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Encyclopedia > Fasting

Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. Concerning that from which one fasts, and the period of fasting, a fast may be total or partial. It may be observed unbroken for many uninterrupted days, or be observed only for certain periods during the day, as is the Muslim practice during the holy month of Ramadan. Depending on the tradition, fasting practices may preclude sexual activity as well as food, in addition to refraining from eating certain types or groups of foods; for example, one might refrain from eating meat. Medical fasting can be a way to promote detoxification. The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Detox, short for detoxification, in general is the removal of toxic substances. ...


Fasting for religious and spiritual reasons has been a part of human custom since pre-history. It is mentioned in the Bible, in both the Old and New Testament, the Qur'an, the Mahabharata, and the Upanishads. Fasting is also practiced in many other religious traditions and spiritual practices. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ...


Fasting is also used in a medical context to refer to the state achieved after digestion of a meal. A number of metabolic adjustments occur during fasting and many medical diagnostic tests are standardized for fasting conditions. For most medical purposes a person is assumed to be fasting after 8-12 hours. A diagnostic fast refers to prolonged fasting (from 8-72 hours depending on age) conducted under medical observation for investigation of a problem, usually hypoglycemia. Fasting has occasionally been recommended as a therapeutic intervention by physicians of many cultures, though it is uncommonly resorted to for this purpose by modern doctors. Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... A medical test is any kind of diagnostic medical procedure performed for health reasons. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ...

Contents

Religious fasting

Bahá'í faith

Main article: Nineteen Day Fast

In the Bahá'í Faith, fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset during the Bahá'í month of `Ala' (between March 2 through March 20). Bahá'u'lláh established the guidelines in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. It is the complete abstaining from both food and drink (including abstaining from smoking). Observing the fast is an individual obligation, and is binding on all Bahá'ís who have reached the age of maturity, which is fifteen years of age. The Nineteen Day Fast (March 2 - March 20) is a nineteen-day period of the year, during which members of the Baháí Faith adhere to a sunrise to sunset fast. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global Baháí community. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is the central book of the Baháí Faith, written by Baháulláh, the founder of the religion. ...


Along with obligatory prayer, it is one of the greatest obligations of a Bahá'í. The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, Shoghi Effendi, explains: "It is essentially a period of meditation and prayer, of spiritual recuperation, during which the believer must strive to make the necessary readjustments in his inner life, and to refresh and reinvigorate the spiritual forces latent in his soul. Its significance and purpose are, therefore, fundamentally spiritual in character. Fasting is symbolic, and a reminder of abstinence from selfish and carnal desires." The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ...


Buddhism

Buddhist monks and nuns following the Vinaya rules commonly do not eat each day after the noon meal, though many orders today do not enforce this. This is not considered a fast, but rather a disciplined regiment aiding in meditation. Fasting is generally considered by Buddhists as a form of asceticism and as such is rejected as a deviation from the Middle way. However, the Vajrayana practice of Nyung Ne is based on the tantric practice of Chenrezig. It is said that Chenrezig appeared to Gelongma Palmo, an Indian nun who had contracted leprosy and was on the verge of death. Chenrezig taught her the method of Nyung Ne in which one keeps the eight precepts on the first day, then refrains from both food and water on the second. Although seemingly against the Middle Way, this practice is to experience the negative karma of both oneself and all other sentient beings and, as such, is seen to be of benefit. Other self-inflicted harm is discouraged. The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Way or Middle Path (Sanskrit Madhyama Marga, Pali Majjhima Magga) is the Buddhist philosophy expounded by Gautama Buddha. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokitesvara or Avalokiteshvara is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. ... The Eight Precepts are the precepts for Buddhist lay men and women who wish to practice a bit more strictly than the usual five precepts for Buddhists. ...


Christianity

The "acceptable fast" is discussed in the biblical Book of Isaiah, chapter 58:3-7, and is discussed metaphorically. In essence, it means to abstain from satisfying hunger or thirst, and any other lustful needs we may yearn for. The blessings gained from this are claimed to be substantial. Christian denominations that practice this acceptable fast often attest to the spiritual principles surrounding fasting and seek to become a testament to those principles. The opening chapter of the Book of Daniel, vv. 8-16, describes a partial fast and its effects on the health of its observers. Fasting is a practice in several Christian denominations or other churches. Other Christian denominations do not practice it, seeing it as a merely external observance, but many individual believers choose to observe fasts at various times at their own behest, and the Lenten fast observed in Anglicanism is a forty day partial fast to commemorate the fast observed by Christ during his temptation in the desert. Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination, in the... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ...


