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Encyclopedia > Fast breeder reactor

The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. The FBR is one possible type of breeder reactor. A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel. ...

Contents

Reactor Designs

Schematic diagram showing the difference between the Loop and Pool types of LMFBR.
Schematic diagram showing the difference between the Loop and Pool types of LMFBR.

As of 2006, all large-scale FBR power stations have been liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) reactors cooled by liquid sodium. These have been of one of two designs: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (999x504, 57 KB) Summary Summary schematic of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR), drawn using XaraXtreme by Emoscopes 09:42, 6 February 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fast breeder reactor ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (999x504, 57 KB) Summary Summary schematic of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR), drawn using XaraXtreme by Emoscopes 09:42, 6 February 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fast breeder reactor ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ...

  • Loop type, in which the primary coolant is circulated through primary heat exchangers external to the reactor tank (but within the biological shield owing to the presence of radioactive sodium-24 in the primary coolant).
  • Pool type, in which the primary heat exchangers and circulators are immersed in the reactor tank.

Prototype FBRs have also been built cooled by other liquid metals such as mercury, lead and NaK (an alloy of sodium (Na) and potassium (K)), and one generation IV reactor proposal is for a helium cooled FBR. It has been suggested that ALARA be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... NaK (often pronounced as such, rhyming with sack) is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ...


FBRs usually use a mixed oxide fuel core of up to 20% plutonium dioxide (PuO2) and at least 80% uranium dioxide (UO2). Another fuel option is metal alloys, typically a blend of uranium, plutonium, and zirconium. The plutonium used can be supplied by the reprocessing from reactor outputs or dismantled nuclear weapons. Nuclear reprocessing ... Prepared during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel by calcination of plutonium(IV) oxalate, Pu(C2O4)2. ... UO2 A black, radioactive, crystalline powder, once used in the late 1800s to mid-1900s in ceramic glazes. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ...


In many FBR designs, the reactor core is surrounded in a blanket of tubes containing non-fissile uranium-238 which, by capturing fast neutrons from the reaction in the core, is partially converted to fissile plutonium 239 (as is some of the uranium in the core), which can then be reprocessed for use as nuclear fuel. Other FBR designs rely on the geometry of the fuel itself (which also contains uranium-238) to attain sufficient fast neutron capture. This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


While fast neutrons are less likely to be absorbed by uranium-235 or plutonium-239 than thermal neutrons, the highly enriched fuel used in fast breeder reactors allows for a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. For this reason, no moderator is required to thermalize the fast neutrons. Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A thermal neutron is a free neutron with a kinetic energy level of ca. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ...


All current fast reactor designs use liquid metal as the primary coolant, to transfer heat from the core to steam used to power the electricity generating turbines. Some early FBRs used mercury, and other experimental reactors have used NaK. Both of these choices have the advantage that they are liquids at room temperature, which is convenient for experimental rigs but less important for pilot or full scale power stations. General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... NaK (often pronounced as such, rhyming with sack) is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ...


Sodium is the normal coolant for large power stations, but lead has been used successfully for smaller generating rigs. Both coolant choices are being studied as possible Generation IV reactors, and each presents some advantages.[1] A gas-cooled option is also being studied, although no gas-cooled fast reactor has reached criticality. General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ...


Water cannot be used as the primary coolant since it acts as a moderator, slowing neutrons to thermal levels and preventing the breeding of uranium-238 into plutonium 239. However a heavy water moderated thermal breeder reactor, using thorium to produce uranium-233, is theoretically possible (see Advanced Heavy Water Reactor). Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a proposed heavy water moderated nuclear power reactor that will be the next generation design of the PHWR type. ...


Economics

The breeding of plutonium fuel in FBRs, known as the plutonium economy, was for a time believed to be the future of nuclear power. It remains the strategic direction of the power program of Japan. However, cheap supplies of uranium and especially of enriched uranium have made current FBR technology uncompetitive with PWR and other thermal reactor designs. PWR designs remain the most common existing power reactor type and also represent most current proposals for new nuclear power stations. These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... A thermal reactor is the most common category of nuclear reactor. ...


Possible Technology Risks

Fission of the nuclear fuel in any reactor produces neutron-absorbing fission products, and because of this it is necessary to reprocess the fuel and breeder blanket from a breeder reactor if one is to fully utilise its ability to breed more fuel than it consumes. The most common reprocessing technique, PUREX, is generally considered a large proliferation concern because such reprocessing technologies can be used to extract weapons grade plutonium from a reactor operated on a short refuelling cycle. For this reason, the FBR closed fuel cycle is often seen as a greater proliferation concern than a once-through thermal fuel cycle. // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... The PUREX process is used to reprocess spent nuclear fuel, in order to extract uranium and plutonium, independent of each other, from the fission products. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ...


