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Encyclopedia > Fast food
A typical fast food meal in the United States consists of fries, a burger (or other main item) and a soft drink.
A typical fast food meal in the United States consists of fries, a burger (or other main item) and a soft drink.

Fast food is the term given to many items that can be prepared and served quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, such as TV dinners, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store which is rapidly prepared and served to the customer in a packaged form for take out/take away. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam-Webster in 1951.[1] This article needs cleanup. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A TV Dinner (also called frozen dinner, microwave meal or ready meal) is a prepackaged, frozen or chilled meal which usually comes in an individual package. ...

Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating,[2] or fast food restaurants (also known as quick service restaurants). Franchise operations which are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant from central locations.[3] a pagoda-like kiosk in Lausanne. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Franchising (from the French for honesty or freedom[1]) is a method of doing business wherein a franchisor authorizes proven methods of doing business to a franchisee in exchange for a recurring payment, fees and a percentage of sales or profits. ... A restaurant chain is a set of related restaurants, typically with the same name in many different locations either under shared corporate ownership (e. ...

The capital requirements to start a fast-food restaurant are relatively small, particularly in areas with non-existent or poorly enforced health codes. Small, individually-owned fast-food restaurants have become common throughout the world. Fast food restaurants with higher sit-in ratios, where customers can sit and have their orders brought to them, are known as fast casual restaurants. Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...



See also: fast food restaurant#History

Although fast-food restaurants are often viewed as a representation of modern technology, the concept of "ready-cooked food to go" is as old as cities themselves; unique variations are historical in various cultures. Ancient Roman cities had bread-and-olive stands, East Asian cultures feature noodle shops. Flat bread and falafel are ubiquitous in the Middle East. Popular Indian "fast" food delicacies include Vada pav, Papri Chaat, Bhelpuri, Panipuri and Dahi Vada. In the French-speaking nations of West Africa, meanwhile, roadside stands in and around the larger cities continue to sell- as they have done for generations- a range of ready-to-eat, char-grilled meat sticks known locally as "brochettes" (not to be confused with the bread snack of the same name found in Europe). This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Flatbread is a simple, usually unleaved bread made without yeast or sourdough. ... This article is about the Middle Eastern food. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Jumbo Vada Pav Vada Pav (also spelled Wada Pav and pronounced WUH-daahh POW) is an Indian vegetarian fast food commonly eaten in Maharashtra, India, and is one of the most popular fast-foods in Mumbai. ... Papri Chaat Papri Chaat or Paapri Chaat is a north Indian fast food. ... TRAINER NAME-MANJESH KUMAR SHARMA TRAINEE NAME-JERRY Bhelpuri (Hindi भेलपूरी, Marathi भेळ) is a type of chaat synonymous with the beaches of Mumbai (Bombay), such as Chowpatty. ... Pani Puri is a popular street snack in India. ... Dahi Vada is an Indian fast food, or chaat, prepared by soaking Vadas in thick yogurt. ...

United Kingdom

Fast food has existed in the UK since at least Roman Times, although the distinction between fast food items and fast casual restaurants has sometimes been blurred. Prior to the modern age, fast food in the UK has included meat pies and pastries as well as fried or battered items. Recently on New Years Day 2008 a study was conducted worldwide counting the number of fast food restaurants per person. The UK has name claimed this title with Australia second and United States third. England alone accounted for 25% of all fast food.[citation needed]

By the Medieval period it was not unknown for large cites or major towns to have 'pie shops' or cookhouses. Local pubs and taverns were also providers of 'rapid' if not fast food. As well as these fixed outlets, stalls selling cooked food were not uncommon. Cornish pasties and their descendants go back at least as far as the 13th century[4]. A pie shop is a take away (fast food) outlet specialising in pies, especially meat pies. ... A Cornish pasty or Cornish pastie is a type of pie, originating in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ...

The content of pies varied, with poultry (such as chickens) or wildfowl commonly being used. Post WWII, turkey has been used more frequently in fast food.[5]

In areas which had access to coastal or tidal waters, 'fast food' would frequently include local shellfish or seafood, (such as oysters or as in London eels), often this seafood would be cooked directly on the quay or close by.[6] The development of trawler fishing in the mid nineteenth century[citation needed] would lead to the development of a British favorite fish and chips partly due to such activities.[citation needed] Fish and chips in modern packaging Fish and chips or fish n chips, a popular take-away food with British origins, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried potatoes. ...