Biblical accounts of fasting

  • Moses fasted for forty days and forty nights while he was on the mountain with God. (Exodus 34:28)
  • King David fasted when the son of his adulterous union with Bathsheba was struck sick by God, in punishment for the adultery and for David's murder of Bathsheba's husband, Uriah the Hittite. Nevertheless, the son died, upon which David broke his fast (2 Samuel 12:15-25).
  • King Jehosaphat proclaimed a fast throughout Judah for victory over the Moabites and Ammonites who were attacking them (2 Chronicles 20:3).
  • The prophet Isaiah chastised the Israelites in Isaiah 58 for the unrighteous methods and motives of their fasting. He clarified some of the best reasons for fasting and listed both physical and spiritual benefits that would result.[1]
  • The prophet Joel called for a fast to avert the judgement of God.
  • The people of Nineveh in response to Jonah's prophecy, fasted to avert the judgement of God (Jonah 3:7).
  • The Jews of Persia, following Mordechai's example, fasted due to the genocidal decree of Haman. Queen Esther declared a three-day fast for all the Jews prior to risking her life in visiting King Ahasuerus uninvited (Esther 4).
  • The Pharisees in Jesus' time fasted regularly, and asked Jesus why his disciples did not. Jesus answered them using a parable (Luke 5:33-39, Matthew 9:14-15, Mark 2:18-20).
  • Jesus also warned against fasting to gain favor from men. He warned his followers that they should fast in private, not letting others know they were fasting (Matthew 6:16–18).
  • Jesus fasted for forty days and forty nights while in the desert, prior to the three temptations (Matthew 4:2, Luke 4:2).
  • Jesus said : But this kind (of demon) does not go out except by prayer and fasting. (Matthew 17:21)
  • And he (Jesus) said unto them (disciples), This kind (of demon) can come forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting. (Mark 9:29)
  • The prophetess Anna, who proclaimed the birth of Jesus in the Temple, fasted regularly (Luke 2:37).
  • There are indications in the New Testament as well as from the Apocryphal Didache that members of the early Christian Church fasted regularly.

Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Bathsheba (בת שבע) is the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of King David in the Hebrew Bible. ... Uriah the Hittite was the husband of Bathsheba, a soldier in David’s army, whose death David ordered by having the soldiers retreat away from him in battle after he kept refusing to see his own wife, as ordered by David. ... The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally writtten in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ... Jehoshaphat or Jehosaphat or Josaphat or Yehoshafat (יְהוֹשָׁפָט The Lord is judge, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was the son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. ... Look up Judah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (Redirected from 2 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Book of Joel. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... The beginnings of history of the Jews in Iran date back to late biblical times. ... Mordecai or Mordechai (מָרְדֳּכַי, Standard Hebrew Mordoḫay, Tiberian Hebrew Mordŏḵay: Persian origin Contrition) - the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin. ... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ... Haman is a name that is applied to different personages in different religious traditions: Haman (Bible), appears in the Book of Esther and is the main villain in the Jewish holiday of Purim. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Ahasuerus or Ahasverus (Hebrew אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, Standard Hebrew AḥaÅ¡veroÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḫaÅ¡wÄ“rôš) is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible and related legends and apocrypha. ... Megillah redirects here. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Mark 9 is the ninth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Anna at the presentation of Jesus (right), from Giotto, Chapel of Scrovegni. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ...

Denominations and groups

Charismatic

For Charismatic Christians fasting is undertaken at the leading of God. Fasting is done in order to seek a closer intimacy with God, as well as an act of petition. Some take up a regular fast of one or two days a week as a spiritual observance. Holiness movements, such as those started by John Wesley, Charles Wesley, and George Whitefield in the early days of Methodism, often practice such regular fasts as part of their regimen. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... John Wesley (June 28 [O.S. June 17] 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an eighteenth-century Anglican minister and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Charles Wesley (12 December 1707 - 29 March 1788) was a leader of the Methodist movement, the younger brother of John Wesley. ... George Whitefield (December 16, 1714 - September 30, 1770), was a minister in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...


Eastern Orthodox Church
Main article: Eastern Orthodoxy: Fasting

For Orthodox Christians, there are four fasting seasons, which include Nativity Fast, Great Lent, Apostles' Fast and Dormition Fast. ... ... The Nativity Fast, practiced by the Eastern Orthodox Church, is believed to enable participants to draw closer to God by denying the body of worldly pleasure in preparation for celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ, which is held on December 25th (Julian Calendar). ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Dormition of the Virgin redirects here. ...


Wednesdays and Fridays are also fast days throughout the year (with the exception of fast-free periods). In some Orthodox monasteries, Mondays are also observed as fast days (Mondays are dedicated to the holy Angels, and monasticism is called the "angelic life"). Monastery of St. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ...


Fasting during these times also includes abstention from animal products (meat and often fish), olive oil (or all oils, according to some Orthodox traditions), and wine (which is interpreted as including all alcoholic beverages).


Fasting can take up a significant portion of the calendar year. The idea is not to suffer, but to use the experience to come closer to God, to realize one's excesses, and to engage in almsgiving. Fasting without increased prayer and almsgiving (donating to a local charity, or directly to the poor, depending on circumstances) is considered useless or even spiritually harmful by many Orthodox Christians. Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck Charity, meaning selfless giving, is one conventional English translation of the Greek term agapē. // Etymology In the 1400, charity meant the state of love or simple affection which one was in or out of regarding one...


Those desiring to receive Holy Communion keep a total fast from all food and drink from midnight the night before. The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...


