., and Billington, C. (2003), "Weight bias among health professionals specializing in obesity." Obesity Research, 11(9):1033-1039.
  14. ^ Murray, S (2005). "Doing politics or selling out? Living the fat body." Women's Studies, 34:265-277.
  15. ^ http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/employment.html
  16. ^ http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/education.html
  17. ^ http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/adoption.html
  18. ^ http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/legislation.html
  19. ^ http://www.cswd.org/docs/faq.html
  20. ^ Health 24 - Diet, Weight loss - Related
  21. ^ http://www.cswd.org/docs/media.html
  22. ^ Greenberg BS, Eastin M, Hofschire L, Lachlan K, Brownell KD (2003). "Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television." Am J Public Health. Aug;93(8):1342-8.
  23. ^ http://www.timeout.com/chicago/articles/out-there/24098/weighing-in
  24. ^ Ikeda JP, Hayes D, Satter E, Parham ES, Kratina K, Woolsey M, Lowey M, Tribole E (1999). "A commentary on the new obesity guidelines from NIH." J Am Diet Assoc. Aug;99(8):918-9.
  25. ^ http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/fitness.html
  26. ^ http://www.size-acceptance.org/rfh/
  27. ^ http://www.sizediversityandhealth.org/home
  28. ^ http://www.bitchmagazine.org/article/big-trouble
  29. ^ http://www.radiancemagazine.com/issues/1998/winter_98/fat_underground.html
  30. ^ http://members.tripod.com/bigastexas/2001event/keynote2001.html
  31. ^ "Curves Have Their Day in Park; 500 at a 'Fat-in' Call for Obesity," New York Times. June 5, 1967, pg. 54
  32. ^ The Fat Underground
  33. ^ Shadow on a Tightrope: Writings by Women on Fat Oppression, eds. Lisa Schoenfielder and Barb Wieser. Iowa City, IA: Aunt Lute Books, 1983
  34. ^ TCS Daily : Authors
  35. ^ Van Baal, P.H.M., Polder, J.J., De Wit, G.A., Hoogenveen, R.T., Feenstra, T.L., Boshuizen, H.C., et al. (2008). "Lifetime medical costs of obesity: Prevention no cure for increasing health expenditure", PLoS Medicine 5(2):e29, accessed Feb 16, 2008 at [3]

Further reading

  • Berg, Frances M. (2000). Women Afraid to Eat: Breaking Free in Today's Weight-Obsessed World. Hettinger: Healthy Weight Network. ISBN 0918532620
  • Braziel, Jana E. (ed) and LeBesco, Kathleen (ed) (2001). Bodies Out of Bounds: Fatness and Transgression. University of California Press. ISBN 0520225856
  • Brown, Laura S. (ed) and Rothblum, Esther D. (ed) (1989). Overcoming Fear of Fat. New York: Harrington Park Press. ISBN 091839371X
  • Campos, Paul F. (2004). The Obesity Myth: Why America's Obsession with Weight is Hazardous to Your Health. New York: Gotham Books. ISBN 1592400663 (Later issued in paperback as The Diet Myth: Why America's Obsession with Weight is Hazardous to Your Health. ISBN 159240135X )
  • Cooper, Charlotte (1998). Fat and Proud: The Politics of Size. Womens Press. ISBN 0704344734
  • Fraser, Laura (1997). Losing It: America's Obsession with Weight and the Industry that Feeds on It. New York: Dutton. ISBN 0525938915 (Later issued in paperback as Losing It: False Hopes and Fat Profits in the Diet Industry. ISBN 0452272912 )
  • Frater, Laura (2005). Fat Chicks Rule: How to Survive in a Thin-Centric World. Gamble Guides. ISBN 0975251716
  • Gaesser, Glenn A. (1996). Big Fat Lies: The Truth about Your Weight and Your Health. New York: Fawcett Columbine. ISBN 0936077425
  • Gard, Michael (2005). The Obesity Epidemic: Science, Morality and Ideology. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415318963
  • Goodman, Charisse W. (1995). The Invisible Woman: Confronting Weight Prejudice in America. Gurze Books. ISBN 0936077107
  • Kater, Kathy (2004). Real Kids Come in All Sizes: Ten Essential Lessons to Build Your Child's Body Esteem. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 0767916085
  • Kolata, Gina B. (2007). Rethinking Thin: The New Science of Weight Loss -- and the Myths and Realities of Dieting. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. ISBN 0374103984
  • Koppelman, Susan (ed) (2003). The Strange History of Suzanne Lafleshe: And Other Stories of Women and Fatness. Feminist Press. ISBN 1558614516
  • Kulick, Don and Meneley, Anne (2005). Fat: The Anthropology of an Obsession. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. ISBN 1585423866
  • LeBesco, Kathleen (2004). Revolting Bodies?: The Struggle to Redefine Fat Identity. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1558494294
  • Louderback, Llewellyn (1970). Fat Power: Whatever You Weigh is Right. Hawthorn Books. ASIN B0006CAKQG
  • Manheim, Camryn (1999). Wake Up, I'm Fat! New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 0767903633
  • Oliver, J. Eric (2006). Fat Politics: The Real Story behind America's Obesity Epidemic. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195313208
  • Poulton, Terry (1997). No Fat Chicks: How Big Business Profits Making Women Hate Their Bodies-How to Fight Back. Birch Lane Press. ISBN 1559724234 (Also issued as No Fat Chicks: How Women Are Brainwashed to Hate Their Bodies and Spend Their Money. ISBN 1550137409 )
  • Schoenfielder, Lisa (ed) and Wieser, Barb (ed) (1983). Shadow on a Tightrope: Writings by Women on Fat Oppression. Iowa City: Aunt Lute Book Co. ISBN 1879960249
  • Seid, Roberta Pollack (1989). Never Too Thin: Why Women Are at War with Their Bodies. New York: Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0136156002
  • Solovay, Sondra (2000). Tipping the Scales of Justice: Fighting Weight-Based Discrimination. Amherst: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1573927643
  • Thomas, Pattie and Wilkerson, Carl (2005). Taking Up Space: How Eating Well and Exercising Regularly Changed My Life. Pearlsong Press. ISBN 1597190020
  • Wann, Marilyn (1998). Fat!So?: Because You Don't Have to Apologize for Your Size. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0898159954

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fat acceptance movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1093 words)
The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people.
Fat acceptance covers several fronts but generally can be described as attempting to change societal, internal, and medical attitudes about fat people, despite a great deal of criticism.
Fat acceptance is a social acceptance issue and has ties and common ground with the feminist movement and lesbianism, as is shown above, and is associated with broader civil rights movements.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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