Owing to differing availability of ingredients and tastes, until the Great War, British fast food had considerable regional variation. Sometimes the regionality of dish became part of the culture of its respective area.

A peculiarly British form of fast food is the sandwich, introduced by John Montagu, the 4th Earl of Sandwich c. 1762 when he wrapped dried meat in bread so as not to interrupt his work or his gambling (accounts vary)[4]. The sandwich has similarities in other cuisines and cultures such as the filled baguettes seen in France. Despite its wide appeal and consumption in the UK, it is only in recent years that the sandwich in its various forms has been considered to be fast food,[citation needed] initially being promoted as such by niche chains such as Subway and Pret-A-Manger.[citation needed] John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (3 November 1718 – 3 April 1792) succeeded his grandfather, Edward, the 3rd Earl, in the earldom in 1729. ...

As well as its native forms, the UK has adopted fast food from other cultures, such as Pizza (Italian), noodles (Chinese), Kebabs and various other forms of fast foods from other parts of the British Commonwealth. and further afield.[7] In some areas imported fast food has become part of both the local, and British culture in general.[citation needed] More recently healthier alternatives to conventional fast food have also emerged.

United States

In 1867, Charles Feltman, a German butcher, opened up the first Coney Island hot dog stand in Brooklyn, New York, though the origin of the term is in dispute. The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 (Chicago) and the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904 are credited with mass promotion of a number of portable foods, including the hot dog, the ice cream cone and iced tea. For other uses, see Coney Island (disambiguation). ... A hotdog stand is a stand that sells hotdogs. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... Entrance to Creation Exhibit on the Pike Map of the St. ... A stack of sugar ice cream cones An ice cream cone or cornet is a cone-shaped pastry, usually made of a wafer similar in texture to a waffle, in which ice cream is served, allowing it to be eaten without a bowl or spoon. ... This article is about the drink. ...

The "diner" concept dates back to 1872, when Walter Scott of Providence, RI outfitted a horse-drawn lunch wagon with a simple kitchen so that he could bring hot dinners to workers. [4] Look up diner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Providence is the capital and largest city in Rhode Island, a state of the United States of America. ...

A Burger King meal including small french fries, a Whopper, Jr., A&W Root Beer, and packets of Heinz ketchup.
A Burger King meal including small french fries, a Whopper, Jr., A&W Root Beer, and packets of Heinz ketchup.

The modern history of fast-food restaurants in the United States of America is often traced to 7 July 1912 with the opening of a fast food restaurant in New York City by Horn & Hardart called the Automatthat created a sensation. Their Automat was a cafeteria featuring prepared foods behind small glass windows and coin-operated slots. This was patterned after a Horn & Hardart Automat that had opened in Philadelphia in 1902. Numerous Automat restaurants were quickly built around the country to deal with the demand. Automats remained extremely popular throughout the 1920s and 1930s. The company also popularized the notion of “take-out” food, with their slogan “Less work for Mother”. Burger King (NYSE: BKC), often abbreviated to BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. ... When Burger King first opened in 1957, its menu consisted primarily of hamburgers, milkshakes, and french fries. ... French fries on a plate. ... The Whopper sandwich is the signature hamburger sold by Burger King. ... A&W Root Beer is one of the major root beer franchises in the United States. ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ... This article is about the condiment. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Horn & Hardart is a company that came to prominence as the proprietors of the first automat in New York City. ... For the Edward Hopper painting, see Automat (painting). ... Horn & Hardart is a company that came to prominence as the proprietors of the first automat in New York City. ...

As automobiles became popular and affordable following the First World War, drive-in restaurants were introduced. The American company White Castle, founded in 1921 by Billy Ingram and Walter Anderson in Wichita, Kansas in 1921, is generally credited with opening the second fast-food outlet and first hamburger chain, selling hamburgers for five cents apiece.[8] Walter Anderson had built the first White Castle restaurant in Wichita in 1916, introducing the limited menu, high volume, low cost, high speed hamburger restaurant.[4] Among its innovations, the company allowed customers to see the food being prepared. White Castle later added five holes to each beef patty to increase its surface area and speed cooking times. White Castle was successful from its inception and spawned numerous competitors. A White Castle Cheeseburger box. ... For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ...