Certain festal periods are fast-free, meaning that fasting is forbidden, even on Wednesdays and Fridays (though fasting before Holy Communion is never relaxed, except for health reasons). These periods are:

  • The 12 days from the Nativity of Christ to Theophany (Epiphany)
  • The week following Pascha (Easter)—and during the 50 days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost, the fasting laws are lessened, wine and oil being permitted even on Wednesdays and Fridays
  • The week following Pentecost

For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Epiphany may refer to. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ...

Oriental Orthodox Churches
Main article: Coptic abstinence

With exception of the Fifty days following Easter in the Coptic Orthodox Church fish is not allowed during Lent , Wednesdays, Fridays and Baramon days. Other than that Fish and Shellfish are allowed during Fasting days. The Copts, the Christians of Egypt, who belong mostly to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, observe Fasting periods according to the Coptic Calendar. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ...


The discipline of fasting entails that apart from Saturdays, Sundays and Holy feasts should keep a total fast from all food and drink from midnight the night before to a certain time in the day usually Three O'clock in the afternoon (The hour Jesus died on the Cross) , Also it is preferred to practice the reduction of one's daily intake of food (typically, by eating only one full meal a day). This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Protestant churches

In Protestantism, the continental Reformers criticized fasting as a purely external observance that can never gain a person salvation. The Swiss Reformation of the "Third Reformer" Huldrych Zwingli began with an ostentatious public sausage-eating during Lent. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate and population of Zürich in the 1520s. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... This article is about the prepared meat. ...


On the other hand, churches of the Anglican Communion and some American Protestant denominations, such as the United Methodist Church, affected by liturgical renewal movements encourage fasting as part of both Lent and Advent, two penitential seasons of the Liturgical Year. Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination. ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... Advent (from the Latin Adventus, implicitly coupled with Redemptoris, the coming of the Saviour) is a holy season of the Christian church, the period of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Christ, also known as the season of Christmas. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about...


Likewise, Lutheran churches encourage fasting during lent. They also encourage it before partaking in the Eucharist, as Luther writes in his Small Catechism: Who, then, receives such Sacrament worthily? Fasting and bodily preparation is, indeed, a fine outward training; but he is truly worthy and well prepared who has faith in these words: Given, and shed for you, for the remission of sins.[citation needed]


Members of the Anabaptist movement (e.g. Amish, Mennonite, Hutterite, et. al.) generally fast, but in private. The practice is not regulated by ecclesiatic authority. [1] Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Mennonites are a group of... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ...


Other Protestants consider fasting, usually accompanied by prayer, to be an important part of their personal spiritual experience, apart from any liturgical tradition. The United Methodist fast in the old Weslyean way of sundown to sundown on Mondays to Tuesdays and Thursdays to Fridays to promote discipline among Christ's followers. Mary Magdalene in prayer. ...


Roman Catholicism

For Roman Catholics, fasting is the reduction of one's intake of food to one full meal (which may not contain meat during Fridays in Lent, only fish) and two small meals (known liturgically as collations, taken in the morning and the evening). Eating solid food between meals is not permitted. Fasting is required of the faithful on specified days. Complete abstinence is the avoidance of meat for the entire day. Partial abstinence prescribes that meat be taken only once during the course of the day. To some Roman Catholics, fasting still means consuming nothing but water. Seafood is a popular staple of Catholics during Fridays of Lent. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the term collation is used to describe each of the two small meals allowed on days of fasting (with or without abstinence). ... Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ...


Pope Pius XII had initially relaxed some of the regulations concerning fasting in 1956. In 1966, Pope Paul VI in his apostolic constitution Paenitemini, changed the strictly regulated Catholic fasting requirements. He recommended that fasting be appropriate to the local economic situation, and that all Catholics voluntarily fast and abstain. In the United States, there are only two obligatory days of fast - Ash Wednesday and Good Friday. The Fridays of Lent are days of abstinence: those observing the practice may not eat meat. Pastoral teachings since 1966 have urged voluntary fasting during Lent and voluntary abstinence on the other Fridays of the year. The regulations concerning such activities do not apply when the ability to work or the health of a person would be negatively affected. Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Paenitemini is a 1966 apostolic constitution by Pope Paul VI. In Paenitemini Paul changed the strictly regulated Catholic fasting requirements. ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ...


Prior to the changes made by Pius XII and Paul VI, fasting and abstinence were more strictly regulated. The church had prescribed that Catholics observed fasting and/or abstinence on a number of days throughout the year.


In addition to the fasts mentioned above, Catholics must also observe the Eucharistic Fast, which involves taking nothing but water and medicines into the body for some time before receiving the Eucharist during the Mass. The ancient practice was to fast from midnight until Mass that day, but as Masses after noon and in the evening became common, this was soon modified to fasting for three hours. Current law under Vatican II requires merely one hour of eucharistic fast, although some Catholics still abide by the older rules. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Latter-day Saint fasting is total abstinence from food and water. Adherents are encouraged to fast totally for two consecutive meal times once a month, and the first Sunday of the month is usually designated a Fast Sunday; some Latter-day Saints who observe the monthly fast begin the Saturday before this day by not partaking of the Saturday evening meal. Others abstain from breakfast and lunch on Fast Sunday. The importance should be placed on the attitude of one fasting, rather than on a legalistic debate over how long the fast should continue. The money saved by not having to purchase and prepare meals is to be donated to the church as a fast offering, which is to be used to help people in need. LDS President Gordon B. Hinckley asked: “What would happen if the principles of fast day and the fast offering were observed throughout the world[?] The hungry would be fed, the naked clothed, the homeless sheltered. … A new measure of concern and unselfishness would grow in the hearts of people everywhere.” (“The State of the Church,” Ensign, May 1991, 52–53.) A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Fast Sunday is a Sunday (usually the first Sunday of every month) set aside for fasting. ... Fast offering is the term used in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to denote money donated to the church in order to help the needy. ... Gordon Bitner Hinckley (born June 23, 1910) has been the 15th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since March 12, 1995. ...


