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Encyclopedia > Fascist
This article is part of the
Fascism series.

Varieties of Fascism Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Nazism
Rexism
Falangism
Clerical fascism
Austrofascism
Crypto-fascism
National Socialism redirects here. ... Leon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... The Falange or sometimes the Phalange is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ...


Fascist political parties and movements


Arrow Cross Party
Blueshirts
Brazilian Integralism
British Fascisti
British Fascists
British Union of Fascists
Faisceau
Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS
Imperial Fascist League
Iron Guard
Nasjonal Samling
National Fascisti
National Socialist League
Silver Legion of America
Ustase
Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Part Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Hungarianist Movement) was a pro-German anti_Semitic fascist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism was a fascist-like movement in the 1930s. ... The British Fascisti were the first avowedly fascist organisation in Britain. ... The British Fascists were the name subsequently taken by the British Fascisti in an attempt to Anglicise them. ... The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... The Faisceau was a short-lived French Fascist party. ... The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) was the official political party founded by Francisco Franco April 19, 1937 in the midst of the Spanish Civil War, bringing under one umbrella his Carlist and Falangist supporters. ... The Imperial Fascist League was a British political movement founded by Arnold Leese in 1929. ... The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given in English to an ultra-nationalist, anti-Semitic, fascist movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. Originally founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu on July 24, 1927 as the Legion... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Union) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling. ... The National Fascisti were a splinter group from the British Fascisti formed in 1924. ... The National Socialist League was a short lived political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War. ... The Silver Legion of America, commonly known as the Silver Shirts, was an American fascist organization founded by William Dudley Pelley on January 30, 1933. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ...


Fascism in history


Fascio
March on Rome
Italian Social Republic
Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word which in the 1890s came to refer to radical political groups. ... March on Rome was the name given to the coup of State by which Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in late October 1922. ... The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian), also known as the Republic of Salò, was a fascist puppet state in German-occupied northern Italy. ...


Relevant Lists


List of fascists
This is a list of persons who self-identify as Fascists or a variant (e. ...


Related Subjects


Fascist symbolism
Roman salute
Blackshirts
Corporatism
Syndicalism
Black Brigades
Actual Idealism
Fascist unification rhetoric
Conservative Revolutionary movement
National Bolshevism
International Third Position
Neo-Fascism
Neo-Nazism
Neo-Nazi groups of the United States
Christian Identity
Neofascism and religion
As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were many different symbols of Fascist movements as well. ... The Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a closed finger, flat-palm-down hand raised at an angle and was used by the Roman Republic. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... The 40 Black Brigades or the brigata nera were the fascist Italy, also known as the Italian Social Republic, during the final years of World War II after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Conservative Revolutionary movement was a German nationalist literary youth movement, prominent in the years following World War I. Later, the Nazis claimed the Conservative Revolutionary heritage as their own, although in reality they have had very little to do with it. ... National Bolshevism is an ideology that attempts to combine elements of fascism and Stalinism. ... International Third Position (ITP) was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland and as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement that originated in British National Front in the early 1980s. ... Neo-Fascism is the term used to describe a range of groups emerging after the Second World War that display significant elements of Fascism, or Clerical Fascism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... American Nazis in the news; a Dateline NBC report shows a Neo-Nazi rally in front of Capitol in Washington D.C. There are a number of Nazi (see Neo-nazi) groups in the United States, both past and present. ... Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ... The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area which examines the parallels and intersections between various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ...

Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. Similar political movements spread across Europe between World War One and World War Two and took several forms such as Nazism and Clerical fascism. Neofascism is generally used to describe post-WWII movements seen to have fascist attributes. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Politics is the process and method of making decisions for groups. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...


Fascism was typified by attempts to impose state control over all aspects of life. Many scholars consider "fascism" to be part of, or in coalition with, extreme right politics, however the definitional debates and arguments by academics over the nature of fascism fill entire bookshelves. There are clearly elements of both left and right ideology in the development of Fascism. The term far-right refers to the relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ...


Modern colloquial usage of the word has extended the definition of the terms fascism and neofascism to refer to any totalitarian worldview regardless of its political ideology, although scholars frown on this. Sometimes the word "fascist" is used as a hyperbolic political epithet. The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... The word fascist ( or fascism) is sometimes used to denigrate persons, institutions or groups that would not describe themselves as fascist and that do not fall within the formal definition of the word. ...


The word "fascism" comes from fascio (plural: fasci), which may mean "bundle", as in a political or militant group or a nation, but also from the fasces (rods bundled around an axe), which were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of magistrates. The Italian 'Fascisti' were also known as Black Shirts for their style of uniform incorporating a black shirt (See Also: political colour). Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word which in the 1890s came to refer to radical political groups. ... Fasces on the reverse of the US dime A statue of Cincinnatus returning the Roman fasces Fasces consist of a bundle of wooden rods tied together as a cylinder around an axe. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer with limited authority to administer and enforce the law. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the... Political colours are colours used to represent a political stance, a political ideology, or — in a telling use of terminology — a position on the political spectrum. ...


Italian Fascism is often granted the capital "F", as it is the parent of generic fascism (small "f"). Italian Fascism is considered a model for other forms of fascism, yet there is disagreement over which aspects of structure, tactics, culture, and ideology represent a "fascist minimum" or core.

Contents


Definition

The term fascism has come to mean any system of government resembling Mussolini's, that in various combinations:

  • exalts nation and sometimes race above the individual.
  • stresses loyalty to a single leader.
  • uses violence and modern techniques of propaganda and censorship to forcibly suppress political opposition.
  • engages in severe economic and social regimentation.
  • engages in corporatism.
  • implements totalitarianism.

As a populist social movement prior to gaining government power, fascism displays different characteristics. For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation) The most popular modern ethical and philosophical doctrines state that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... A race is a distinct population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Censorship is the systematic use of group power to broadly control freedom of speech and expression, largely in regard to secretive matters. ... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ...


In an article in the 1932 Enciclopedia Italiana, written by Giovanni Gentile and attributed to Benito Mussolini, fascism is described as a system in which "The State not only is authority which governs and molds individual wills with laws and values of spiritual life, but it is also power which makes its will prevail abroad... For the Fascist, everything is within the State and... neither individuals nor groups are outside the State... For Fascism, the State is an absolute, before which individuals or groups are only relative..." 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Giovanni Gentile in his earlier years. ...


Mussolini, in a speech delivered on October 28, 1925, stated the following maxim that encapsulates the fascist philosophy: "Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato." ("Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State".) Therefore, he reasoned, all individuals' business is the state's business, and the state's existence is the sole duty of the individual. October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Another key distinguishing feature of fascism is that it uses a mass movement to attack or absorb the organizations of the working class: parties of the left and trade unions. Peter Fritzsche and others have described fascism as a militant form of right-wing populism. This mobilization strategy involves Corporatism, Corporativism, or the Corporative State [1], all terms that refer to state action to partner with key business leaders, often in ways chosen to minimize the power of labor unions. Mussolini, for example, capitalized on fear of a Communist revolution [2], finding ways to unite Labor and Capital, to Labor's ultimate detriment. In 1926 he created the National Council of Corporations, divided into guilds of employers and employees, tasked with managing 22 sectors of the economy. The guilds subsumed both labor unions and management, but were heavily weighted in favor of the corporations and their owners. The moneyed classes in return helped him change the country's laws to raise his stature from a coalition leader to a supreme commander. The movement was supported by small capitalists, low-level bureaucrats, and the middle classes, who had all felt threatened by the rise in power of the Socialists. Fascism also met with great success in rural areas, especially among farmers, peasants, and in the city, the lumpenproletariat. The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Bureaucracy is a sociological concept of government and its institutions as an organizational structure characterized by regularized procedure, division of responsibility, hierarchy, and impersonal relationships. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat) is a term used by Marxists to describe the section of the proletariat that cant find legal work on a regular basis. ...