However, to date all known weapons programs have used far more easily built thermal reactors to produce plutonium, and there are some designs such as the SSTAR which avoid proliferation risks by both producing low amounts of plutonium at any given time from the U-238, and by producing three different isotopes of plutonium (Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-242) making the plutonium used infeasible for atomic bomb use. A thermal reactor is the most common category of nuclear reactor. ... A possible design for SSTAR. SSTAR is an acronym for the small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor - being primarily researched and developed in the US by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ...


Furthermore, several countries are developing more proliferation resistant reprocessing methods that don't separate the plutonium from the other actinides. For instance, the pyrometallurgical process when used to reprocess fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor leaves large amounts of radioactive actinides in the reactor fuel. Removing these transuranics in a conventional reprocessing plant would be extremely difficult as many of the actinides emit strong neutron radiation, requiring all handling of the material to be done remotely, thus preventing the plutonium from being used for bombs while still being usable as reactor fuel. // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Pyrometallurgical refers to a type of chemical metallurgy used to change metals, for example: roasting or smelting. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ...


Thorium fueled reactors may pose a slightly higher proliferation risk than uranium based reactors. The reason for this is that while Pu-239 will fairly often fail to fission on neutron capture, producing Pu-240, the corresponding process in the Thorium cycle is relatively rare. Thorium-232 converts to U-233, which will almost always fission successfully, meaning that there will be very little U-234 produced in the reactor's thorium/U-233 breeder blanket, and the resulting pure U-233 will be comparatively easy to extract and use for weapons. One proposed solution to this is to mix a small amount of natural or depleted uranium into the thorium breeder blanket. The irradiated material will then be useless for weapons purposes as then the U-233 would require isotopic separation from the U-238. A small amount of plutonium would be present but will also be low-grade. General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... The process of neutron capture can proceed in two ways - as a rapid process (an r-process) or a slow process (an s-process). ... // Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ...


Associated reactor types

One design of fast neutron reactor, specifically designed to address the waste disposal and plutonium issues, was the Integral Fast Reactor (also known as an Integral Fast Breeder Reactor, although the original reactor was designed to not breed a net surplus of fissile material).[2][3] The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ...


To solve the waste disposal problem, the IFR had an on-site electrowinning fuel reprocessing unit that recycled the uranium and all the transuranics (not just plutonium) via electroplating, leaving just short half-life fission products in the waste. Some of these fission products could later be separated for industrial or medical uses and the rest sent to a waste repository (where they would not have to be stored for anywhere near as long as wastes containing long half-life transuranics). It is thought that it would not be possible to divert fuel from this reactor to make bombs, as several of the transuranics spontaneously fission so rapidly that any assembly would melt before it could be completed. The project was canceled in 1994, at the behest of then-Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, the atomic number of Uranium. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, concerned as the name suggests, with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Hazel OLeary Hazel Rollins OLeary (born May 17, 1937) was the seventh United States Secretary of Energy from 1993 to 1997. ...


FBR generating plants

History

FBRs have been built and operated in the USA, the UK, France, the former USSR, India and Japan. An experimental FBR in Germany was built but never operated. As of 2004, a prototype FBR was under construction in China. shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


USA

On December 20, 1951, the fast reactor EBR-I (Experimental Breeder Reactor-1) at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, Idaho produced enough electricity to power four light bulbs, and the next day produced enough power to run the entire EBR-I building. This was a milestone in the development of nuclear power reactors. December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Experimental Breeder Reactor Number 1 in Idaho, the first power reactor. ... The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an 890 square mile (2,300 km²) complex located in the Idaho desert between the towns of Arco and Idaho Falls. ... Idaho Falls is a city located in Bonneville County, Idaho. ...


The next generation experimental breeder was EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor-2), which went into service at the INEEL in 1964 and operated until 1994. It was designed to be an "integral" nuclear plant, equipped to handle fuel recycling onsite. It typically operated at 20 megawatts out of its 62.5 megawatt maximum design power, and provided the bulk of heat and electricity to the surrounding facilities. Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II)is a sodium cooled reactor with a thermal power rating of 62. ...