Sunday worship meetings on Fast Sunday include opportunities for church members to publicly express thanks and to bear their testimony of faith. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Fast Sunday is a Sunday (usually the first Sunday of every month) set aside for fasting. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ...


Because fasting involves exercising control of the physical body, subjugating it to the mind, many Latter-day Saints consider fasting a way to focus on the spiritual body, and use it in connection with prayer to make it more meaningful.


Hinduism

Fasting is a very integral part of the Hindu religion. Individuals observe different kinds of fasts based on personal beliefs and local customs. Some are listed below. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

  • Some Hindus fast on certain days of the month such as Ekadasi or Purnima.
  • Certain days of the week are also set aside for fasting depending on personal belief and favorite deity.
  • Thursday fasting is very common among the [[Hindu][Hindus]] of northern India. On Thursdays devotees listen to a story before breaking their fast. On the Thursday fasters also worship Vrihaspati Mahadeva or Jupiter. They wear yellow clothes, and meals with yellow colour are preferred. Women worship the banana tree and water it. Food items are made with yellow-coloured ghee.
  • Fasting during religious festivals is also very common. Common examples are Maha Shivaratri or the 9 days of Navratri (which occurs twice a year in the months of April and October/November during Vijayadashami just before Diwali, as per the Hindu calendar). Karwa Chauth is a form of fasting unique to the northern part of India where married women undertake a fast for the well-being, prosperity, and longevity of their husbands. The fast is broken after the wife views the moon through a sieve after sunset.

Methods of fasting also vary widely and cover a broad spectrum. If followed strictly, the person fasting does not partake any food or water from the previous day's sunset until 48 minutes after the following day's sunrise. Fasting can also mean limiting oneself to one meal during the day and/or abstaining from eating certain food types and/or eating only certain food types. In any case, even if the fasting Hindu is non-vegetarian, he/she is not supposed to eat or even touch any animal products (i.e. meat, eggs)on a day of fasting. Ekadasi is the eleventh lunar day (Tithi) of the shukla (bright) or krishna (dark) paksha (fortnight) respectively, of every lunar month in the Hindu calendar (Panchang). ... For other uses, see Full Moon. ... Look up Story in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ghee in a jar Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Ghee Ghee (Hindi घी from Sanskrit ghṛta घृत sprinkled ) is a type of clarified butter important in Indian cuisine. ... Maha Shivratri or Maha Sivaratri or Shivaratri or Sivaratri (Night of Shiva) is a Hindu festival celebrated every year on the 14th day in the Krishna Paksha of the month Maagha (as per Shalivahana) or Phalguna(as per Vikrama) in the Hindu Calendar. ... It has been suggested that Dasara be merged into this article or section. ... Vijayadashami (also known as Dussehra) is a festival celebrated across India. ... This article is about the Religious festival. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Karwa Chauth is celebrated by married women in India by fasting for the long life of their husbands. ...


Islam

Main article: Sawm

In Islam, fasting for a month is an obligatory practice during the holy month of Ramadan, from fajr (dawn), until maghrib (sunset). Muslims are prohibited from eating, drinking, smoking, and engaging in sexual intercourse while fasting. Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the Pillars of Islam, and thus one of the most important acts of Islamic worship. By fasting, whether during Ramadan or other times, a Muslim draws closer to their Lord by abandoning the things they enjoy, such as food and drink. This makes the sincerity of their faith and their devotion to God (Arabic:Allah) all the more evident. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The Fajr prayer is the dawn daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims. ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The religion of Islam consists of faith (إيمان, īmān) and practice (دين, dīn). ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


The Qur'an states that fasting was prescribed for those before them (i.e., the Jews and Christians) and that by fasting a Muslim gains taqwa, which can be described as the care taken by a person to do everything God has commanded and to keep away from everything that He has forbidden. Fasting helps prevent many sins and is a shield with which the Muslim protects him/herself from jahannam (hell). The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Taqwa is a concept in Islam that is interpreted by some Islamic Scholars as God consciousness. ... Jahannam (Arabic: ) is the Islamic equivalent to hell. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ...


Muslims believe that fasting is more than abstaining from food and drink. It also includes abstaining from any falsehood in speech and action, from any ignorant and indecent speech, and from arguing and fighting, and lustful thoughts. Therefore, fasting helps develop good behavior. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Fasting also inculcates a sense of fraternity and solidarity, as Muslims feel and experience what their needy and hungry brothers and sisters feel. However, even the poor, needy, and hungry participate in the fast. Moreover, Ramadan is a month of giving charity and sharing meals to break the fast together. Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck Charity, meaning selfless giving, is one conventional English translation of the Greek term agapē. // Etymology In the 1400, charity meant the state of love or simple affection which one was in or out of regarding one...