Unlike the pre-World War II period, when many groups openly and proudly proclaimed themselves fascist, since World War II the term has taken on an extremely pejorative meaning, largely in reaction to the crimes against humanity committed by the Nazis, who were allied with Mussolini during the war. This article is in need of attention. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


Today, very few groups proclaim themselves as fascist, and the term almost universally is used for groups for whom the speaker has little regard, often with minimal understanding of what the term actually means. The term "fascist" or "Nazi" is often ascribed to individuals or groups who are perceived to behave in an authoritarian manner; by silencing opposition, judging personal behavior, or otherwise attempting to concentrate power. More particularly, "fascist" is sometimes used by members of the Left to characterize some group or persons of the Right. This usage receded much following the 1970s, but has enjoyed a strong resurgence in connection with Anti-globalization activism. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Fascism, in many respects, is an ideology of negativism: anti-liberal, anti-socialist, anti-Communist, anti-democratic, anti-egalitarian, etc., and in some of its forms anti-religion. As a political and economic system in Italy, it combined elements of corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-communism. In politics, the term liberal refers to: an adherent of the ideology of liberalism —an ideology espousing liberty. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... The term democracy indicates a form of government where all the states decisions are exercised directly or indirectly by a majority of its citizenry through a fair elective process. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail throughout society. ... Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ...


The origin and ideology of Fascism

Etymologically, the use of the word Fascism in modern Italian political history stretches back to the 1890s in the form of fasci, which were radical left-wing political factions that proliferated in the decades before World War I. (See Fascio for more on this movement and its evolution.) 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A political faction is a grouping of individuals within a political organization, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with some kind of political purpose (referred to in this article as the “broader organisation”). It may also be referred to as a power bloc, or a... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word which in the 1890s came to refer to radical political groups. ...


One of the first of these groups were the Fasci Siciliani who were part of the first movement that consisted of the Italian working-class peasants that made real progress. The Fasci Siciliani dei lavoratori, were revolutionary socialists that were lead by Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida.


Italian Fascism

The Doctrine of Fascism was written by Giovanni Gentile, an idealist philosopher who served as the official philosopher of fascism. Mussolini signed the article and it was officially attributed to him. In it, French socialists Georges Sorel, Charles Peguy, and Hubert Lagardelle were invoked as the sources of fascism. Sorel's ideas concerning syndicalism and violence are much in evidence in this document. It also quotes from Ernest Renan who it says had "pre-fascist intuitions". Both Sorel and Peguy were influenced by the Frenchman Henri Bergson. Bergson rejected the scientism, mechanical evolution and materialism of Marxist ideology. Also, Bergson promoted an elan vital as an evolutionary process. Both of these elements of Bergson appear in fascism. Mussolini states that fascism negates the doctrine of scientific and Marxian socialism and the doctrine of historic materialism. Hubert Lagardelle, an authoritative syndicalist writer, was influenced by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon who, in turn, inspired anarchosyndicalism. A Doctrine of Fascism was written by Giovanni Gentile which Mussolini signed the article and it was officially attributed to him. ... Giovanni Gentile in his earlier years. ... George Sorel (1847-1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of anarchosyndicalism. ... Charles P guy (January 7, 1873-September 4, 1914) was a noted French poet and essayist. ... Hubert Lagardelle (1874-1958) was a French syndicalist thinker, influenced by Proudhon. ... Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... Ernest Renan (February 27, 1823 - October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Henri Bergson Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859 – January 4, 1941) was a French philosopher, influential in France, but out of the main currents of his time. ... The term scientism is a relatively newly coined word that refers to certain epistemologies based on science. ... Materialism is the philosophical view that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are comprised of material. The view is perhaps best understood in its opposition to the doctrines of immaterial substance applied to the mind historically, and most famously by... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [] in BrE, [] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ...


There were several strains of tradition influencing Mussolini. Sergio Panunzio, a major theoretician of fascism in the 1920s, had a syndicalist background, but his influence waned as the movement shed its old left wing elements. The fascist concept of corporatism and particularly its theories of class collaboration and economic and social relations are very similar to the model laid out by Pope Leo XIII's 1892 encyclical Rerum Novarum. This encyclical addressed politics as it had been transformed by the Industrial Revolution, and other changes in society that had occurred during the nineteenth century. The document criticized capitalism, complaining of the exploitation of the masses in industry. However, it also sharply criticized the socialist concept of class struggle, and the proposed socialist solution to exploitation (the elimination, or at least the limitation, of private property). Rerum Novarum called for strong governments to undertake a mission to protect their people from exploitation, while continuing to uphold private property and reject socialism. It also asked Catholics to apply principles of social justice in their own lives. Sergio Panunzio (July 20, 1886-October 8, 1944) was an Italian theoretician in revolutionary syndicalism. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... Pope Leo XIII, born Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Pecci (March 2, 1810–July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Blessed Pius IX on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his own death. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ... Rerum Novarum is an encyclical issued by Roman Catholic Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... The Industrial Revolution was the major social, economic and technological change in the late 18th and early 19th century. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ...


Seeking to find some principle to compete with and replace the Marxist doctrine of class struggle, Rerum Novarum urged social solidarity between the upper and lower classes, and endorsed nationalism as a way of preserving traditional morality, customs, and folkways. In doing so, Rerum Novarum proposed a kind of corporatism, the organization of political societies along industrial lines that resembled mediaeval guilds. A one-person, one-vote democracy was rejected in favor of representation by interest groups. This idea was to counteract the "subversive nature" of the doctrine of Karl Marx. Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... Rerum Novarum is an encyclical issued by Roman Catholic Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Classes can refer to: social class scientific classification class (object-oriented programming) a subject in school see also class. ... Karl Marx Karl Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London, UK) was an influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ...


The themes and ideas developed in Rerum Novarum can also be found in the ideology of fascism as developed by Mussolini.


Fascism also borrowed from Gabriele D'Annunzio's Constitution of Fiume for his ephemeral "regency" in the city of Fiume. Syndicalism had an influence on fascism as well, particularly as some syndicalists intersected with D'Annunzio's ideas. Before the First World War, syndicalism had stood for a militant doctrine of working-class revolution. It distinguished itself from Marxism because it insisted that the best route for the working class to liberate itself was the trade union rather than the party. Gabriele DAnnunzio (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938) was an Italian poet, writer, dramatist, daredevil and war hero, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... Outline of a New Constitution for the Free State of Fiume was written by Gabriele DAnnunzio and anarcho-syndicalist Alceste de Ambris and appeared on August 26 1920. ... Rijeka (Fiume in Italian and Hungarian; Rijeka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on the Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ... Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ...


The Italian Socialist Party ejected the syndicalists in 1908. The syndicalist movement split between anarcho-syndicalists and a more moderate tendency. Some moderates began to advocate "mixed syndicates" of workers and employers. In this practice, they absorbed the teachings of Catholic theorists and expanded them to accommodate greater power of the state, and diverted them by the influence of D'Annunzio to nationalist ends. 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ...


