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Encyclopedia > Fat Man
Fat Man

A post-war "Fat Man" model.
Type Nuclear weapon
Place of origin United States
Specifications
Weight 10,200 lbs (4,630 kg)
Length 10.6 Feet (3.25m)
Diameter 5 Feet (1.52m)

Blast yield 21 kilotons

"Fat Man" is the codename, allegedly named after Winston Churchill[1], of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. It was the second of the two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare and was the third man-made nuclear explosion at that time. The name also refers more generically to the early nuclear weapon designs of U.S. weapons based on the "Fat Man" model. It was an implosion-type weapon with a plutonium core. Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Unit of energy commonly used to quantify laerge amounts of energy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Fat Man (or Fatman) may refer to Fat Man, a nuclear bomb detonated over Nagasaki during World War II Sydney Greenstreets character Kasper Gutman (aka The Fat Man) in movie The Maltese Falcon, after which the atomic bomb was named The Fat Man (radio) a popular mid-20th century... Churchill redirects here. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


"Fat Man" was detonated at an altitude of about 1,800 feet (550 m) over the city, and was dropped from a B-29 bomber Bockscar, piloted by Major Charles Sweeney. The bomb had a yield of about 21 kilotons of TNT, or 8.78×1013 joules = 88 TJ (terajoules).[2] Because of Nagasaki's hilly terrain, the damage was somewhat less extensive than that in relatively flat Hiroshima. An estimated 40,000 people were killed outright by the bombing at Nagasaki, and about 25,000 were injured.[3] Many thousands more would die later from related injuries, and radiation sickness from nuclear fallout. The aerial bombing raid on Nagasaki had third highest fatality rate[4] in World War II after the nuclear strike on Hiroshima[5][6][7][8] and the March 9/10 1945 fire bombing raid on Tokyo[9]. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Bockscar nose art. ... Brigadier General Charles W. Sweeney (1919 - July 15, 2004) was an officer in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II and the pilot who flew the Fat Man atomic bomb to Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ...

Contents

Technology

Illustration of the implosion concept.

The weapon was 10 feet 8 inches (3.25 m) long, five feet (1.52 m) in diameter, and weighed 10,200 pounds (4,630 kg). In accordance with the name, it was more than twice as wide as Little Boy, which was dropped on Hiroshima three days earlier; however, the mass was only 10% more than that of Little Boy. Image File history File links Implosion_Nuclear_weapon. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ...


"Fat Man" was an implosion-type weapon using plutonium. A subcritical sphere of plutonium was placed in the center of a hollow sphere of high explosive. Numerous detonators located on the surface of the high explosive were fired simultaneously to produce a powerful inward pressure on the core, squeezing it and increasing its density, resulting in a supercritical condition and a nuclear explosion. In an explosion (top), force radiates away from a source. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about nuclear technology. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The exploding-bridgewire detonator (EBW, also known as exploding wire detonator) was invented by Luis Alvarez and Lawrence Johnston for the Fat Man-type bombs of the Manhattan Project, during their work in Los Alamos National Laboratory. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...


The difficulty in the design lay primarily in properly compressing the plutonium core into a near-perfect sphere; if the compression was not symmetrical it would cause the plutonium to be ejected from the weapon, making it an inefficient "dirty bomb". In order to accomplish the compression, the high explosive system had to be carefully designed as a series of explosive lenses which used alternating fast- and slow-burning explosives to shape the explosive shockwave into the desired spherical shape. An early idea of this sort had been raised by physicist Richard Tolman during early discussions of possible bomb designs, specifically in having many pieces of fissile material attached to explosives that would then assemble them in a spherical fashion. This idea was further developed by Seth Neddermeyer, who attempted to find a way to collapse a hollow sphere of plutonium onto a solid sphere of it inside itself. Neither of these ideas relied on compression of the plutonium, and neither would assemble the device fast enough to avoid predetonation (see discussion below).[10] The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ... Modern high explosive lenses. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Richard C. Tolman was California Institute of Technology professor of physical chemistry and mathematical physics. ... Seth Neddermeyer was a physicist who worked in the Manhattan project. ... Collapse is a puzzle game published in 1999 by the software company GameHouse. ...