While fasting in the month of Ramadan is considered Fard (obligatory), Islam also prescribed certain days for non-obligatory, voluntary fasting, such as: Fard (Arabic: ) also farida (Arabic: ) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ...

  • each Monday and Thursday of a week
  • the 13th, 14th, and 15th day of each lunar month
  • six days in the month of Shawwal (the month following Ramadan)
  • the Day of Arafat (9th of Dhu al-Hijjah in the Hijri (Islamic calendar))
  • the Day of Ashuraa (10th of Muharram in the Hijri calendar), with one more day of fasting before or after it

Although fasting is fard, exceptions are made for persons in particular circumstances: Shawwal is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. ... The Day of Arafat is an Islamic Holy Day, in which it is said that the religion had been perfected. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is the calendar used to date events in predominately Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ...

  • Prepubescent children; though some parents will encourage their children fast earlier for shorter periods, so the children get used to fasting.
  • Serious illness; the days lost to illness will have to be made up after recovery.
  • If one is traveling, since the fajr and maghrib times will change; but one must make up any days missed upon arriving at one's destination.
  • Women who are pregnant and too physically weak.
  • A woman during her menstural period; although she must count the days she missed and make them up at the end of Ramadan.

The Fajr prayer is the dawn daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims. ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ...

Jainism

There are many types of fasting in Jainism. One is called Chauvihar Upwas, in which no food or water may be consumed until sunrise the next day. Another is called Tivihar Upwas, in which no food may be consumed, but boiled water is allowed. The main goal of any type of Fasting in Jainism is to achieve complete Non-Violence(दया)during that period. Fasting is usually done during Paryushana but can be done during other times. If one fasts for the eight days of Paryushana, it is called Atthai, and when it is for One Month, it is known as Maskhamana. Also, it is common for Jains not to fast but only to limit their intake of food. When a person only eats lentils and tasteless food with salt and pepper as the only spices, the person is said to do Ayambil. This is supposed to decrease desire and passion. Self-starvation by fasting is known as Sallekhana and is supposed to help shed karma according to Jain philosophy. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Another form of fasting is Santhara , the Jain religious ritual of voluntary death by fasting. Supporters of the practice believe that Santhara cannot be considered suicide, but rather something one does with full knowledge and intent, while suicide is viewed as emotional and hasty. Due to the prolonged nature of Santhara, the individual is given ample time to reflect on his or her life. The vow of Santhara is taken when one feels that one's life has served its purpose. The goal of Santhara is to purify the body and, with this, the individual strives to abandon desire. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Judaism

Main article: Ta'anit

Fasting for Jews means completely abstaining from food and drink, including water. Taking medication, or even brushing teeth is forbidden on the major fast days of Yom Kippur and Tisha B'Av (See below), but permitted on minor fast days. Observant Jews fast on six days of the year. With the exception of Yom Kippur, fasting is never permitted on Shabbat, for the commandment of keeping Shabbat is biblically ordained and overrides the later rabbinically-instituted fast days. Yom Kippur is the only fast day which is explicitly stated in the Torah. Taanit is a fast in the Jewish religion. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew: יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: [jɔm kiˈpur] or [jɔm ˈkɪpər]) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Yom Kippur is considered to be the most important day of the Jewish year and fasting as a means of repentance is mandatory for every Jewish man and boy above the age of bar mitzvah and every Jewish woman and girl above the age of bat mitzvah. It is so vital to fast on this day, that only those who would be put in danger by fasting are exempt, such as the ill, elderly, or pregnant or nursing women. Those that do eat on this day are encouraged to eat as little as possible at a time and to avoid a full meal. For some, fasting on Yom Kippur is considered more important than the prayers of this holy day. If one fasts, even if one is at home in bed, one is considered as having participated in the full religious service. In addition to fasting and prayer, Yom Kippur--as the "Sabbath of the Sabbaths" has the same restrictions regarding "work" as the Sabbath. Carrying outside of the home, using electricity, cooking, riding in a car, using the telephone, writing, etc. are all forbidden. No leather shoes are worn on this day. Men may wear a white gown (kittel) over their clothes, symbolic of a burial shroud on this Day of Judgement. Some women may often wear a large white scarf over their heads and do not put on make-up or jewelry. The aura of the day is serious, humble, sacred and repentant yet happy in the knowledge that sincere repentance brings redemption. When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ...


The second major day of fasting is Tisha B'Av, the day nearly 2000 years ago on which the Romans destroyed the Holy Temple in Jerusalem and the Jews were banished from their homeland. Tisha B'Av ends a period of nine days in which Jews do not participate in happy events, wash clothes, eat meat except on the Sabbath, cut hair or swim. In general, these nine days and to some extent the entire three weeks before Tisha B'Av are considered a time of danger for Jews. Historically, this timeframe has been ripe with persecutions and other tragic events. Unlike the fast of Yom Kippur, there are no restrictions on activities, although one should try to avoid doing regular work the first part of the day, sit in a low chair or on the floor, and wear no leather shoes. This is also the day when observant Jews remember the many tragedies which have befallen the Jewish people, including the Holocaust. The atmosphere of this holiday is serious and deeply sad. Tisha BAv (Hebrew: תשעה באב or ט׳ באב), or the Ninth of Av, is an annual fast day in Judaism. ...