When Henri De Man's Italian translation of Au-dela du marxisme emerged, Mussolini was excited and wrote to the author that his criticism "destroyed any scientific element left in Marxism". Mussolini was appreciative of the idea that a corporative organization and a new relationship between labour and capital would eliminate "the clash of economic interests" and thereby neutralize "the germ of class warfare.'" Henri De Man was a Belgian who was one of the most leading socialist theoreticians of his period. ...


Renegade socialist thinkers, Robert Michels, Sergio Panunzio, Ottavio Dinale, Agostino Lanzillo, Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Michele Bianchi, and Edmondo Rossoni, turning against their former left-wing ideas, played a part in this attempt to find a "third way" that rejected both capitalism and socialism. Robert Michels (9 January 1876, Cologne, Germany — 3 May 1936, Rome, Italy) was a German sociologist who wrote on the political behavior of intellectual elites. ... Agostino Lanzillo (1886-1952) was an anarcho-syndicalist leader who became a member of Benito Mussolinis Fascist movement. ... Michele Bianchi was an eminent revolutionary syndicalist leader. ... Edmondo Rossoni (1884-1965) He served as under secretary to the President of the Facist Grand Council between 1932 and 1935. ...


Many historians claim that the March 23, 1919 meeting at the Piazza San Sepolcro was the historic “birthplace” of the fascist movement. However, this would imply that the Italian Fascists “came from nowhere” which is simply not true. Mussolini revived his former group, Fasci d'Azione rivoluzionaria, in order to take part in the 1919 elections in response to an increase in Communist activity occurring in Milan. The Fasci di Combattimenti were the result of this continuation (not creation) of the Fascist party. The result of the meeting was that Fascism became an organized political movement. Among the founding members were the revolutionary syndicalist leaders Agostino Lanzillo and Michele Bianchi. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1921, the fascists developed a program that called for: 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

As the movement evolved, several of these initial ideas were abandoned and rejected. In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... The separation of church and state is a concept in modern thought and practice, whereby the structures of state or national government are kept separate from those of religious institutions. ... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ...


Mussolini's fascist state was established nearly a decade before Hitler's rise to power (1922 and the March on Rome). Both a movement and a historical phenomenon, Italian Fascism was, in many respects, an adverse reaction to both the apparent failure of laissez-faire economics and fear of the Left. March on Rome was the name given to the coup of State by which Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in late October 1922. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


Fascism was, to an extent, a product of a general feeling of anxiety and fear among the middle class of postwar Italy. This fear arose from a convergence of interrelated economic, political, and cultural pressures. Under the banner of this authoritarian and nationalistic ideology, Mussolini was able to exploit fears regarding the survival of capitalism in an era in which postwar depression, the rise of a more militant left, and a feeling of national shame and humiliation stemming from Italy's 'mutilated victory' at the hands of the World War I postwar peace treaties seemed to converge. Such unfulfilled nationalistic aspirations tainted the reputation of liberalism and constitutionalism among many sectors of the Italian population. In addition, such democratic institutions had never grown to become firmly rooted in the young nation-state. Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Constitutionalist currently refers to United States citizens who advocate strict adherence to the intentions of the framers of the U.S. Constitution. ... -1...


This same postwar depression heightened the allure of Marxism among an urban proletariat who were even more disenfranchised than their continental counterparts. But fear of the growing strength of trade unionism, Communism, and socialism proliferated among the elite and the middle class. In a way, Benito Mussolini filled a political vacuum. Fascism emerged as a "third way" — as Italy's last hope to avoid imminent collapse of the 'weak' Italian liberalism, and Communist revolution. A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Elite may refer to Elitism - the concept of social stratification by innate or social qualities Elite - computer software game Elite - a skilled hacker Elite Systems, a UK video game developer. ...


While failing to outline a coherent program, fascism evolved into a new political and economic system that combined corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-Communism in a state designed to bind all classes together under a capitalist system. This was a new capitalist system, however, one in which the state seized control of the organization of vital industries. Under the banners of nationalism and state power, Fascism seemed to synthesize the glorious Roman past with a futuristic utopia.


Despite the themes of social and economic reform in the initial Fascist manifesto of June 1919, the movement came to be supported by sections of the middle class fearful of socialism and communism. Industrialists and landowners supported the movement as a defense against labour militancy. Under threat of a fascist March on Rome, in October 1922, Mussolini assumed the premiership of a right-wing coalition Cabinet initially including members of the pro-church Partito Popolare (People's Party). The Fascist manifesto was the initial declaration of the political stance of the founders of Fascism in Italy. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March on Rome was the name given to the coup of State by which Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in late October 1922. ... A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


The regime's most lasting political achievement was perhaps the Lateran Treaty of February 1929 between the Italian state and the Holy See. Under this treaty, the Papacy was granted temporal sovereignty over the Vatican City and guaranteed the free exercise of Catholicism as the sole state religion throughout Italy in return for its acceptance of Italian sovereignty over the Pope's former dominions. In the 1930s, Italy recovered from the Great Depression, and achieved economic growth in part by developing domestic substitutes for imports (Autarchia). The draining of the malaria-infested Pontine Marshes south of Rome was one of the regime's proudest boasts. But growth was undermined by international sanctions following Italy's October 1935 invasion of Ethiopia (the Abyssinia crisis), and by the government's costly military support for Franco's Nationalists in Spain. The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to 1941. ... An autarky is an economy that does no trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from its outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Abyssinia Crisis was a pre-WW2 diplomatic crisis originating in the conflict between Italy and Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia). ...


International isolation and their common involvement in Spain brought about increasing diplomatic collaboration between Italy and Nazi Germany. This was reflected also in the Fascist regime's domestic policies as the first anti-semitic laws were passed in 1938. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Italy's intervention (June 10th 1940) as Germany's ally in World War II brought military disaster, and resulted in the loss of her north and east African colonies and the American-British-Canadian invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and southern Italy in September 1943. June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


Mussolini was dismissed as prime minister by King Victor Emmanuel III on July 25th 1943, and subsequently arrested. He was freed in September by German paratroopers under command of Otto Skorzeny and installed as head of a puppet "Italian Social Republic" at Salo in German-occupied northern Italy. His association with the German occupation regime eroded much of what little support remained to him. His summary execution on April 28th 1945 during the war's violent closing stages by the northern partisans was widely seen as a fitting end to his regime. Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 – December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 – May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian), also known as the Republic of Salò, was a fascist puppet state in German-occupied northern Italy. ... Salo (Italian: Salò) is a small town in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy on the banks of Lake Garda. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ...


After the war, the remnants of Italian fascism largely regrouped under the banner of the neo-Fascist "Italian Social Movement" (MSI). The MSI merged in 1994 with conservative former Christian Democrats to form the "National Alliance" (AN), which proclaims its commitment to constitutionalism, parliamentary government and political pluralism. Neo-Fascism is the term used to describe a range of groups emerging after the Second World War that display significant elements of Fascism, or Clerical Fascism. ... The Italian Social Movement (Movimento Sociale Italiano) (MSI) was a neo-Fascist party formed in the post-World War II period by supporters of the executed dictator Benito Mussolini. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... The National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale) is a right-wing Italian party, formed from most of the former Italian Social Movement (Movimento Sociale Italiano, MSI) and conservative elements of the former Christian Democrats, the National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) was created in 1994. ... Constitutionalist currently refers to United States citizens who advocate strict adherence to the intentions of the framers of the U.S. Constitution. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ...


