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Encyclopedia > Fast neutron reactor
Shevchenko BN350 nuclear fast reactor and desalination plant situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. The plant generates 135 MWe and provides steam for an associated desalination plant. View of the interior of the reactor hall.
Shevchenko BN350 nuclear fast reactor and desalination plant situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. The plant generates 135 MWe and provides steam for an associated desalination plant. View of the interior of the reactor hall.

A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. Such a reactor needs no neutron moderator, but must use fuel that is relatively rich in fissile material when compared to that required for a thermal reactor. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Aqtau or Aktau (Kazakh: Ақтау Aqtau; Russian: ) is a city in Kazakhstan and a seaport on the Caspian Sea. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... A fast neutron is a free neutron with a kinetic energy level close to 1 MeV (10 TJ/kg, hence a speed of 14,000 km/s. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... A thermal reactor is the most common category of nuclear reactor. ...


On average, more neutrons per fission are produced from fissions caused by fast neutrons than from those caused by thermal neutrons. Therefore, there is a much larger excess of neutrons not required to sustain the chain reaction. These neutrons can be used to produce extra fuel, or to transmute long-halflife waste to less troublesome isotopes, such as the Phénix reactor near Cadarache in France, or some can be used for each purpose. Though conventional thermal reactors also produce excess neutrons, fast reactors can produce enough of them to breed more fuel than they consume. Such designs are known as fast breeder reactors. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Phénix is a small-scale (233 MWe) prototype fast breeder reactor in France, located in the Marcoule nuclear site. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ... A thermal reactor is the most common category of nuclear reactor. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ...

Contents

Nuclear reactor design

Coolant

Note that water, the most common coolant in thermal reactors, is not a feasible coolant for a fast reactor, because it acts as a neutron moderator. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A thermal reactor is the most common category of nuclear reactor. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


All current fast reactors are liquid metal cooled. Early reactors used mercury cooling and plutonium metal fuel. NaK cooling is popular in test reactors due to its low melting point. Molten lead cooling has been used in naval propulsion units as well as some other prototype reactors. Some of the newer generation of power stations use molten sodium cooling. A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid molten metal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... NaK (often pronounced as such, rhyming with sack) is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ...


Gas-cooled fast reactors have been researched as well. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ...


Nuclear fuel

In practice sustaining a fission chain reaction with fast neutrons means using relatively highly enriched uranium or plutonium. It is impossible to build a fast reactor using only natural uranium fuel. However, it is possible to build a fast reactor that will breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. After the initial fuel charge such a reactor can be refueled by reprocessing. Fission products can be replaced by adding natural or even depleted uranium with no further enrichment required. This is the concept of the fast breeder reactor or FBR. A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... A fast neutron is a free neutron with a kinetic energy level close to 1 MeV (10 TJ/kg, hence a speed of 14,000 km/s. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Natural uranium (NU) refers to refined uranium with the same isotopic ratios as found in nature. ... A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ...


So far, all fast neutron reactors have used either MOX or metal alloy fuel. The Mox are a alien race that inhabit Planet X, they are divided into clans which seem to be forever at war. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ...


Control

Like thermal reactors, fast neutron reactors are controlled by keeping the criticality of the reactor reliant on delayed neutrons, allowing for control utilizing control rods/blades. San Francisco Critical Mass, April 29, 2005 Critical Mass is an event typically held on the last Friday of every month in cities around the world where bicyclists and, less frequently, skateboarders, roller bladers, roller skaters and other self-propelled commuters take to the streets en masse. ... In nuclear engineering, a prompt neutron is a neutron immediately emitted by a nuclear fission event, as opposed to a delayed neutron which is emitted by one of the fission products anything from a few milliseconds to a few minutes later. ...

Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit. View of the only nuclear-heated desalination unit in the world
Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit. View of the only nuclear-heated desalination unit in the world

Image File history File links Shevchenko_BN350_desalinati. ... Image File history File links Shevchenko_BN350_desalinati. ...

Examples and uses

Fast reactors include:

  • Small lead-cooled fast reactors used for naval propulsion, particularly by the Soviet Navy.
  • CLEMENTINE, the first fast reactor, built in 1946 at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Plutonium metal fuel, mercury coolant, power 25 kW thermal, used for research, especially as a fast neutron source.
  • EBR-I at Idaho Falls, which in 1951 became the first reactor to generate significant amounts of electrical power.
  • EBR-II Prototype for the Integral Fast Reactor.
  • The Dounreay fast reactors, DFR (Doureay Fast Reactor) and PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor), in Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. DFR commenced operation in 1959 and produced 14MWe. PFR produced 250MWe.
  • SEFOR in Arkansas, a 20MWt research reactor which operated from 1969 to 1972.
  • Rhapsodie in Cadarache (20 then 40 MW) between 1967 and 1982.
  • Phénix, a fast reactor built by France, currently used for power generation and experiments on transmutation of nuclear waste.
  • Superphénix, in France, 1200MWe, closed in 1997 due to a political decision and very high costs of operation.
  • Integral Fast Reactor, a design of fast rector with an integral fuel cycle, developed and cancelled in the USA in the 1990's.
  • Monju reactor, 300MWe, in Japan.
  • BN-350, constructed by the Soviet Union in Shevchenko (today's Aqtau) on the Caspian Sea, 130MWe plus 80,000 tons of fresh water per day.
  • BN-600, constructed by the Soviet Union, 600MWe.
  • Fast Flux Test Facility, 400MWt, Operated flawlessly from 1982 to 1992, at Hanford Washington, now deactivated, liquid sodium is drained with argon backfill under care and maintenance.

As of 2006, new FBRs are planned or under construction in China and India, and construction had resumed on the BN-800 in Russia. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Experimental Breeder Reactor Number 1 in Idaho, the birthplace of atomic energy. ... Idaho Falls is a city located in Bonneville County, Idaho. ... Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II)is a sodium cooled reactor with a thermal power rating of 62. ... Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 1st  - Total 30,659 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Inverness ISO 3166-2 GB-HLD ONS code 00QT Demographics Population Ranked 7th  - Total (2005) 213,590  - Density 8 / km² Politics The Highland Council http://www. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... SEFOR is a deactivated experimental research fast breeder reactor located in northwest Arkansas near Strickler. ... MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... Rhapsodie is an experimental nuclear reactor built in Cadarache in France. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ... Phénix is a small-scale (233 MWe) prototype fast breeder reactor in France, located in the Marcoule nuclear site. ... // Transmutation is the conversion of one object into another. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... Superphoenix (French: Superphénix or SPX) is a nuclear power station on the Rhône River at Creys-Malville in France, close to the border with Switzerland. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... The Monju reactor is an experimental fast breeder reactor located in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture in Japan. ... The BN-350 was a sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear power plant located at Aktau (formally known as Shevchenko from 1964-1992), Kazakhstan, situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Aqtau or Aktau (Kazakh: Ақтау Aqtau; Russian: ) is a city in Kazakhstan and a seaport on the Caspian Sea. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechnij, in the Sverdlovsk region, Russia. ... Aerial view of the Fast Flux Test Facility The Fast Flux Test Facility is a 400 MW nuclear test reactor owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ...


See also

The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... The Sodium-cooled fast reactor is a sodium cooled reactor that uses fast neutrons. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or particles. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A nuclear power station. ... Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... An illustration showing the various sources of nuclear waste Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, a need for less pollution, a need to avert global warming, and a possible end to fossil fuels (see Hubbert peak theory). ... An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ... A molten salt reactor is a type of nuclear reactor where the working fluid is a molten salt. ... A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid molten metal. ... The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. ... The Sodium-cooled fast reactor is a sodium cooled reactor that uses fast neutrons. ... Supercritical water reactor scheme. ... Very high temperature reactor scheme. ... Graphite Pebble for Reactor The pebble bed reactor (PBR) or pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is an advanced nuclear reactor design. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... Nuclear propulsion can include a wide variety of methods, the commonality of which is the use of some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source. ... In a nuclear thermal rocket a working fluid, usually hydrogen, is heated in a high temperature nuclear reactor, and then expands through a rocket nozzle to create thrust. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... Proton therapy is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where protons are directed to a tumor site. ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiotherapy that utilizes a neutron beam that interacts with boron injected to a patient. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ...

External links and references


  Results from FactBites:
 
DOE - Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (565 words)
Light water reactors are net producers of transuranics, while advanced fast reactors are net consumers of transuranics.
Fast reactors may be developed in modules to promote economical production and can be constructed at a single site to produce a plant capable of generating over a gigawatt of electricity.
Advanced fast reactors will incorporate safety and operational design features from the beginning to protect public and worker health while reducing greenhouse gas emissions during electricity generation.
Fast breeder reactor Summary (2733 words)
Surrounding the reactor core is a blanket of tubes containing non-fissile uranium-238 which, by capturing fast neutrons from the reaction in the core, is partially converted to fissile plutonium 239 (as is some of the uranium in the core), which can then be reprocessed for use as nuclear fuel.
Fast reactors typically use liquid metal as the primary coolant, to cool the core and heat the water used to power the electricity generating turbines.
The Fast Flux Test Facility, first critical in 1980, is not a breeder but is a sodium-cooled fast reactor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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