Franchising was introduced in 1921 by A & W Root Beer, which franchised its distinctive syrup. Howard Johnson's first franchised the restaurant concept in the mid-1930's, formally standardizing menus, signage and advertising.[4] Franchising (from the French for honesty or freedom[1]) is a method of doing business wherein a franchisor authorizes proven methods of doing business to a franchisee in exchange for a recurring payment, fees and a percentage of sales or profits. ... The current logo for Howard Johnsons motor lodges. ...

Curb service was introduced in the late 1920's and was mobilized in the 1940's when carhops strapped on roller skates. [9] A carhop is a waiter or waitress on rollerskates who brings food to people in their cars. ...

Main article: History of McDonald's

McDonald's, the largest fast-food chain in the world and the brand most associated with the term "fast food," was founded as a barbecue drive-in in 1940 by Dick and Mac McDonald. After discovering that most of their profits came from hamburgers, the brothers closed their restaurant for three months and reopened it in 1948 as a walk-up stand offering a simple menu of hamburgers, French fries, shakes, coffee, and Coca-Cola, served in disposable paper wrapping. As a result, they were able to produce hamburgers and fries constantly, without waiting for customer orders, and could serve them immediately; hamburgers cost 15 cents, about half the price at a typical diner. Their streamlined production method, which they named the "Speedee Service System" was influenced by the production line innovations of Henry Ford. The McDonalds' stand was the milkshake machine company's biggest customer and a milkshake salesman named Ray Kroc traveled to California to discover the secret to their high-volume burger-and-shake operation. Kroc thought he could expand their concept, eventually buying the McDonalds' operation outright in 1961 with the goal of making cheap, ready-to-go hamburgers, french fries and milkshakes a nationwide business. [10] This is a timeline of the history of McDonalds. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... A barbecue on a trailer at a block party in Kansas City. ... Drive-in, a facility such as a bank, restaurant, theatre or even a church where one can literally drive in with an automobile for service. ... Richard Dick J. McDonald (February 16, 1909 – July 14, 1998) and Maurice Mac McDonald (November 26, 1902 – December 11, 1971) were two early American fast food pioneers, originally from Manchester, New Hampshire, who established the first McDonalds restaurant in 1940. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Look up diner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A method of production which embodies groups of workers repeating the same procedures of production along a line over which the product is moved and gradually completed. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Ray Kroc (October 5, 1902 - January 14, 1984) took over and franchised the then single-restaurant McDonalds Corporation from 1955. ...

Kroc was the mastermind behind the rise of McDonald's as a national chain. The first part of his plan was to promote cleanliness in his restaurants. Kroc often took part at his own Des Plaines, Illinois, outlet by hosing down the garbage cans and scraping gum off the cement. Kroc also added great swaths of glass which enabled the customer to view the food preparation. This was very important to the American public which became quite germ conscious. A clean atmosphere was only part of Kroc's grander plan which separated McDonald's from the rest of the competition and attributed to their great success. Kroc envisioned making his restaurants appeal to families of suburbs.[11]

"On The Go"

Fast-food outlets are take-away or take-out providers, often with a "drive-through" service which allows customers to order and pick up food from their cars; but most also have a seating area in which customers can eat the food on the premises. Take-out, carry-out ( in American English ) or take-away ( in British English ) is food purchased at a restaurant but eaten elsewhere. ... A drive-thru window at a fast food restaurant. ...

Nearly from its inception, fast food has been designed to be eaten "on the go", often does not require traditional cutlery, and is eaten as a finger food. Common menu items at fast food outlets include fish and chips, sandwiches, pitas, hamburgers, fried chicken, french fries, chicken nuggets, tacos, pizza, and ice cream, although many fast-food restaurants offer "slower" foods like chili, mashed potatoes, and salads. Used cutlery: a plate, a fork and knife, and a drinking glass. ... Fish and chips in modern packaging Fish and chips or fish n chips, a popular take-away food with British origins, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried potatoes. ... This article is about the food item. ... For other uses, see Pita (disambiguation). ... This article is about the food item. ... KFCs Fried chicken with french fries. ... French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... Chicken nuggets A chicken nugget is either whole or composed from a paste of finely minced chicken or chicken skin, which is then coated in batter or breadcrumbs before being cooked. ... For other uses, see Taco (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... A bowl of chili con carne with beans and tortilla chips. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... This article deals with food. ...