Nazism and Fascism

Nazism may be considered either a type of fascism or a notable offshoot of fascism. It differed from Italian Fascism in the emphasis on the state's purpose in serving a racial rather than a national ideal, specifically the social engineering of culture to the ends of the greatest possible prosperity for the so-called "Master Race" at the expense of all else and all others. In contrast, Mussolini's fascism held that cultural factors existed to serve the state, and that it wasn't necessarily in the state's interest to serve or engineer any of these particulars within its sphere. The only purpose of government under fascism proper was to uphold the state as supreme above all else, and for these reasons it can be said to have been a governmental statolatry. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... In the field of political science, social engineering is a mainly pejorative term used to describe the intended effects of authoritarian systems of government. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... Coined by Ludwig von Mises in his work Omnipotent Government, Statolatry is literally worship of the State analogous to idolatry as worship of idols. ...


While Nazism was a metapolitical ideology, seeing both party and government as a means to achieve an ideal condition of its people, fascism was a squarely anti-socialist form of statism that existed as an end in and of itself. The Nazi movement, at least in its overt ideology, spoke of class-based society as the enemy, and wanted to unify the racial element above established classes. The Fascist movement, on the other hand, sought to preserve the class system and uphold it as the foundation of established and desirable culture. This underlying theorem made the Fascists and Nazis in the period between the two world wars sometimes see themselves and their respective political labels as at least partially exclusive of one another. Metapolitics is the study of theories regarding the structure of which political ideologies are built upon. ... Statism is a term to describe any economic system where a government implements a significant degree of centralized economic planning,which may include state ownership of the means of production, as opposed to a system where the overwhelming majority of economic planning occurs at a decentralized level by private individuals...


Mussolini's influences

Fascism did not spring forth full-grown, and the writings of Fascist theoreticians cannot be taken as a full description of Mussolini's ideology, let alone how specific situations inevitably resulted in deviations from ideology. Mussolini's policies drew on both the history of the Italian nation and the philosophical ideas of the 19th century. What resulted was neither logical nor well defined, to the extent that Mussolini defined it as "action and mood, not doctrine".


Nonetheless, certain ideas are clearly visible. The most obvious is nationalism. The last time Italy had been a great nation was under the banner of the Roman Empire and Italian nationalists always saw this as a period of glory. Given that even other European nations with imperial ambitions had often invoked ancient Rome in their architecture and vocabulary, it was perhaps inevitable that Mussolini would do the same. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ...


Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy had not again been united until its final unification in 1870. Mussolini desired to affirm an Italian national identity and therefore saw the unification as the first step towards returning Italy to greatness and often exploited the unification and the achievements of leading figures such as Garibaldi to induce a sense of Italian national pride. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian guerilla fighter Giuseppe Garibaldi is an aircraft carrier named after Giuseppe Garibaldi Michael Garibaldi is a character in the science fiction television series Babylon 5. ...


The Fascist cult of national rebirth through a strong leader has roots in the romantic movement of the 19th century, as does the glorification of war. For example, the loss of the war with Abyssinia had been a great humiliation to Italians and consequently it was the first place targeted for Italian expansion under Mussolini. Romanticism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Not all ideas of fascism originated from the 19th century; some find their origins in the 20th century; for example, the use of systematic propaganda to pass on simple slogans such as "believe, obey, fight" and Mussolini's use of the radio. Similarly, Mussolini's corporate state was a distinctly 20th-century creation.


Fascism and the Political Spectrum

Early fascists demonstrated a willingness to do whatever was necessary to achieve their ends, and easily shifted from left-wing to right-wing positions as suited their purposes. This inconsistency makes it difficult to strictly categorize fascism on the traditional political spectrum. Some scholars argue that Italian Fascism, unlike some other contemporary movements, did not grow out of a strict theoretical basis. Layton describes Fascism as "not even a rational system of thought", and as "unique but not original".


Fascism tends to be often associated with the political right, but the appropriateness of this association is often contested. In one sense, fascism can be considered to be a new ideological development that transcends the right/left framework. At the same time, it does contain ideological elements usually associated with the right. These two facets can be seen in the following quote from Mussolini himself, writing in The Doctrine of Fascism: "Granted that the XIXth century was the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy, this does not mean that the XXth century must also be the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy. Political doctrines pass; nations remain. We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century."


Griffin, Eatwell, Laqueuer, and Weber are among the top scholars of fascism, and they are reluctant to call fascism simply a right-wing ideology. Yet in their lengthy discussions they observe that generally fascism and neofascism allies itself with right-wing or conservative forces on the basis of racial nationalism, hatred of the political left, or simple expediency.


Laqueuer: "But historical fascism was always a coalition between radical, populist ('fascist') elements and others gravitating toward the extreme Right" p. 223.


Eatwell talks about the need of fascism for "syncretic legitimation" which sometimes led it to forge alliances with "existing mainstream elites, who often sought to turn fascism to their own more conservative purposes." Eatwell also observes that "in most countries it tended to gather force in countries where the right was weak" p. 39.


Griffin also does not include right ideology in his "fascist minimum," but he has described Fascism as "Revolution from the Right" pp. 185-201.


Weber: "...their most common allies lay on the right, particularly on the radical authoritarian right, and Italian Fascism as a semi-coherent entity was partly defined by its merger with one of the most radical of all right authoritarian movements in Europe, the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI)." p. 8.


Thus according to these scholars, there are both left and right influences on fascism, and right-wing ideology should not be considered part of the "fascist minimum". However, they also show that in actual practice, there is a gravitation of fascism toward the political right.


The adoption of the name by the Italian Fascist Party reflected the previous involvement of a number of ideologues who intersected with radical left politics. While opposing communism and social democracy, fascism was influenced by the theories of Gabriele D'Annunzio (a former anarchist), Alceste de Ambris (influenced by anarcho-syndicalism), and former socialist Benito Mussolini. This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Gabriele DAnnunzio (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938) was an Italian poet, writer, dramatist, daredevil and war hero, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... Alceste de Ambris (1874-1934) was an Italian anarcho_syndicalist. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


Fascists themselves often rejected categorization as left or right-wing, claiming to be a "third force" (see international third position and political spectrum for more information). The Third Way is a centrist political ideology that usually stands for deregulation, decentralisation and lower taxes. ... International Third Position (ITP) was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland and as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement that originated in British National Front in the early 1980s. ... The political spectrum theory is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions, by placing them upon one or more geometric axes. ...


Analysts on the left counter that Fascism rejects Marxism and the concept of class struggle in favor of corporatism. Contrary to the practice of socialist states, fascist Italy did not nationalize any industries or capitalist entities. Rather, it established a corporatist structure influenced by the model for class relations put forward by the Catholic Church. (For more on the influence of Catholicism on fascism see links between the clergy and fascist parties.) Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... Saint Peters Basilica in Rome. ... As with any officially established religion, the Roman Catholic Church has had constantly evolving relationships with various forms of government, some of them controversial in retrospect. ...


Fascism and other totalitarian regimes

Some historians and theorists regard fascism and "Soviet Communism" (or more specifically, Stalinism) as being similar, lumping them together under the term "totalitarianism". Friedrich Hayek argues that the differences between fascism and totalitarian forms of socialism (see Stalinism) are rhetorical rather than actual. Others see them as being so dissimilar as to be utterly incomparable. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)  listen?; tr. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Friedrich von Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


According to the libertarian Nolan chart, "fascism" occupies a place on the political spectrum as the capitalist equivalent of communism, wherein a system that supports "economic liberty" is constrained by its social controls such that it becomes totalitarian. This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ... Nolans original chart The Nolan chart is a political diagram created by the Libertarian David Nolan. ... The political spectrum theory is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions, by placing them upon one or more geometric axes. ...