The idea of using shaped charges came from mathematician John von Neumann, and the idea that under such pressures the plutonium metal itself would be compressed may have come about from conversations with Edward Teller, whose knowledge of how dense metals behaved under heavy pressure was influenced by his theoretical studies of the Earth's core with George Gamov.[10] Von Neumann and George Kistiakowsky eventually became the principal architects behind the lens system. Robert Christy is generally credited with the insight that a solid subcritical sphere of plutonium could be compressed to a critical state greatly simplifying the task since earlier efforts had attempted the more difficult compression of shapes like spherical shells. Because Christy's insight made the feasibility of a plutonium bomb much more likely, the weapon tested at Alamagordo and used at Nagasaki is sometimes referred to as the "Christy Gadget." Sectioned HEAT round with the inner shaped charge visible 1:Aerodynamic cover 2: Empty room 3: Conical liner 4: Detonator 5: Explosive 6: Piezo-electric sensor A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Austria-Hungary-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ... George Gamow (pronounced GAM-off) (March 4, 1904 – August 19, 1968) , born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Гамов) was a Ukrainian born physicist and cosmologist. ... George Kistiakowskys ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... Robert F. Christy was awarded the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1967. ...

The "Trinity" device was similar to the "Fat Man" bomb.

At first it was thought that two pieces of subcritical plutonium (Pu-239) could simply be shot into one another to create a nuclear explosion, and a plutonium gun-type design of this sort (known as the "Thin Man" bomb) was worked on for some time during the Manhattan Project. However in April 1944 it was discovered by Emilio Segré that plutonium created for the bomb in the nuclear reactors at Hanford, Washington—even though it was supergrade weapon plutonium containing only about 0.9% Pu-240—was not as pure as the initial samples of plutonium developed at the cyclotrons at Ernest O. Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Because of the presence of the Pu-240 isotope, reactor-bred plutonium had a much higher rate of spontaneous neutron emission than was previously thought, and if a gun-type device was used it would most likely pre-detonate and result in a messy and costly "fizzle." The spontaneous fission rate of Pu-240 is 40,000 times greater than that of Pu-239, so that in a gun-type plutonium device of the sort planned during the Manhattan Project, the last few centimeters would have to be traveled in less than 40 microseconds. Setting up the gadget at the Trinity site, 1945. ... Setting up the gadget at the Trinity site, 1945. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... The Thin Man (formally, Mark 2) nuclear bomb was a proposed plutonium gun-type nuclear bomb which the United States was developing during the Manhattan Project. ... Portrait of Emilio Segrè. Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 – April 22, 1989) was an italian physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 - August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate best known for his invention of the cyclotron. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Neutron emission is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom contains excess neutrons and a neutron is simply ejected from the nucleus. ... Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay characteristic of very heavy isotopes, and is theoretically possible for any atomic nucleus whose mass is greater than or equal to 100 amu (elements near ruthenium). ...


After this problem was realized, the entire Los Alamos laboratory re-organized around the problem of the implosion bomb, the "Fat Man" starting in June 1944. Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ...


The gun-type method could still be used for highly enriched uranium, though, and was employed in the "Little Boy" weapon, which was used against Hiroshima. The implosion method is more efficient than the gun-type method, and also far safer, as a perfect synchronization of the explosion lenses is required for the core to properly detonate, greatly reducing the chances of an accidental nuclear detonation. General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ...

As a result of espionage information procured by Klaus Fuchs, the first Soviet bomb, "RDS–1" (above) closely resembled Fat Man, even in its external shape.
As a result of espionage information procured by Klaus Fuchs, the first Soviet bomb, "RDS–1" (above) closely resembled Fat Man, even in its external shape.

Because of its complicated firing mechanism, and the need for previously untested synchronization of explosives and precision design, it was felt that a full test of the concept was needed before the scientists and military representatives could be confident it would perform correctly under combat conditions. On July 16, 1945, a device utilizing a similar mechanism (called the "gadget" for security reasons) detonated in a test explosion at a remote site in New Mexico, known as the "Trinity" test. It gave somewhere around 20 kt (80 TJ), 2 to 4 times the expected yield. Image File history File linksMetadata RDS-1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RDS-1. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... External links http://gawain. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The gadget, partially assembled on the shot tower for the Trinity test. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ...


The Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon detonated at Operation First Lightning (known as "Joe 1" in the West) was closely based on the "Fat Man" device, on which they had obtained detailed information from the spy Klaus Fuchs. Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... External links http://gawain. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ...


The names for all three projects ("Fat Man", "Thin Man", and "Little Boy") were created by Robert Serber, a former student of Los Alamos director Robert Oppenheimer's who worked on the project. According to his later memoirs, he chose them based on their design shapes; the "Thin Man" would be a very long device, and the name came from the Dashiell Hammett detective novel and series of movies by the same name; the "Fat Man" bomb would be round and fat and was named after Sidney Greenstreet's character in The Maltese Falcon. "Little Boy" would come last and be named only to contrast to the "Thin Man" bomb.[11] Robert Serber (1909 - June 1, 1997) was a physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... The Thin Man (1934) is a hardboiled detective novel by Dashiell Hammett. ... For other uses, see The Thin Man (disambiguation). ... Sydney Greenstreet (December 27, 1879 - January 18, 1954) was an actor, originally from Sandwich, England. ... Actors Bogart, Lorre, Astor and Greenstreet in The Maltese Falcon (1941) The Maltese Falcon (1930) is a detective novel by Dashiell Hammett that has been adapted several times for the cinema. ...


Interior of bomb

The original blueprints of the interior of both Fat Man and Little Boy are still classified. However, much information about the main parts is available in the unclassified public literature. Of particular interest is a description of Fat Man sent to Moscow by Soviet spies at Los Alamos in 1945. It was released by the Russian government in 1992.[12]


Below is a diagram of the main parts of the "Fat Man" bomb itself, followed by a more detailed look at the different materials used in the physics package of the bomb (the part responsible for the nuclear detonation). Physics package is a euphemism for the portion of a nuclear weapon that includes the actual explosive portion of the weapon: the detonator explosives, the fissile material, and (for fusion weapons) fusion fuel. ...

  1. AN 219 contact fuse (four)
  2. Archie radar antenna
  3. Plate with batteries (to detonate charge surrounding nuclear components)
  4. X-Unit, a firing set placed near the charge
  5. Hinge fixing the two ellipsoidal parts of the bomb
  6. Physics package (see details below)
  7. Plate with instruments (radars, baroswitches and timers)
  8. Barotube collector
  9. California Parachute tail assembly (.20-inch aluminium sheet)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Physics package

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (735 × 789 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This drawing is a modification of the one uploaded by FastFission with URL http://commons. ...


Assembly

Jim Sanborn's "Critical Assembly." The bottom hemisphere of the pusher, with pieces of the boron shell, tamper, pit, and urchin.
Jim Sanborn's "Critical Assembly." The bottom hemisphere of the pusher, with pieces of the boron shell, tamper, pit, and urchin.
The physics package getting its shell.
Fat Man on its transport carriage.

To allow insertion of the plutonium pit as late as possible in the bomb's assembly, the spherical U-238 tamper had a 4" diameter cylindrical hole running through it, like the hole in a cored apple. The missing cylinder, containing the plutonium pit, could be slipped in through a hole in the surrounding aluminium pusher. In August 1945, it was assembled on Tinian Island. When the physics package was fully assembled and wired, it was placed inside its ellipsoidal aerodynamic bombshell and wheeled to the bomb bay of a B-29 named "Bockscar" for its flight to Nagasaki on August 9. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2003, these concentric spheres and cylinder were recreated as the centerpiece of an art installation called "Critical Assembly" by sculptor Jim Sanborn. Using non-nuclear materials, he replicated the internal components of the "Trinity" bomb, which had the same design as Fat Man. Critical Assembly was first displayed at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, in Washington, DC.[13]


Detonation sequence

The plutonium must be compressed to twice its normal density before free neutrons are added to start the fission chain reaction:

  •      An exploding-bridgewire detonator simultaneously starts a detonation wave in each of the 32 tapered high explosive columns (12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal - in the pattern of a soccer ball skin).
  •      The detonation wave (arrows) is initially convex in the
  •      faster explosive, Composition B: 60% RDX, 39% TNT, 1% wax. Its shape becomes concave in the
  •      slower explosive (Baratol). The 32 waves merge into a single spherical implosive wave before they hit the
  •      faster explosive, Composition B, of the inner charges.
  •      The medium-density aluminum "pusher" transitions the imploding shock wave from low-density explosive to high-density uranium, minimizing undesirable turbulence; the shock wave then compresses the inner components. At the very center, the
  •      berylliumpolonium-210 "initiator" (the "urchin") is crushed, bringing the two metals in contact to release a burst of neutrons into the compressed
  •      "pit" of plutonium-239–plutonium-240–gallium delta-phase alloy (96%–1%–3% by molarity). A fission chain reaction starts. The tendency of the fissioning pit to prematurely blow itself apart is retarded by the inward momentum of the
  •      natural-uranium "tamper" (inertial containment). The tamper also reflects neutrons back into the pit, speeding up the chain reaction.
  •      The boron plastic shell was intended to protect the pit from stray neutrons, but was later deemed unnecessary.

The result is the fissioning of about two and a half of the thirteen pounds of plutonium in the pit, and the release of twenty-one kilotons of energy (21,000 tons of TNT). The exploding-bridgewire detonator (EBW, also known as exploding wire detonator) was invented by Luis Alvarez and Lawrence Johnston for the Fat Man-type bombs of the Manhattan Project, during their work in Los Alamos National Laboratory. ... Composition B is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT as well as, in some instances, additional desensitizing agents. ... RDX redirects here. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Baratol is an explosive made of a mixture of TNT and barium nitrate, with a small quantity of wax used as a binder. ... Composition B is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT as well as, in some instances, additional desensitizing agents. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Fat Man

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... Fat Man and Little Boy (aka Shadow Makers in the UK) is a 1989 film that reenacts the Manhattan Project, the secret Allied endeavor to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It is named after the nuclear weapons known as Fat Man and Little Boy, and also... This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... The gadget, partially assembled on the shot tower for the Trinity test. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/9/newsid_3580000/3580143.stm
  2. ^ http://www.warbirdforum.com/hiroshim.htm
  3. ^ http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/abomb/mp10.htm
  4. ^ http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/nagasaki.htm
  5. ^ http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11340&page=141
  6. ^ http://www.rerf.or.jp/general/qa_e/
  7. ^ Radiobiology for the radiologist. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th edition. Chapter 10, Sections 3,4,5.
  8. ^ http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/hiroshima.htm
  9. ^ Richard B. Frank, Downfall, p. 17–18.
  10. ^ a b Edward Teller, Memoirs: A Twentieth-Century Journey in Science and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2001): 174-176.
  11. ^ Robert Serber, Peace & War: Reminiscences of a Life on the Frontiers of Science (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998): 104.
  12. ^ V.P. Visgin, ed. 1992. At the source of the Soviet atomic project: the role of espionage, 1941-1946. Problems in the History of Science and Technology 3:97. Described in Richard Rhodes, Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. Simon and Schuster, 1995. pp. 193-8.
  13. ^ Jim Sanborn, Atomic Time: Pure Science and Seduction, Jonathan Binstock, ed., Corcoran Gallery of Art, 2003, p. 23.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fat Man - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1211 words)
"Fat Man" was the codename of the atomic bomb which was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan by the United States, on August 9, 1945.
The "Trinity" device was similar to the "Fat Man" bomb.
It was eventually re-worked in the MK 4 Fat Man bomb, which was similar in principle but was appropriate for long-term stockpiling, use by non-experts, and used a more efficient implosion system (with a 60 point implosion system, compared to the 32 point weapon used in the war).
ESPN Classic - Fat Man of Pool (1169 words)
Fats was a world's champion at a shadowy sport that symbolized to a nation a misspent youth and a squandered adulthood.
Fats blew the biggest hustle in the world when he didn't capitalize on the movie when it was up for Academy Award.
His pretty wife chats with the customers and their wives up front, but Fats is in another part of town where the curtains are drawn, a light bulb blinks under a green eyeshade, the cards are dealt and the hustle is on.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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