The world's first commercial LMFBR, and the only one yet built in the USA, was the 94MWe Unit 1 at Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station. Designed in a joint effort between Dow Chemical and Detroit Edison as part of the Atomic Power Development Association consortium, groundbreaking in Lagoona Beach, Michigan (near Monroe, Michigan) took place in 1956. The plant went into operation in 1963. It shut down on October 5, 1966 due to high temperatures caused by a loose piece of zirconium which was blocking the molten sodium coolant nozzles. Partial melting damage to six subassemblies within the core was eventually found. (This incident was the basis for a controversial book by investigative reporter John G. Fuller titled We Almost Lost Detroit.) The zirconium blockage was removed in April of 1968, and the plant was ready to resume operation by May of 1970, but a sodium coolant fire delayed its restart until July. It subsequently ran until August of 1972 when its operating license renewal was denied. MWe and MWt are units for measuring the output of a power plant. ... Named for the first physicist to create a nuclear reactor, the Enrico Fermi plant is located between Detroit, Michigan and Toledo, Ohio in northeastern Monroe County, Michigan The 94MWe prototype fast breeder reactor Fermi 1 unit operated at the site from 1963 to 1972 and is now in the process... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. In terms of market capitalization, it is the second-largest chemical company in the world, smaller than only DuPont. ... Detroit Edison (DTE Energy) is a utility company serving most of Southeast Michigan. ... Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ...


The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project was announced in January, 1972. A government/business cooperative effort, construction proceeded fitfully. Funding for this project was killed by Congress on October 26, 1983. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project was a joint effort of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the U.S. electric power industry to design and construct a sodium-cooled fast-neutron nuclear reactor. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Fast Flux Test Facility, first critical in 1980, is not a breeder but is a sodium-cooled fast reactor. It is now (2005) in cold standby. Aerial view of the Fast Flux Test Facility The Fast Flux Test Facility is a 400 MW nuclear test reactor owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


India

India has an active development program featuring both fast and thermal breeder reactors. A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ...


India’s first 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) attained criticality on 18th October 1985. Thus, India became the sixth nation to have the technology to build and operate a FBTR after US, UK, France, Japan and the former USSR. India has developed the technology to produce the plutonium rich U-Pu mixed carbide fuel. This can be used in the Fast Breeder Reactor. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) first reached criticality in October 1985. ...


At present the scientists of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), one of the nuclear R & D institutions of India, are engaged in the construction of another FBR - the 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor - at Kalpakkam, near Chennai. The Reactor Research Centre set up at Kalpakkam, India, 80 km south of Chennai in 1971 under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was renamed Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR) in 1985. ... The Reactor Research Centre set up at Kalpakkam, India, 80kms south of Chennai in 1971 under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was renamed Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR) in 1985. ... The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500MWe fast breeder nuclear reactor presently being constructed in Kalpakkam, India. ... Kalpakkam is a small town situated 80 km south of Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ...


India has the capability to use Thorium Cycle based processes to extract nuclear fuel. This is of special significance to the Indian nuclear power generation strategy as India has large reserves of thorium — about 360,000 tonnes — that can fuel nuclear projects for an estimated 2,500 years. But the hitch is with the expensive nature of the construction of Fast Breeder Reactor in comparison with the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) in use. This is one of the main reasons why India is looking at the cheaper option - Uranium fuel. General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... A pressurised heavy water reactor is a nuclear power reactor that uses unenriched natural uranium as its fuel and heavy water as a moderator (deuterium oxide D2O). ... The CANDU reactor is a pressurized-heavy water, natural-uranium power reactor designed in the 1960s by a partnership between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario as well as several private industry participants. ...

India and the US have signed a deal (July 2005) for nuclear energy cooperation. President George W. Bush, in his early March 2006 trip to New Delhi, India, reiterated the Nuclear Cooperation to aid India's growth. This is part of the Indo-US strategic initiate Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP). The Key theme of the agreement is the separation of the Indian military and civilian nuclear programs. The bill pushed by President Bush passed through the US Congress, which has final authority to waive, on unique criteria which President Bush enunciated, such Nuclear Energy Cooperation with a non-signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... A contribution is on-topic if it is within the bounds of the current discussion, article, etc. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


France

France's first fast reactor, Rapsodie first achieved criticality in 1967. Built at Cadarache near Aix-en-Provence, Rapsodie was a loop-type reactor with a thermal output of 40MW and no electrical generation facilities, and closed in 1983. A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... Rapsodie is an experimental nuclear reactor built in Cadarache in France. ... Cadarache in Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur, France is the site of the future international tokamak ITER. This was decided in a final meeting in Moscow on June 28, 2005. ...