Both of these holy days are considered major fasts and are observed from sunset to sunset the following day by both men and women. The remaining four fasts are considered minor and fasting is only observed from sunrise to sunset. Men must observe them, and women should observe them, but a rabbi may often give dispensions if the fast represents too much of a hardship to a sick or weak person.


The minor fast days are:

Additional fast days such as the Fast of the Firstborn, which only applies to first-born sons; family-instituted fasts in remembrance of a miraculous delivery from tragedy, which only apply to certain families or to certain regions; communal fasts in the face of impending calamity in order to arouse benevolence from the Heavens; or personal fasts as a means of repentance are not undertaken by the entire Jewish community. The Fast of Gedalia (or Gedaliah) is a Jewish fast from dawn till dusk to commemorate the death of a Jew of that name. ... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... The Fast of Esther known as Taanit Ester is a Jewish fast from dusk until dawn, commemorating the three day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, from Akkadian pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance from Hamans plot to annihilate all the Jews of the Persian Empire, who had survived the Babylonian captivity, after Persia had conquered Babylonia who in turn had destroyed the First Temple... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ...


On the two major fast days it is also forbidden to engage in any sexual relations, wash or bathe, apply cosmetics or creams, and even wear leather shoes, which are considered a symbol of extravagance. Partial or total exemptions apply in many cases for those who are ill, those for whom fasting would pose a medical risk, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. Those who would be endangered from fasting are forbidden to do so, as endangering one's life is against a core principle of Judaism.


Aside from these official days of fasting, Jews may take upon themselves personal or communal fasts, often to seek repentance in the face of tragedy or some impending calamity. For example, a fast is observed if the scrolls of the Torah are dropped. The length of the fast varies, and some Jews will reduce the length of the fast through tzedakah, or charitable acts. Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ...


It is customary for a bride and groom to fast on their wedding day before the ceremony as the day represents a personal Yom Kippur. Repentance prayers that are only said on Yom Kippur are included by the bride and groom in the service before the ceremony


Purpose of fasting in Judaism

Judaism views three essential potential purposes of fasting, and a combination of some or all of these could apply to any given fast. One purpose in fasting is the achievement of atonement for sins and omissions in Divine service. Fasting is not considered the primary means of acquiring atonement; rather, sincere regret for and rectification of wrongdoing is key (see Isaiah, 58:1-13, which appropriately is read as the haftorah on Yom Kippur). This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The haftarah (haftara, haphtara, haphtarah; plural haftarot, haftaros, haphtarot, haphtaros) is a text selected from the books of Neviim (The Prophets) that is read publicly in the synagogue after the reading of the Torah on each Sabbath, as well as on Jewish festivals and fast days. ...


Nevertheless, fasting is conducive to atonement, for it tends to precipitate contrition in the one who fasts (see Joel, 2:12-18). This is why the Bible requires fasting (lit. self affliction) on Yom Kippur (see Leviticus, 23:27,29,32; Numbers, 29:7; Tractate Yoma, 8:1; ibid. (Babylonian Talmud), 81a). Because, according to the Hebrew Bible, hardship and calamitous circumstances can occur as a result of wrongdoing (see, for example, Leviticus, 26:14-41), fasting is often undertaken by the community or by individuals to achieve atonement and avert catastrophe (see, for example, Esther, 4:3,16; Jonah, 3:7). Most of the Talmud's Tractate Ta'anit ("Fast[s]") is dedicated to the protocol involved in declaring and observing fast days. The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... Megillah redirects here. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ...


The second purpose in fasting is commemorative mourning. Indeed, most communal fast days that are set permanently in the Jewish calendar fulfil this purpose. These fasts include: Tisha B'Av, Seventeenth of Tammuz, Tenth of Tevet (all of the three dedicated to mourning the loss of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem), and Fast of Gedaliah. The purpose of a fast of mourning is the demonstration that those fasting are impacted by and distraught over earlier loss. This serves to heighten appreciation of that which was lost. This is in line with Isaiah (66:10), who indicates that mourning over a loss leads to increased happiness upon return of the loss: The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...

Be glad with Jerusalem, and exult in her, all those who love her; rejoice with her in celebration, all those [who were] mourners over her.

The third purpose in fasting is commemorative gratitude. Since food and drink are corporeal needs, abstinence from them serves to provide a unique opportunity for focus on the spiritual. Indeed, the Midrash explains that fasting can potentially elevate one to the exalted level of the Mal'achay HaSharait (ministering angels) (Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer, 46). This dedication is considered appropriate gratitude to God for providing salvation. Additionally, by refraining from such basic physical indulgence, one can more greatly appreciate the dependence of humanity on God, leading to appreciation of God's benificience in sustaining His creations. Indeed, Jewish philosophy considers this appreciation one of the fundamental reasons for which God endowed mankind with such basic physical needs as food and drink. This is seen from the text of the blessing customarily recited after consuming snacks or drinks: For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ...