Filling Stations

Many petrol/gas stations have convenience stores which sell pre-packed sandwiches, donuts, and hot food. Many gas stations in the United States also sell frozen foods and have microwaves on the premises in which to prepare them. Modern gas station A filling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility that sells fuel for road motor vehicles – usually petrol (US: gas/gasoline), diesel fuel and LPG. The term gas station is mostly particular to the United States of America and Canada, where petrol is known as... Frozen food is food preserved by the process of freezing. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ...

Street vendors and concessions

Traditional street food is available around the world, usually from small operators and independent vendors operating from a cart, table, or portable grill. Common examples include Vietnamese noodle vendors, Middle Eastern falafel stands and New York City hot dog carts. Commonly, street vendors provide a colorful and varying range of options designed to quickly captivate passers-by and attract as much attention as possible.

Depending on the locale, multiple street vendors may specialize in specific types of food characteristic of a given cultural or ethnic tradition. In some cultures, it is typical for street vendors to call out prices, sing or chant sales-pitches, play music, or engage in other forms of "street theatrics" in order to engage prospective customers. In some cases, this can garner more attention than the food itself; some vendors represent another form of tourist attraction. A troupe of street theatre performers by the beach in Vancouver, Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The common preparation practice for small vendors consists of serving a few basic ingredients and toppings that can be cooked in batches and served quickly on the spot.

Modern commercial fast food is often highly processed and prepared in an industrial fashion, i.e., on a large scale with standard ingredients and standardised cooking and production methods. It is usually rapidly served in cartons or bags or in a plastic wrapping, in a fashion which minimizes cost. In most fast food operations, menu items are generally made from processed ingredients prepared at a central supply facility and then shipped to individual outlets where they are reheated, cooked (usually by microwave or deep-frying) or assembled in a short amount of time. This process ensures a consistent level of product quality, and is key to being able to deliver the order quickly to the customer and eliminate labor and equipment costs in the individual stores.

Because of commercial emphasis on speed, uniformity and low cost, fast food products are often made with ingredients formulated to achieve a certain flavor or consistency and to preserve freshness. Hydrogenated vegetable oils are pumped into fast foods which contain high amounts of trans fat. This requires a high degree of food engineering, the use of additives and processing techniques substantially alter the food from its original form and reduce its nutritional value. A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... Food engineering refers to the engineering aspects of food production and processing. ...


Although fast food often brings to mind traditional American fast food such as hamburgers and fries, there are many other forms of fast food that enjoy widespread popularity in the West.

Chinese takeaways/takeout restaurants are particularly popular. They normally offer a wide variety of Asian food (not always Chinese), which has normally been fried. Most options are some form of noodles, rice, or meat. In some cases, the food is presented as a smorgasbord, sometimes self-service. The customer chooses the size of the container they wish to buy, and then is free to fill it with their choice of food. It is common to combine several options in one container, and some outlets charge by weight rather than by item. Many of these restaurants offer free delivery for purchases over a minimum amount. Fish and chips Döner kebab Pizza delivery Take-out (in American and Canadian English), carry-out (in American English) or take-away (in Australian and British English) is food purchased at a restaurant but eaten elsewhere. ... Look up smörgåsbord in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Self Service is the practice of serving oneself, usually when purchasing items. ...

Sushi has seen rapidly rising popularity in recent times. A form of fast food created in Japan (where obento is the Japanese equivalent of fast food), sushi is normally cold sticky rice served with raw fish. The most popular kind in the West is rolls of rice in nori (dried laver), with filling. The filling often includes fish, chicken or cucumber. This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... For other uses, see Bento (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nori (disambiguation). ... Laver is an edible seaweed that has high content of mineral salts, particularly iodine and iron. ...