This was followed by the 233 MWe Phénix, grid connected since 1973 and still operating, both as a power reactor and more importantly as the center of work on reprocessing of nuclear waste by transmutation. Phénix is a small-scale (233 MWe) prototype fast breeder reactor in France, located in the Marcoule nuclear site. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... // Transmutation is the conversion of one object into another. ...


Superphénix, 1200 MWe, entered service in 1984 and as of 2006 remains the largest FBR yet built. It was shut down in 1997 due to political commitment of the left-wing government to competitive market forces. Ironically the power plant had not produced electricity for most of the preceding ten years prior to its closure. Superphoenix (French: Superphénix or SPX) is a nuclear power station on the Rhône River at Creys-Malville in France, close to the border with Switzerland. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The plant was also a focus point of anti-nuclear political activity by the Green party and other groups. Right wing groups claim the plant was shut down for political reasons and not lack of power generation.


UK

Main article: Dounreay

The UK fast reactor program was conducted at Dounreay, Scotland, from 1957 until the program was cancelled in 1994. Three reactors were constructed, two of them fast neutron power reactors, and the third, DMTR, being a heavy water moderated research reactor used to test materials for the program. Fabrication and reprocessing facilities for fuel for the two fast reactors and for the test rigs for DMTR were also constructed onsite. Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II...


Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) achieved its first criticality in 1959. It used NaK coolant and produced 14MW of electricity. This was followed by the sodium-cooled 250 MWe Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) in the 1970s. PFR was closed down in 1994 as the British government withdrew major financial support for nuclear energy development, DFR and DMTR both having previously been closed. 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NaK (often pronounced as such, rhyming with sack) is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


Germany

Germany has built two FBRs, but both were closed in 1991 without the larger ever having achieved criticality.


KNK-II was converted from a thermal reactor, KNK-I, which had been used to study sodium cooling. KNK-II first achieved criticality as a fast reactor in 1977, and produced 20MWe.


Construction of the 300MWe SNR-300 at Kalkar in North Rhine-Westphalia was completed in 1985, but owing to political pressure it was never operated. The plant was maintained and staffed until a decision to close it was finally made in 1990, and has since been decommissioned. Today it houses an amusement park. The Fast Breeder Nuclear reactor SNR-300 was built near the town of Kalkar, Germany (located in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Kalkar is a town and a municipality in the district of Cleves in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000...


USSR

The Soviet Union constructed a series of fast reactors, the first being mercury cooled and fueled with plutonium metal, and the later plants sodium cooled and fueled with plutonium oxide.


BR-1 (1955) was 100w (thermal) was followed by BR-2 at 100 kW and then the 5MW BR-5.


BOR-60 (first criticality 1969) was 60 MW, with construction started in 1965.


BN-350 (1973) was the first full-scale Soviet FBR. Constructed on the Mangyshlak Peninsula in Kazakstan and on the shore of the Caspian Sea, it supplied 130MW of electricity plus 80,000 tonnes per day of desalinated fresh water to the city of Aktau. Its total output was regarded as the equivalent of 350MWe, hence the designation. The BN-350 was a sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear power plant located at Aktau (formally known as Shevchenko from 1964-1992), Kazakhstan, situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Mangyshlak or Mangghyshlaq Peninsula is located in western Kazakhstan. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Aktau is a city in Kazakhstan and a seaport to the Caspian Sea. ...


BN-600 (1986) is 1470MWth / 600MWe. The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechnij, in the Sverdlovsk region, Russia. ...


At the time of the break up of the Soviet Union, plans were well underway for the construction of two larger plants, BN-800 (800 MWe) at Beloyarsk and BN-1600 (1600 MWe). Beloyarsk may refer to: Beloyarsk, Altai Krai, a former urban-type settlement in Altai Krai, Russia; since 2005—a (rural) settlement Beloyarsk, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, a settlement in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia Category: ...


Japan

Japan has built one FBR, Monju, in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture. Monju is a sodium-cooled, MOX-fueled loop type reactor with 3 primary coolant loops, producing 714 MWt / 280 MWe. This article is about the fast breeder reactor in Japan. ... Tsuruga (敦賀市; -shi) is a city located in Fukui, Japan. ... Fukui Prefecture ) is located in the ChÅ«bu region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ...


Monju began construction in 1985 and first achieved criticality in April 1994. It was closed in December 1995 following a sodium leak and fire in a secondary cooling circuit, and is expected to restart in 2008.