Hannah Arendt and other theorists of totalitarian rule argue that there are similarities between nations under Fascist and Stalinist rule. They condemn both groups as dictatorships and totalitarian police states. For example, both Hitler and Stalin committed the mass murder of millions of their country's civilians who did not fit in with their plans. Hannah Arendt in her early adulthood Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 - December 4, 1975) was an American political theorist of German origin. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were two of the 20th centurys most notorious dictators. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... A mass murder (massacre) involves the murder of large numbers of people either by a state or an individual. ...


In 1947, Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises published a short book entitled "Planned Chaos". He asserted that fascism and Nazism were socialist dictatorships and that both had been committed to the Soviet principle of dictatorship and violent oppression of dissenters. He argued that Mussolini's major heresy from Marxist orthodoxy had been his strong endorsement of Italian entry into World War I on the Allied side. (Mussolini aimed to "liberate" Italian-speaking areas under Austrian control in the Alps.) This view contradicts the statements of Mussolini himself (not to mention his socialist opponents), and is generally viewed with skepticism by historians. Critics of von Mises often argue that he was attacking a Straw Man; in other words, that he changed the definition of "socialism" in his book, for the precise purpose of accommodating fascism and Nazism into it. 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ludwig von Mises (September 29, 1881 - October 10, 1973), a notable economist and social philosopher, was born Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (today Lviv, Ukraine), the son of Arthur von Mises, a railroad engineer and civil servant, and Adele von Mises, born Adele Landau. ... The Alps is the collective name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria in the east, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany, through to France in the west. ...


Critics of this view point out that Mussolini imprisoned Antonio Gramsci from 1926 until 1934, after Gramsci, a leader of the Italian Communist Party and leading Marxist intellectual, tried to create a common front among the political left and the workers, in order to resist and overthrow fascism. Other Italian Communist leaders like Palmiro Togliatti went into exile and fought for the Republic in Spain. Antonio Gramsci Antonio Gramsci (January 23, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer and a politician, a leader and theorist of Socialism, Communism and anti-Fascism. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Logo of the Italian Communist Party The Fourth Estate The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on... In politics a common front is an alliance between different groups, forces or interests in pursuit of a common goal or in opposition to a common enemy. ... Palmiro Togliatti (March 26, 1893 - August 21, 1964) was an Italian communist leader. ...


The Marxist concept of dictatorship of the proletariat alluded to by Von Mises is not the same as the dictatorship concept employed by fascists, argue proponents of communism. Dictatorship of the proletariat is supposed to mean workers' democracy, or dictatorship by the working class, rather than dictatorship by the capitalist class. They claim that this concept had been distorted under Stalin to mean dictatorship by the General Secretary over the party and the working class. In this, Stalin deviated from Marx, and therefore it cannot be said that the Stalinist form of government is Marxist. Opponents of Communism, however, argue that the Soviet Union was dictatorial already under Lenin. The dictatorship of the proletariat is defined by Marxist theory as the use of state power by the working class against the overthrown ruling class and others of its enemies during the passage from capitalism to communism. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (sometimes called First Secretary) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Lenins death in 1924. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism, later expanded into Marxism-Leninism by Joseph...


The fascist economic model of corporatism promoted class collaboration by attempting to bring classes together under the unity of the state, a concept that is anathema to classic socialism.


The fascist states from the period between the two world wars were police states, as were the ostensibly socialist USSR and the post-WWII Soviet bloc states. Conversely, there have been multi-party socialist states that have not been police states, and non-socialist states that have been police states. During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ...


Examples of police states in modern times, outside of the Communist world, include:


Arguments over this issue are lengthy and contentious, and can be reviewed in the articles on Nazism and socialism, and Fascism vs. socialism. The Taliban (Pashtun and Persian: طالبان; students of Islam), also transliterated as Taleban, is an Islamist movement which ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, despite having diplomatic recognition from only three countries: the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. ... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (April 19, 1883 - August 24, 1954) was the president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1950 to his suicide in 1954. ... Augusto Pinochet (sitting) was an army general who led a military coup in Chile in 1973. ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... National motto: None Official name (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó, Taiwanese: Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok) Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party of China (Traditional: 中國國民黨; Simplified: 中国国民党; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang) is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Shah (in Persian: شاه), from the Old Persian word khshathra-pava king, popularly referred to as satrap by the Greeks, is the Persian term for a monarch and used by the former rulers of Persia (present-day Iran) as well as the rulers of the Persian Empire. ... His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) holder of the deferential title Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... An Islamic republic is a state under a particular theocratic form of government advocated by some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Anti-Communism

Fascism and Communism are political systems that rose to prominence after World War I. Historians of the period between World War I and World War II such as E.H. Carr and Eric Hobsbawm point out that liberalism was under serious stress in this period and seemed to be a doomed philosophy. The success of the Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in a revolutionary wave across Europe. The socialist movement worldwide split into separate social democratic and Leninist wings. The subsequent formation of the Third International prompted serious debates within social democratic parties, resulting in supporters of the Russian Revolution splitting to form Communist Parties in most industrialized (and many non-industrialized) countries. Edward Hallett Carr (1892–1982) was a British historian and international relations theorist. ... Eric Hobsbawm (born June 9, 1917) is a British historian and author, earlier the leading theoretician of the now defunct Communist Party of Great Britain. ... The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to three specific events in the history of Imperial Russia. ... 1917 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ... A Communist party is a party which promotes Communism. ...


At the end of World War I, there were attempted socialist uprisings or threats of socialist uprisings throughout Europe, most notably in Germany, where the Spartacist uprising, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in January 1919, was eventually crushed. In Bavaria, Communists successfully overthrew the government and established the Munich Soviet Republic that lasted from 1918 to 1919. A short lived Hungarian Soviet Republic was also established under Béla Kun in 1919. This article is about the Spartacist League which existed in post-First World War Germany. ... Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 - January 15, 1919, in Polish language Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish and German Jewish Marxist politician, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Karl Liebknecht (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Münchner Räterepublik, known as the Munich Soviet Republic or Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik), was a short-lived communist country, organized in Bavaria in the year 1919. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ... Béla Kun Béla Kun (February 20, 1886–1939?) was a Hungarian Communist who ruled Hungary for a brief time in 1919. ...


The Russian Revolution also inspired attempted revolutionary movements in Italy with a wave of factory occupations. Most historians view fascism as a response to these developments, as a movement that both tried to appeal to the working class and divert them from Marxism. It also appealed to capitalists as a bulwark against Bolshevism. Italian fascism took power with the blessing of Italy's king after years of leftist-led unrest led many conservatives to fear that a communist revolution was inevitable. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


Throughout Europe, numerous aristocrats, conservative intellectuals, capitalists and industrialists lent their support to fascist movements in their countries that emulated Italian fascism. In Germany, numerous right-wing nationalist groups arose, particularly out of the post-war Freikorps, which were used to crush both the Spartacist uprising and the Munich Soviet. Etymology The Ancient Greek term Aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ...


