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Encyclopedia > Fascist symbolism
Part of the Politics series on
Fascism

Definition
Definitions of fascism Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... Image File history File links Fasces. ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ...


Varieties and derivatives of fascism
Italian fascism
Nazism
Neo-Fascism
Rexism
Falangism
Estado Novo
Ustaše
Clerical fascism
Austrofascism
Crypto-fascism
Japanese fascism
Greek fascism
Brazilian Integralism
Iron Guard Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... There have been two regimes known as Estado Novo (meaning New State): Estado Novo (Brazil) Estado Novo (Portugal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Integralist banner The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (belived by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Brazilian Integralism was a fascist political movement created in April 1933. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Fascist political parties and movements
Fascism as an international phenomenon
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

List of fascist movements by country

Fascism in history
Fascio
March on Rome
Fascist Italy
Nazi Germany
Italian Social Republic
4th of August Regime
The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ...


Relevant lists
List of fascists
This is a list of persons who self-identify as fascists or adherents to a variant of fascism or related ideology (e. ...


Related subjects
Adolf Hitler
Anti-fascism
Benito Mussolini
Black Brigades
Blackshirts
Class collaboration
Corporatism
Economics of fascism
Fascism and ideology
Fascist symbolism
Fascist unification rhetoric
Grand Council of Fascism
Roman salute
National Bolshevism
National syndicalism
Neo-Fascism
Neo-Nazism
Social fascism
Third Position
Hitler redirects here. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The Economics of fascism can be studied by examining the economic policies of various countries under fascist control during the period between World War One and the end of World War II. Some scholars and analysts argue that there is an identifiable political economy of fascism that is distinct from... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... The Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ...

Fascism Portal
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ...

Contents

Italian origins

The symbol of fascism, in its original Italian incarnation under Benito Mussolini, and which gave fascism its name, was the fasces. This is an ancient Roman symbol of power carried by lictors in front of magistrates: a bundle of sticks, which included an axe indicating the power over life and death. Until the adaptation of the fasces as a symbol by the Italian fascists the fasces had in modern times been a symbol used by Italian leftist groups. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Roman fasces. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Third Reich use

The nature of German fascism, as encapsulated in Nazism, was Roman influenced but more racist and Germanic pagan in nature. Its symbol was the swastika, a then-popular and commonly seen symbol used since ancient times by many cultures, including Germany, the UK and Scandinavia. A symmetrically eye-catching symbol streamlined for stamp and military use, it was seen as the purported symbol of the Aryan civilization of which Germany was to be the highest incarnation. National Socialism redirects here. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... A right-facing Swastika in a decorative Hindu form In the Western world, since World War II, the swastika is usually associated with the flag of Nazi Germany and the Nazi Party. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ārya-, the extended form aryāna-, ari- and/or arya- (Sanskrit: आर्य, Persian: آریا). Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the meaning noble/spiritual one has been attached to it in Sanskrit...


As the Italians Fascists adapted elements of their ethnic heritage to fuel a sense of nationalism by use of symbolism, so did the Third Reich. Turn of the century German mystic and author Guido von List was a large influence on Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, who introduced various ancient Germanic symbols (through the lense of von Listian's writing) most thoroughly into the Schutzstaffel, including the stylized double Sig Rune (von List's then-contemporary Armenan rune version of the ancient sowilo rune) for the organization itself. Thule Society emblem Nazi mysticism is a term used to describe a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the combination of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ...   (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... The double-Sig Rune SS insignia. ... Two Sig Runes: The symbol of the Nazi SS Sig Rune is the name given by Guido von List for the Sigel or s rune of the futhark. ... The Armanen runes (or Armanen Futharkh as List called them) are a row of 18 runes closely based on the Younger Futhark invented by, or according to his claim revealed to, the Austrian occult mysticist and Germanic revivalist Guido von List in 1902. ... The Trundholm Sun Chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, but before Christianization also on the European Continent. ...


Other historical symbols that were already in use by the German army to varying degrees prior to the Third Reich, such as the wolfsangel and totenkopf, were also used in a new, more industrialized manner on uniforms and insignia. Vertical alignment Horizontal alignment The Wolfsangel (German for wolfs hook) is a symbol which when used in the context of Nazi or Neo-Nazi organisations is described as looking like an Eihwaz rune but modified by an additional central stroke. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Although the swastika was a popular symbol in art prior to the regimental use by the Third Reich and has a long heritage in many other cultures throughout history and although many of the symbols used by the Nazis were ancient or commonly used prior to the advent of the Third Reich, because of association with Third Reich use, the swastika is often considered synonymous with Nazism and some of the other symbols now carry a negative post-World War II stigma in some western countries, to the point where some of the symbols are banned from display altogether. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Other regions

Many other fascist movements did not win power or were relatively minor regimes in comparison and their symbolism is not well-remembered today in many parts of the world.

Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (November 16, 1896 - December 3, 1980) was a British politician principally known as the founder of the British Union of Fascists. ... The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... The flag of the British Union of Fascists The Flash and Circle is the best known symbol of the British Union of Fascists. ... Party logo with a symbol of red lightning that signifies action. ... From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many have been found in the sacred cave of Arkalochori on Crete) Labrys is the term for a doubleheaded axe, known to the Classical Greeks as pelekus πέλεκυς or sagaris (the term for a single-bladed axe being hÄ“mipelekus half-pelekus, e. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross (Nyilaskereszt) originated in Hungary in the 1930s as the symbol of the leading Hungarian fascist political party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi, an ex-army major. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... A Caddo solar cross, to Southeastern Native Americans a symbol of both the sun and fire. ... Doutor António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the President of the Council of Ministers of Portugal (Prime Minister) and the de facto dictator of the Portuguese Republic from 1932 to 1968. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (also known as spherical astrolabe) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking the poles and representing the equator, the... The National Syndicalists (in Portuguese: Movimento Nacional-Sindicalista, MNS - National Syndicalist Movement) were a far right National Syndicalist political movement that briefly flourished in Portugal in the 1930s, and an influence on the Spanish Falange (and themselves influenced by the Action Française). ... Order of Christ Cross The Order of Christ Cross is the emblem of the historical Order of Christ, (also called Christs Knights Order), Portugal. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... The Catholic monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ...

Modern use

Neo-Nazi use

While some Neo-Nazi organisations continue to use the swastika, most have usually tried to shy away from such inflammatory symbols of early fascism, using substitutes that are nevertheless sometimes reminiscent of the swastika and other cultural or ancestral symbols that may evoke Nationalistic sentiment but are not necessarily racist in origin. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...

  • crosses:
  • cogwheel – Magyar Népjóléti Szövetség (Hungarian Welfare Association)
  • runes:
    • the Algiz rune – e.g., Allgermanische Heidnische Front (All-Germanic Heathens' Front)
    • the Odal rune
    • the Sigel ("Sig") rune ᛋ, especially on the Schutzstaffel badge, sometimes confused or used interchangeably with Eihwaz.
    • the Tyr rune ᛏ was the badge of the SA Reichsführerschulen in Nazi Germany
    • Orkhon script letters - used by followers of Nihal Atsiz, e.g., Türkçü Toplumcu Budun Derneği
  • swastika – e.g., American Nazi Party; São Paulo Skinheads, Brazil; Nationalsocialistisk Front (National Socialist Front), Sweden
    • "bladed swastika" – Российское Национальное Единство (National Unity of Russia)
  • a triskelion-like symbol composed of three 7s – Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement), Republic of South Africa
  • the "Wolfsangel" symbol, used by the SS and Hitlerjugend, as well as various Neo-Nazi groups
  • the "Meandros" symbol, also called "Greek swastika", is the emblem of the Greek neo-nazi party Hrisi Avgi
  • the "Labrys" (or "Pelekys") symbol, the Minoic double-headed axe, is sometimes used by some fascist Greek nostalgics.

A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... Celtic cross For Celtic Cross, the ambient/dub band see Celtic Cross (band) A Celtic cross is a symbol that combines the cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. ... David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former Louisiana state representative, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... A Caddo solar cross, to Southeastern Native Americans a symbol of both the sun and fire. ... A rune can mean a single character in the Runic alphabet as well as an inscription of several runic charcters or symbols. ... Algiz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic name for the ᛉ rune, representing Proto-Germanic final z. ... The Odal rune. ... The Sowilo rune. ... The double-Sig Rune SS insignia. ... Eihwaz (or Eiwaz, Îgwaz) is the Proto-Germanic word for yew, and the reconstructed name of the rune ᛇ. Its is commonly transliterated as ei or ï. Its phonetic value at the time of the invention of the Futhark (2nd century) was not necessarily a diphtong, but possibly a vowel somewhere... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... The seal of SA The   or SA (German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... Orkhon script The Orkhon script is the earliest known Turkic alphabet. ... Nihal Atsiz (1905-1975) is a Turkish writer of the pan-Turkist or Turanism camp. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The armoured triskelion on the flag of the Isle of Man Triskelion (or triskele, from Greek τρισκελης three-legged) is a symbol consisting of three bent human legs, or, more generally, three interlocked spirals, or any similar symbol with three protrusions exhibiting a symmetry of the cyclic group C3. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... Vertical alignment Horizontal alignment The Wolfsangel (German for wolfs hook) is a symbol which when used in the context of Nazi or Neo-Nazi organisations is described as looking like an Eihwaz rune but modified by an additional central stroke. ... Hrisi Avgis logo, featuring a meander pattern. ... Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many have been found in the sacred cave of Arkalochori on Crete) Labrys is the term for a doubleheaded axe, known to the Classical Greeks as pelekus πέλεκυς or sagaris (the term for a single-bladed axe being hÄ“mipelekus half-pelekus, e. ...

Relation to Neopaganism

In many cases, the alternatives are, like the swastika, symbols from the Indo-European tradition that are also used by a variety of non-fascist movements and organizations, such as Ásatrú and Cadw. Germanic neopagan groups expressing opposition to their ancestral symbolism being used for political purposes and being listed as fascist symbols is well documented, including a case against the Anti-Defamation League resulting in disclaimers on their website. Look up Ásatrú in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cadw is a semi-autonomous publicly-funded body which with the mission to protect, conserve, and to promote the built heritage of Wales — the Welsh equivalent of English Heritage and Historic Scotland. ... It has been suggested that Heathenry be merged into this article or section. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ...


See also

The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... The twentieth century German Nazi Party was notable for their extensive use of graphic symbolism, most notably the Hakenkreuz (swastika) which it used as its principal symbol, and, in the form of the swastika flag, became the state flag of Nazi Germany. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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The Boy Scout Swastika is similar to that of the 45th Infantry Division and the Soviet Socialist Swastika.
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