See also

The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) first reached criticality in October 1985. ...

Future plants

As of 2003 one indigenous FBR was planned for India, and another for China using Soviet technology. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


South Korea is developing a design for a standardised modular FBR for export, to complement the standardised PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and CANDU designs they have already developed and built, but has not yet committed to building a prototype. Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... Qinshan Phase III Units 1 & 2, located in Zhejiang China: Two CANDU 6 reactors, designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), owned and operated by the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company Limited. ...


The FBR program of India includes the concept of using fertile thorium-232 to breed fissile uranium-233. India is also pursuing the thermal breeder reactor again using thorium. A thermal breeder is not possible with purely uranium/plutonium based technology. Thorium fuel is the strategic direction of the power program of India, owing to their large reserves of thorium, but worldwide known reserves of thorium are also some three times those of uranium. General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ...


The BN-600 (Beloyarsk NNP in the town of Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast) is still operational. A second reactor (BN-800) is scheduled to be constructed before 2015.[4] Coat of arms of Zarechny Zarechny (Russian: ) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Pyshma River east of Yekaterinburg at . ... Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in the Urals Federal District. ...


On February 16, 2006 the U.S., France and Japan signed an "arrangement" to research and develop sodium-cooled fast reactors in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership.[5] February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, announced by U.S. Department of Energy secretary Samuel Bodman on February 6, 2006, is a plan to form an international partnership to see spent nuclear fuel reprocessed in a way that renders the plutonium in it usable for nuclear fuel but not for nuclear...


India's Department of Atomic Energy(DAE) says that it will simultaneously construct four more breeder reactors of 500 MWe each including two at Kalpakkam.[6]

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or particles. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A nuclear power station. ... Core of CROCUS, a small nuclear reactor used for research at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... An illustration showing the various sources of nuclear waste Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, a need for less pollution, a need to avert global warming, and a possible end to fossil fuels (see Hubbert peak theory). ... An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ... A molten salt reactor is a type of nuclear reactor where the working fluid is a molten salt. ... A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid molten metal. ... The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. ... The Sodium-cooled fast reactor is a sodium cooled reactor that uses fast neutrons. ... Supercritical water reactor scheme. ... Very high temperature reactor scheme. ... Graphite Pebble for Reactor The pebble bed reactor (PBR) or pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is an advanced nuclear reactor design. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... Nuclear propulsion can include a wide variety of methods, the commonality of which is the use of some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source. ... In a nuclear thermal rocket a working fluid, usually hydrogen, is heated in a high temperature nuclear reactor, and then expands through a rocket nozzle to create thrust. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... Proton therapy is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where protons are directed to a tumor site. ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiotherapy that utilizes a neutron beam that interacts with boron injected to a patient. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ...

See also

A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel. ... A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... The Sodium-cooled fast reactor is a sodium cooled reactor that uses fast neutrons. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ...

References

  1. ^ Comparison of sodium and lead-cooled fast reactors regarding reactor physics aspects, severe safety and economical issues
  2. ^ http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/designs/ifr/
  3. ^ http://www.nationalcenter.org/NPA378.html
  4. ^ http://www.bellona.no/en/international/russia/npps/beloyarsk/35835.html
  5. ^ http://www.energy.gov/news/3218.htm
  6. ^ http://www.india-defence.com/reports/2854

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fast breeder reactor Summary (2733 words)
The FBR is one possible type of breeder reactor.
Surrounding the reactor core is a blanket of tubes containing non-fissile uranium-238 which, by capturing fast neutrons from the reaction in the core, is partially converted to fissile plutonium 239 (as is some of the uranium in the core), which can then be reprocessed for use as nuclear fuel.
Fast reactors typically use liquid metal as the primary coolant, to cool the core and heat the water used to power the electricity generating turbines.
Fast breeder reactor Totally Explained (2736 words)
In many FBR designs, the reactor core is surrounded in a blanket of tubes containing non-fissile uranium-238 which, by capturing fast neutrons from the reaction in the core, is partially converted to fissile plutonium 239 (as is some of the uranium in the core), which can then be reprocessed for use as nuclear fuel.
While fast neutrons are less likely to be absorbed by uranium-235 or plutonium-239 than thermal neutrons, the highly enriched fuel used in fast breeder reactors allows for a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
Fission of the nuclear fuel in any reactor produces neutron-absorbing fission products, and because of this it's necessary to reprocess the fuel and breeder blanket from a breeder reactor if one is to fully utilise its ability to breed more fuel than it consumes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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