The Subway chain has had a major impact on the fast food industry, by showing that food can be mass produced in the American manner without compromising taste or nutritional value. Consequently Subway has marketed itself as a healthy alternative to other fast food chains, and has been largely successful in this. Many other chains (especially McDonalds) have changed their menus to include healthier options in order to prevent loss of customers. SUBWAY® is the name of a franchise fast food restaurant that mainly sells sandwiches and salads. ...

Pizza is a common fast food category in the United States, with chains such as Domino's Pizza, Sbarro's and Pizza Hut. Menus are more limited and standardized than in traditional pizzerias, and pizza delivery, often with a time commitment is offered. For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... For Dominos Pizza in Australia, New Zealand, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and the Principality of Monaco, see Dominos Pizza Enterprises. ... Pizza Hut Inc. ... Pepperoni is one of the most popular toppings on American pizzas. ... For the SpongeBob SquarePants episode, see Pizza Delivery (SpongeBob SquarePants). ...

Kebab houses are a form of fast food restaurant from the Middle East , especially Turkey and Lebanon. Meat is shaven from a rotisserie, and is served on a warmed tortilla with salad and a choice of sauce and dressing. These doner kebabs are distinct from shishkebabs served on sticks. Kebab shops are also found throughout the world especially Europe, but they generally are less common. Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in an Afghan restaurant. ... The döner meat is being sliced from a rotating spit. ... Shish kebab (şişkebabı; also pronounced Kabab or kabob) means skewer of meat in Persian. ...

Fish and chip shops are a form of fast food popular in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Fish is battered and then deep fried. Fish and chips in wrapping paper Fish and chips is deep-fried fish in batter with deep-fried potatoes, and is a popular take-away food. ...

The Dutch have their own types of fast food. A Dutch fast-food meal often consists of a portion of french fries (called friet or patat) with a sauce and a meat product. The most common sauce to accompany French fries is mayonnaise, while others can be ketchup or spiced ketchup, peanut sauce or piccalilli. Sometimes the fries are served with combinations of sauces, most famously speciaal (special): mayonnaise, with (spiced) ketchup and chopped onions; and oorlog (literally "war"): mayonnaise and peanut sauce (sometimes also with ketchup and chopped onions). The meat product is usually a deep fried snack; this includes the frikandel (a deep fried skinless minced meat sausage), and the kroket (deep fried meat ragout covered in breadcrumbs). French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... This article is about the condiment. ... Peanut sauce (also called satay sauce) is initially an oriental sauce and widely use in Indonesian cuisine (known as kacang sambal). ... Piccalilli is a mustard pickle, which generally contains gherkins, cauliflower and onions, but may contain virtually any type of vegetable. ... Frikandel A frikandel (plural frikandellen) is a Dutch snack, a sort of minced-meat hot dog. ... The croquet or croquette (kroket in Dutch) is a popular snack in the Netherlands. ...


Neighboring fast food restaurant advertisement signs in Bowling Green, Kentucky
Neighboring fast food restaurant advertisement signs in Bowling Green, Kentucky

In the United States alone, consumers spent about US$110 billion on fast food in 2000 (which increased from US$6 billion in 1970).[12] The National Restaurant Association forecasts that fast-food restaurants in the U.S. will reach US$142 billion in sales in 2006, a 5% increase over 2005. In comparison, the full-service restaurant segment of the food industry is expected to generate $173 billion in sales. Fast food has been losing market share to so-called fast casual dining restaurants, which offer more robust and expensive cuisines. Image File history File links Fastfood. ... Image File history File links Fastfood. ... This picture is only a teaspoons worth of how many restaurants there are in Bowling Green, but for some reason, the residents pride themselves on the overabundance of fast food places. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Restaurant Association, founded in 1919, is a restaurant industry business association in the United States. ... Market share, in strategic management and marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ...

Criticism and alternatives

Fast-food chains have come under fire from consumer groups (such as the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a longtime fast-food critic) over the past decade. Some of the concerns have led to the rise of the Slow Food movement. This movement seeks to preserve local cuisines and ingredients, and directly opposes laws and habits that favor fast-food choices. Among other things, it strives to educate consumers' palates to prefer what it considers richer, more varied, and more nourishing tastes of fresh local ingredients harvested in season. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... A restaurant placard, Santorini The Slow Food movement was founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy as a resistance movement to combat fast food and claims to preserve the cultural cuisine and the associated food plants and seeds, domestic animals, and farming within an ecoregion. ...