With the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, it seemed that liberalism and the liberal form of capitalism were doomed, and Communist and fascist movements swelled. These movements were bitterly opposed to each other and fought frequently, the most notable example of this conflict being the Spanish Civil War. This war became a proxy war between the fascist countries and their international supporters — who backed Franco — and the worldwide Communist movement allied uneasily with anarchists and Trotskyists — who backed the Popular Front — and were aided chiefly by the Soviet Union. The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to 1941. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Spanish Civil War (July 1936... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... The name Franco may refer to: Francisco Franco, Dictator of Spain from 1936 to 1975 Francois Luambo Makiadi, a Congolese musician and founder of the band OK Jazz active from the 1950s to 1980s ... Anarchists can refer to one of two things: The movie Anarchists Supporters of the principles of anarchism A List_of_anarchists This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Popular Fronts comprise broad coalitions of political and other groups, often made up of oppositioners or left wingers, and often united against particularly stringent circumstances. ...


Initially, the Soviet Union supported a coalition with the western powers against Nazi Germany and popular fronts in various countries against domestic fascism. This policy was largely unsuccessful due to the distrust shown by the western powers (especially Britain) towards the Soviet Union. The Munich Agreement between Germany, France and Britain heightened Soviet fears that the western powers were endeavoring to force them to bear the brunt of a war against Nazism. The lack of eagerness on the part of the British during diplomatic negotiations with the Soviets served to make the situation even worse. The Soviets changed their policy and negotiated a non-aggression pact known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. Vyacheslav Molotov claims in his memoirs that the Soviets believed this was necessary to buy them time to prepare for an expected war with Germany. Stalin expected the Germans not to attack until 1942, but the pact ended in 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Fascism and communism reverted to being lethal enemies. The war, in the eyes of both sides, was a war between ideologies. Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... Molotov (lower left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression treaty between the German... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vyacheslav Molotov Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov (Russian: Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов) (vyah-cheh-SLAHF mih-KHY-lo-vihch MOL-uh-tawf) (February 25, 1890 (O.S.) (March 9, 1890 (N.S.))–November 8, 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which commenced on June 22, 1941. ...

  • See also: Anti-Communism

Fascism and the Catholic Church

Another controversial topic is the relationship between fascist movements and the Catholic Church. As mentioned above, Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical, Rerum Novarum anticipated much of the doctrine that became known as fascism. Forty years later, the corporatist tendencies of Rerum Novarum were underscored by Pope Pius XI's May 25, 1931 encyclical Quadragesimo Anno which restated the hostility of Rerum Novarum to both unbridled competition and class struggle. Saint Peters Basilica in Rome. ... Pope Leo XIII, born Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Pecci (March 2, 1810–July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Blessed Pius IX on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his own death. ... 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ... Rerum Novarum is an encyclical issued by Roman Catholic Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ...


In the early 1920s, the Catholic party in Italy (Partito Popolare) was in the process of forming a coalition with the Reform Party that could have stabilized Italian politics and thwarted Mussolini's projected coup. On October 2, 1922, Pope Pius XI circulated a letter ordering clergy not to identify themselves with the Partito Popolare, but to remain neutral, an act that undercut the party and its alliance against Mussolini. Following Mussolini's rise to power, the Vatican's Secretary of State met Il Duce in early 1923 and agreed to dissolve the Partito Popolare, which Mussolini saw as obstacle to fascist rule. In exchange, the fascists made guarantees regarding Catholic education and institutions. Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America as the Roaring Twenties. Events and trends Technology John T. Thompson invents Thompson submachine gun, also known as Tommy gun John Logie Baird invents the first working television system (1925) Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to fly... October 2nd is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... His Holiness Pope Pius XI, born Achille Ratti (May 31, 1857 - February 10, 1939), reigned as Pope and sovereign of Vatican City from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a senior Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1924, following the murder of the leader of the Socialist Party by fascists, the Partito Popolare joined with the Socialist Party in demanding that the King dismiss Mussolini as Prime Minister, and stated their willingness to form a coalition government. Pius XI responded by warning against any coalition between Catholics and socialists. The Vatican ordered all priests to resign from the Partito Popolare and from any positions they held in it. This led to the party's disintegration in rural areas where it relied on clerical assistance. 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Vatican subsequently established Catholic Action as a non-political lay organization under the direct control of bishops. The organization was forbidden by the Vatican to participate in politics, and thus was not permitted to oppose the fascist regime. Pius XI ordered all Catholics to join Catholic Action. This resulted in hundreds of thousands of Catholics withdrawing from the Partito Popolare, and joining the apolitical Catholic Action. This caused the Catholic Party's final collapse. [3]


When Mussolini ordered the closure of Catholic Action in May 1931, Pius XI issued an encyclical, Non abbiamo bisogno. This document stated the Catholic Church's opposition to the dissolution, and argued that the order "unmasked the 'pagan' intentions of the Fascist state". Under international pressure, Mussolini decided to compromise, and Catholic Action was saved. 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Aside from doctrinal similarities, the relationship between the Church and fascist movements in various countries has been very close. An early example is Austria which developed a quasi-fascist authoritarian Catholic regime some call the "Austro-fascist" Ständestaat between 1934 and 1938. There is little debate over Slovakia, where the fascist dictator was a Catholic monsignor; and Croatia, where the fascist Ustashe identified itself as a Catholic movement. These regimes have been seen as examples of clerical fascism. (see also Involvement of Croatian Catholic clergy with the Ustasa regime) Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Monsignor is an ecclesiastical honorific used by certain priests and bishops of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... During World War II a number of Croatian Catholic priests, and some of the then bishops in the territory, cooperated with the Ustaša regime, who ran a Nazi puppet state that pursued a genocidal policy against the Eastern Orthodox Christians, Jews and Roma. ...


The Vichy regime in France was also deeply influenced by the reactionary Catholic ideology of the Action Française. Conversely, many Catholic priests were persecuted under the Nazi regime, and many Catholic laypeople and clergy played notable roles in sheltering Jews during the Holocaust. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II. The Vichy position that it was the... The Action Française is a French Monarchist movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois and whose principal ideologist was Charles Maurras. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ...


For a further exploration of the relationship between Catholicism and Fascism, see the article Catholicism's links with political authorities and Clerical Fascism. Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ...


Practice of fascism

Examples of fascist systems include:

Fascism in practice embodied both political and economic policies, and invites different comparisons. As noted elsewhere in this article, some writers who focus on the politically repressive policies of fascism identify it as one form of totalitarianism, a description they use to characterize not only Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, but also countries such as the Soviet Union, The People's Republic of China or North Korea. It should be noted that "totalitarianism" is a catch-all group which includes many different ideologies that are sworn enemies. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... In the technical terminology of political science the PRC was a communist state for much of the 20th century, and is still considered a communist state by many, though not all, political scientists. ...


However, some analysts point out that certain fascist governments were arguably more authoritarian than totalitarian. There is almost universal agreement that Nazi Germany was totalitarian. However, many would argue that the governments of Franco's Spain and Salazar's Portugal, while fascistic, were more authoritarian than totalitarian. Spain under the Falange Española y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) Party of Francisco Franco, was a coalition that included fascists. Francisco Franco Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ... Antonio Salazar on July 22, 1946 issue of Time Magazine Dr. António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, noted for the dictatorial nature of his government. ... The Falange or sometimes the Phalange is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... Francisco Franco Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ...