You are the Source of all blessing, O' Eternal One, our God, King of the universe, Creator of many souls, who gave [those souls] needs for all that which You created, to give life through them to every living soul. Blessed is the Eternal Life-giver.

Sikhism

Sikhism is probably the only major organised world religion that does not promote fasting except for medical reasons. The Sikh Gurus discourage the devotee from engaging in this ritual as it is considered to "brings no spiritual benefit to the person". The Sikh holy Scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib tell us: "Fasting, daily rituals, and austere self-discipline - those who keep the practice of these, are rewarded with less than a shell."(SGGS page 216). So most Sikhs have never undertaken a fast of any kind. Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... Devotion in Christianity can mean time spent alone or in a small group of people reading and studying the Bible in a way as it relates to ones spiritual health and well being. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ...


Medical fasting

People can also fast for medical reasons, which has been an accepted practice for many years. One reason is to prepare for surgery or other procedures that require anesthetic. Because the presence of food in a person's system can cause complications during anesthesia, medical personnel strongly suggest that their patients fast for several hours (or overnight) before the procedure. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ...


Another reason for medical fasting is for certain medical tests, such as cholesterol testing (lipid panel). People are often asked to fast so that a baseline can be established. In the case of cholesterol, the failure to fast for a full 12 hours (including vitamins) will guarantee an elevated Triglyceride measurement. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ...


A longer fast for health reasons typically lasts a week or longer and includes some food intake, such as fruit or vegetable juices, as part of a detox diet. A detox diet is a dietary regimen involving a change in consumption habits in an attempt to detoxify the body by removal of toxins or other contaminants. ...


Some doctors believe that pure water fasting can not only detoxify cells and rejuvenate organs, but can relieve [2] such diseases and conditions as cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, colitis, psoriasis, lupus and some other autoimmune disorders when combined with a healthy diet. They believe that "Fasting is Nature's Restorer."[3] Water fasting is a type of fasting in which the practitioner consumes only water when they are thirsty. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon. ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is potentially debilitating and sometimes fatal as the immune system attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...


Recent studies on mice show that fasting every other day while eating double the normal amount of food on non-fasting days led to improved insulin and blood sugar control, neuronal resistance to injury, and health indicators superior to mice on 40% calorie restricted diets.[4][5] Alternate day calorie restriction may prolong lifespan[6] and attenuates diseases associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and aging[7]. Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ...


People who feel they are near the end of their life sometimes consciously refuse food or water. The term in the medical literature is patient refusal of nutrition and hydration. Contrary to popular impressions, published studies[8] indicate that "within the context of adequate palliative care, the refusal of food and fluids does not contribute to suffering among the terminally ill", and might actually contribute to a comfortable passage from life: "At least for some persons, starvation does correlate with reported euphoria." People who feel they are near the end of their life often consciously refuse food and/or water. ... Look up euphoria, euphoric in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In natural medicine, fasting is seen as a way of cleansing the body of toxins, dead or diseased tissues, and giving the gastro-intestinal system a rest. Such fasts are either water-only, or consist of fruit and vegetable juices. Some results have been achieved while including fasting in the treatment of some kinds of cancer,[9] autoimmune diseases,[10]and allergies.[11]


Common terms used in research are: reduced diet therapy (RDT), Fasting Therapy (FT) and caloric restriction. Research tends to originate from Russia, Japan and Germany.


Ayurveda describes fasting therapy as langhana which is an important treatment tool used with other therapeutic methods like heat therapy and oil therapy.


Physiological effects of fasting

See Famine response for the body's energy requirements and the changes in energy metabolism induced by fasting. The famine response is how the body of a human or animal responds to malnutrition. ...


When food is not eaten, the body looks for other ways to find energy, such as drawing on glucose from the liver's stored glycogen and fatty acids from stored fat and eventually moving on to vital protein tissues. Body, brain and nerve tissue depend on glucose for metabolism. Once the glucose is significantly used up, the body's metabolism changes, producing ketone bodies (acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Even where this transition to alternative forms of energy has been made, some parts of the brain still require glucose, and protein is still needed to produce it. If body protein loss continues, death will ensue. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ketone bodies are three chemicals that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy. ... Acetoacetic acid (also known as 3-oxobutanoic acid or diacetic acid) is a beta-keto acid of the keto acid group, its empirical formula is C4H6O3 or CH3COCH2COOH. It is a strong organic acid and can be produced in the human liver under certain conditions of poor metabolism leading to... Hydroxybutyrate may refer to: Beta-hydroxybutyrate Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid Category: ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ...


Fasting in literature

“Kafka” redirects here. ... A Hunger Artist (Ein Hungerkünstler), also translated as A Fasting Artist, is a short story by Franz Kafka published in Die Neue Rundschau in 1922. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with the spiritual journey of an Indian man called Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha. ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a Swiss-German poet, novelist, and painter. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Other

  • The Bridegroom Fast - This fast was initiated by the leaders of the International House of Prayer, and is observed on the first Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of each month. Based on Matthew 9:15, its focus is intimacy with Christ, who is described in the Bible as the bridegroom of the Church. The fast is accompanied by services in Kansas City, which are freely accessible by webcast. It is observed largely in charismatic circles.
  • Jeûne genevois (lit. "fast of Geneva") is a public holiday and day of fasting in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, occurring on the Thursday following the first Sunday of September.