Health issue

Trans-fats which are commonly found in fast food have been shown in many tests to have a negative health effect on the body. A recent study [2] fed monkeys a diet consisting of a similar level of trans-fats as what a person who ate fast food regularly would consume. Both diets contained the same overall number of calories. It was found that the monkeys who consumed higher level of trans-fat developed more abdominal fat than those fed a diet rich in unsaturated fats. They also developed signs of insulin resistance, which is an early indicator of diabetes. After six years on the diet, the trans-fat fed monkeys had gained 7.2% of their body weight, compared to just 1.8% in the unsaturated fat group.

Excessive calories are another issue with fast food. A regular but not overly filling meal at McDonald's of a Big Mac, large fries, and a large Coca-Cola drink amounts to 1430 calories. A diet of approximately 2000 calories is consider a healthy amount of calories for an entire day (which is different depending on several factors such as weight, height, physical activity and gender).

See also

Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The food groups are part of a method of classification for the various foods that humans consume in their everyday lives, based on the nutritional properties of these types of foods and their location in a hierarchy of nutrition. ... Fast Food Nation is a fictionalized film loosely based on the non-fiction book Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ... A restaurant placard, Santorini The Slow Food movement was founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy as a resistance movement to combat fast food and claims to preserve the cultural cuisine and the associated food plants and seeds, domestic animals, and farming within an ecoregion. ... Super Size Me is an Academy Award-nominated 2004 documentary film, directed by and starring Morgan Spurlock, an American independent filmmaker. ...


  1. ^ Jack In The-Box Inc. Fact Sheet [1]
  2. ^ Jakle, John (1999). Fast Food: Roadside Restaurants in the Automobile Age. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 080186920X. ; Brueggemann, Walter (1993). Texts Under Negotiation: The Bible and Postmodern Imagination. Fortress Press. ISBN 0800627369. 
  3. ^ Talwar, Jennifer (2003). Fast Food, Fast Track: Immigrants, Big Business, and the American Dream. Westview Press. ISBN 0813341558. 
  4. ^ a b c d e James P Farrell. The Evolution of the Quick Service Restaurant. A Management Consultant @ Large. Retrieved on February 14, 2008.
  5. ^ BBC News (2007). How turkey became a fast food. BBC. Retrieved on November 23, 2007.
  6. ^ BBC (2006). Eel and pie shop. BBC. Retrieved on November 23, 2007.
  7. ^ World InfoZone Ltd. United Kingdom Information. World InfoZone Ltd. Retrieved on November 23, 2007.
  8. ^ National Public Radio (2002). The Hamburger. NPR. Retrieved on November 23, 2007.
  9. ^ See Honk for Service] by Lou Ellen Mcginley with Stephanie Spurr (Tray Days Publishing, 2004)
  10. ^ See Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's] by Ray Kroc with Robert Anderson (St. Martin's Press, 1992)
  11. ^ "Where White Tower (one of the original fast food restaurants) had tied hamburgers to public transportation and the workingman...McDonald's tied hamburgers to the car, children, and the family." (Levinstein, p.228-229)
  12. ^ Schlosser, Eric (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0395977894. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... NPR redirects here. ... NPR redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


  • Hogan, David. Selling 'em by the Sack: White Castle and the Creation of American Food. New York: New York University Press, 1997.
  • Kroc, Ray with Robert Anderson. Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's. St. Martin's Press, 1992.
  • Levinstein, Harvey. Paradox of Plenty: a Social History of Eating in Modern America. Berkeley: University of California P, 2003. 228-229.
  • Luxenberg, Stan. Roadside Empires: How the Chains Franchised America. New York: Viking, 1985.
  • McGinley, Lou Ellen with Stephanie Spurr, Honk for Service: A Man, A Tray and the Glory Days of the Drive-In. St. Louis: Tray Days Publishing, 2004. For photos of the Parkmoor Restaurants see Drive-In Restaurant Photos
  • Schlosser, Eric, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001
  • Schultz, Howard with Dori Jones Yang, Pour Your Heart Into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time, Hyperion, 1999

External links

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  • The British Library - finding information on the fast food industry
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...



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