Those who focus on economic policies and state intervention in the economy, identify fascism as corporatism. In this corporatist model of private management, the various functions of the state were controlling and regulating trade, while maintaining de jure private ownership. This contrasts with state socialism, in which the state controls industry through outright nationalization. Private activity is controlled by the state, so that the state may subsidize or suspend the activities of any entity in accordance with their usefulness and direction. Corporatism was a political outgrowth of Catholic social doctrine from the 1890s. Some contested examples of fascism are Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal in the United States and Juan Peron's populism in Argentina. The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that color in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... Order: 32th President Vice President: John N. Garner Henry A. Wallace Harry S. Truman Term of office: March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 Preceded by: Herbert Hoover Succeeded by: Harry S. Truman Date of birth: January 30, 1882 Place of birth: Hyde Park, New York Date of death: April 12... The New Deal was President Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. ...


Prominent proponents of fascism in pre-WWII America included the publisher Seward Collins, whose periodical The American Review (1933-1937) featured essays by Collins and others that praised Mussolini and Hitler. The America First anti-war movement fought to keep the US neutral after Britain entered the war in 1939, but was not supportive of fascism. Father Charles E. Coughlin's Depression-era radio broadcasts extolled the virtues of fascism. Henry Wallace, wrote in 1944 during his term as vice president of the United States, "American fascism will not be really dangerous until there is a purposeful coalition among the cartelists, the deliberate poisoners of public information, and those who stand for the K.K.K. type of demagoguery." [Wallace, 1944] Seward Bishop Collins (April 22, 1899 - December 8, 1952) graduated from Princeton University and entered New Yorks literary life in 1926 as a bon vivant. ... The American Review has been the name of more than one publication. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The America First movement was an isolationalist group that opposed United States involvement in World War II. Many prominent Americans were members, including aviator Charles Lindbergh. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Father Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 - October 27, 1979) was a Roman Catholic priest from Royal Oak, Michigan, a priest from Shrine Catholic Church, and one of the first evangelists to preach to a widespread listening audience over the medium of radio during the Great Depression. ... The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to 1941. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888–November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A cartel is a group of producers whose goal it is to fix prices, to limit supply and to limit competition. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


Fascism as an international phenomenon

It is often a matter of dispute whether a certain government is to be characterized as fascist, authoritarian, totalitarian, or just a plain police state. Regimes that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism include:


Austria (1933-1938) - Austro-fascism: Dollfuß dissolved parliament and established a clerical-fascist dictatorship which lasted until Austria was incorporated into Germany through the Anschluss. Dollfuß's idea of a "Ständestaat" was borrowed from Mussolini. 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... March 12, 1938: German troops march into Austria The general German term Anschluss [1] (literally meaning connection, but in this context translated as annexation in the sense of political union) often refers to Anschluss Österreichs — the inclusion of Austria in a Greater Germany in 1938. ...


Italy (1922-1943) - The first fascist country, it was ruled by Benito Mussolini (Il Duce) until he was dismissed and arrested on the 25 July 1943. Mussolini was then rescued from prison by German troops, and set up a short lived puppet state named "Repubblica di Salò" in northern Italy under the protection of the German army. 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


Germany (1933-1945) - Ruled by the Nazi movement of Adolf Hitler (der Führer). In the terminology of the Allies, Nazi Germany was as their chief enemy the mightiest and best-known fascist state. See above for a discussion on the differences and similarities between Nazism and fascism. 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ...


Spain (1936-1975) - After the 1936 arrest and execution of its founder José Antonio Primo de Rivera during the Spanish Civil War, the fascist Falange Española Party was allied to and ultimately came to be dominated by Generalissimo Francisco Franco, who became known as El Caudillo, the undisputed leader of the Nationalist side in the war, and, after victory, head of state until his death over 35 years later. However, it was best described as an autocracy based on the Falangist fascist principles in its early years. By the mid-50s, the Spanish Miracle and the rise of the Opus Dei in the Franco regime led to Falangist fascism being discarded and fascists minimized in importance. 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... The Falange or sometimes the Phalange is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... Francisco Franco Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ... A white Seat 600 The Spanish Miracle was the name given to the Spanish economic recovery between 1959 and 1969. ... Founder of Opus Dei: Saint Josemaría Escrivá The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei, commonly known as Opus Dei (Latin The Work of God), is a Roman Catholic organization founded on October 2, 1928, by Josemaría Escrivá, a Spanish priest who was later canonized by Pope John Paul...


Portugal (1932-1974) - Although less restrictive than the Italian, German and Spanish regimes, the Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar was quasi-fascist. However, it was closer to the Spanish example of paternal authoritarianism than the Italian fascist or German Nazi model. 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Estado Novo (Protugese: New State) is the name of the Portuguese Conservative Authoritarian regime installed in 1933, following a coup detat against the democratic republic by the army in 1926. ... Antonio Salazar on July 22, 1946 issue of Time Magazine Dr. António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, noted for the dictatorial nature of his government. ...


Greece - Joannis Metaxas' 1936 to 1941 dictatorship was not particularly ideological in nature, and might hence be characterized as authoritarian rather than fascist. The same can be argued regarding Colonel George Papadopoulos' 1967 to 1974 military dictatorship, which was supported by the United States. Ioannis Metaxas Ioannis Metaxas (April 12, 1871 - January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... George Papadopoulos Greek Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος, Georgios Papadopoulos, (May 5, 1919 – June 27, 1999) was the head of the military coup détat that took place in Greece on April 21, 1967 and leader of the military regime that ruled the country during the period 1967 - 1974. ... 1967 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...


Brazil (1937-1945) - Many historians have argued that Brazil's Estado Novo under Getúlio Vargas was a Brazilian variant of the continental fascist regimes. For a period of time, Vargas' regime was aligned with Plínio Salgado's Integralist Party, Brazil's fascist movement. However, it also showed great affinity with organized labour and leftist ideas, leaving its classification open to interpretation. 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The “New State” is a new type of government where all legislative bodies vanished, political parties were banned, and all kinds of media were censored. ... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (April 19, 1882 - August 24, 1954) was the president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1950 to his suicide in 1954. ... Plínio Salgado (January 22, 1895–December 7, 1975) was the founder and leader of the 1930s Brazilian fascist movement known as Integralism. Early life Born in the small traditional town of São Bento do Sapucaí in São Paulo state, he was the son of Col. ... Integralism is a belief that society is an organic unity. ...


Belgium (1940-1945) - The violent Rexist movement and the Vlaamsch-Nationaal Verbond party achieved some electoral success in the 1930s. Many of its members assisted the Nazi occupation during World War II. The Verdinaso movement, too, can be considered fascist. Its leader, Joris Van Severen, was killed before the Nazi occupation. Some of its adepts collaborated, but others joined the resistance. These collaborationist movements are generally classified as belonging to the National Socialist model or the German fascist model because of its brand of racial nationalism and the close relation with the occupational authorities. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Leon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... Fuck Fascism!!! ... A resistance movement is a group dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country. ...


Slovakia (1939-1944) - The Slovak People's Party was a quasi-fascist nationalist movement associated with the Catholic Church. Founded by Father Andrej Hlinka, his successor Monsignor Jozef Tiso became the Nazis' quisling in a nominally independent Slovakia. The clerical element lends comparison with Austrofascism or the clerical fascism of Croatia, though not to the excesses of either model. The market system was run on principles agreeing with the standard Italian fascist model of industrial regulation. 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Slovak Peoples Party (Slovak: Slovenská ľudová strana, SĽS, since 1925 Hlinkas Slovak Peoples Party / Hlinkova slovenská ľudová strana/ HSĽS, since 1938 Hlinkas Slovak Peoples Party - Party of Slovak National Unity/Hlinkova. ... Saint Peters Basilica in Rome. ... Andrej Hlinka (September 27, 1864 - August 16, 1938) was a Slovak politician and Catholic priest, one of the most important Slovak public activists in the pre-WWII Czechoslovakia, leader of the Slovak Peoples Party (until his death), papal chamberlain (since 1924), infulled papal protonotary (since 1927), member of the... Jozef Tiso Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Slovakia during World War II when it was a Nazi puppet state. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (July 18, 1887 - October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian fascist politician and officer. ...