The International House of Prayer in Kansas City, MO The International House of Prayer (IHOP) in Kansas City, Missouri, is one of the most visible Christian organizations of the 24-7 Prayer Movement. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... Jeûne genevois (Genevan fast) is a public holiday in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland which occurs on the Thursday following the first Sunday of September. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France and centered around the city of Geneva. ...

Pros & Cons

Pros

  • reduction of serum lipid concentrations in blood, hence having a low risk of obesity [12].

Cons

  • increases the likelihood of acetaminophen poisoning, possibly because of depletion of hepatic glutathione reserves [13].

Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ...

See also

For the symphonic black metal band, see Anorexia Nervosa (band) For other uses, see Anorexia Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes an eating disorder characterized by low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight. ... Water fasting is a type of fasting in which the practitioner consumes only water when they are thirsty. ... Juice fasting is a type of fasting and detox diet in which the practitioner consumes only fruit and vegetable juices. ... Natural Hygiene is a branch of alternative medicine that claims that the human body can and will heal itself if the causes of disease are removed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Black Fast was a form of Roman Catholic fasting, the most rigorous in the history of church legislation, was marked by austerity regarding the quantity and quality of food permitted on fasting days as well as the time wherein such food might be legitimately taken. ... See also Negative calorie diet, very low calorie diet CRON redirects here. ... A fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... A poustinia cabin. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... This article is about practices and beliefs in relation to various animals as food. ... Many religions, including Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, and especially Jainism, teach that ideally life should always be valued and not willfully destroyed for unnecessary human gratification. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Isaiah 58:3-13biblegateway.com
  2. ^ Fuhrman, Joel, MD, Fasting and Eating for Health : A Medical Doctor's Program for Conquering Disease 1998, pp. 1, 3, 21-23, 56-59, 70-72, 79-81 ISBN 0-312-18719-X
  3. ^ Fuhrman, Joel, MD, Fasting and Eating for Health : A Medical Doctor's Program for Conquering Disease 1998, p. 13 ISBN 0-312-18719-X
  4. ^ Anson, R. Michael; Rafael de Cabo, Titilola Iyun, Michelle Rios, Adrienne Hagepanos, Donald K. Ingram, Mark A. LaneDagger, Mark P. Mattson (May 13, 2003). "Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (10): 6216-6220. DOI:10.1073. pnas.1035720100. Retrieved on 2006-11-30. 
  5. ^ Wan, Ruiqian; Simonetta Camandola, Mark P. Mattson (June, 2003). "Intermittent Food Deprivation Improves Cardiovascular and Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress in Rats". The Journal of Nutrition (133): 1921-1929. Retrieved on 2006-11-30. 
  6. ^ Johnson JB, Laub DR, John S. The effect on health of alternate day calorie restriction: eating less and more than needed on alternate days prolongs life. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(2):209-11. Epub 2006 Mar 10. PMID 16529878.
  7. ^ Johnson JB, Summer W, Cutler RG, Martin B, Hyun DH, Dixit VD, Pearson M, Nassar M, Tellejohan R, Maudsley S, Carlson O, John S, Laub DR, Mattson MP. Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Mar 1;42(5):665-74. Epub 2006 Dec 14. PMID 17291990.
  8. ^ DyingWell.org
  9. ^ Shelton, H M, Fasting Can Save Your Life. American Natural Hygiene Society Inc. 1964, Fourth Printing 1991, pp. 38-9, 160-3. ISBN 0-914532-23-5
  10. ^ Shelton, H.M., page 107-13.
  11. ^ Shelton, H.M., pages 122-4.
  12. ^ Sarri, Katerina O. et al.. Effects of Greek orthodox christian church fasting on serum lipids and obesity <Internet>. Retrieved on 8 July 2007.
  13. ^ Whitcomb DC, Block GD. Association of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with fasting and ethanol use. JAMA 1994;272(23):1845-50

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External links

Religious fasting
Secular fasting

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fasting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3836 words)
Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food and in some cases drink, for a period of time.
Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the Pillars of Islam, and thus one of the most important acts of Islamic worship.
Fasting is not considered the primary means of acquiring atonement; rather, sincere regret for and rectification of wrongdoing is key (see Isaiah, 58:1-13).
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Fast (1959 words)
The ecclesiatical law of fasting embodies a serious obligation on all baptized individuals capable of assuming obligations provided they have completed their twenty-first year and are not otherwise excused.
Inability to keep the law of fasting and incompatibility of fasting with the duties of one's state in life suffice by their very nature, to extinguish the obligation because as often as the obligation of positive laws proves extremely burdensome or irksome the obligation is forthwith lifted.
When age, infirmity or labour releases Christians from fasting, they are at liberty to to eat meat as often as they are justified in taking food, provided the use of meat is allowed by a general indult of their bishop (Sacred Penitentiaria, 16 Jan., 1834).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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