France (1940-1944) - The Vichy regime of Philippe Pétain, established following France's defeat by Germany, collaborated with the Nazis, including in the death of 65,000 French Jews. However, the minimal importance of fascists in the government until its direct occupation by Germany makes it appear to seem more similar to the regime of Franco or Salazar than the model fascist powers. The anti-Semitic massacres performed by the Vichy regime is speculated to be more in the interests of pleasing Germany than any ideological conflict. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (April 24, 1856 - July 23, 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and leader of Vichy France. ...


Romania (1940-1944) - The violent Iron Guard took power when Ion Antonescu forced King Carol II to abdicate. The Antonescu regime began as a system similar to the Italian fascist model, but would become more and more focused on goals of racial cleansing as the war with the Soviets continued, eventually adopting the Nazist example. The regime ended after Soviet troops entered the country. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given in English to an ultra-nationalist, anti-Semitic, fascist movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. Originally founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu on July 24, 1927 as the Legion... Ion Antonescu Ion Antonescu (Piteşti June 15, 1882 – June 1, 1946 near Jilava) was prime minister and dictator of Romania during World War II from September 4, 1940 to August 23, 1944. ... King Carol II of Romania Carol II of Romania (15 October 1893 - 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. ...


Croatia (1941-1945) - Poglavnik Ante Pavelić, leader of the infamous Ustaše movement, came to power in 1941 as the Croatian puppet leader under the control of Nazi Germany. Under the indirect control of Germany, the Ustaše regime was based heavily upon both upon clerical fascism and the Germany model of racial integrity and organic nationalism. 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Norway (1943-1945) - Vidkun Quisling had staged a coup d'état during the German invasion on April 9th, 1940. This first government was replaced by a Nazi puppet government under his leadership from February 1st, 1943. His party had never had any substantial support in Norway, undermining his attempts to emulate the Italian fascist state. 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (July 18, 1887 - October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian fascist politician and officer. ... A coup détat (pronounced kÅ« dā ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


Hungary (1932-1945) - By 1932, support for right-wing ideology, embodied by Gyula Gömbös, had reached the point where Hungarian Regent Miklos Horthy could not postpone appointing a fascist prime minister. Horthy also showed signs of admiring the efficiency and conservative leanings of the Italian fascist state under Mussolini and was not too reluctant to appoint a fascist government (with terms for the extent of Horthy's power). Horthy would keep control over the mainstream fascist movement in Hungary until near the end of the Second World War. Ferenc Szálasi headed the extremist Arrow Cross party, which had been banned until German pressure lifted the law. In 1944, with German support, he replaced Admiral Miklós Horthy as Head of State; following Horthy's attempt to have Hungary change sides. The regime changed to a system more in line with Nazism and would remain this way until the capture of Budapest by Soviet troops. 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gyula Gömbös Gyula Gömbös (December 26, 1886-October 6, 1936) was a right wing extemist who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1932 to 1936. ... Admiral Horthy inspecting the German fleet with Adolf Hitler Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós in Hungarian) (June 18, 1868–February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October 15, 1944. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross (Nyilaskeresztes) originated in Hungary in the 1930s as the symbol of the leading Hungarian fascist political party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi, an ex-army major. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Miklós Horthy in 1921 Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós in Hungarian) (June 18, 1868 – February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October 15, 1944. ... Though a term originally coined for Republican presidents, a head of state or chief of state is now universally known as the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions...


Argentina (1946-1955 and 1973-1974) - Juan Perón admired Mussolini and established his own pseudo-fascist regime. After he died, his third wife and vice-president Isabel Perón was deposed by a military junta. Similarities are best drawn, though, with the Vargas regime of Brazil. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine military officer and the President of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... President Perón giving a speech María Estela Martínez de Perón (born on February 4, 1931, in La Rioja, Argentina) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón would become the third wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and serve as President of Argentina in...


South Africa (1948-1994) - Many scholars have labelled the apartheid system built by Malan and Verwoerd as a type of fascism. Whether it was a fascist regime or an example of a socially conservative administration with excessive powers is hotly debated. The racial and nationalist ideas were implanted inside the South African regime, however the economic structure of the country was not as regulated as that of a typically fascist state. 1948 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Apartheid (International Phonetic Alphabet or in English and in Afrikaans) is the policy and the system of laws implemented and continued by White minority governments in South Africa from 1948 to 1990; and by extension any legally sanctioned system of racial segregation. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ...


Rhodesia (1965-1978) - The racial segregation system by Ian Smith is similarly considered by some to be a form of fascism. See the comments of South Africa. This article is about the break-away colony of (Southern) Rhodesia , today Zimbabwe. ... This is about Ian Smith the Rhodesian Prime Minister. ...


Lebanon (1982-1988) - The right wing Christian Phalangist Party, backed by its own private army and inspired by the Spanish Falangists, was nominally in power in the country during the 1980s but had limited authority over the highly factionalised state, two-thirds of which was occupied by Israeli and Syrian troops. Phalangists, trained and supported by Israel are alleged to have carried out the Sabra and Shatila Massacre in 1982. The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre) was carried out in September 1982 by Lebanese Maronite Christian militias in then-Israeli-occupied Beirut, Lebanon. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Iran (1950-1953) - During the Iranian National Front leader Mohammad Mossadegh's government, the attacks of extremist groups on the leftist forces, Dariush Forouhar headed the far-right black shirts of Iranian Nation Party, Sumka (The National Socialist Iranian Workers Party) led by Dr. Davud Monshizadeh, and Kabud (Iranian Nazi Party) founded by Habibollah Nobakht, Their focus was to attack the communist meetings. 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The name National Front, is used by a number of political parties and coalitions. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Dariush Forouhar (?-1998) was the leader of the Hezb-e Mellat-e Iran (Nation of Iran Party), a pan-Iranist opposition party in Iran which he founded in 1951. ... Mellat Iran (Persian حزبی ملتی ایران, properly transliterated Hezb-e Mellat-e Aeran, The Nation of Iran Party) is a pan-Iranist political party of Iran founded by Dariush Forouhar. ...


Neo-Fascism

Contemporary neo-fascism and allegations of neofascism are covered in a number of other articles rather than on this page: Neo-Fascism is the term used to describe a range of groups emerging after the Second World War that display significant elements of Fascism, or Clerical Fascism. ...

Neo-Fascism is the term used to describe a range of groups emerging after the Second World War that display significant elements of Fascism, or Clerical Fascism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area which examines the parallels and intersections between various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ... Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ... The Creativity Movement is a racist, anti-semitic and white-supremacist organization which advocates a White Religion called Creativity. ... The National Alliance is a white nationalist organization based in the United States. ... Nouvelle Droite (English: New Right) is a school of political thought founded largely on the works of Alain de Benoist and The Centre for Research and Study on European Civilization or (Groupement de Recherche et dÉtudes sur la Civilisation Européenne or GRECE). ... The American Nazi Party was an American Neo-Nazi political party formed in February 1959 by George Lincoln Rockwell. ... Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic and head of the French think-tank Nouvelle Droite (English: New Right). ... William Luther Pierce (1933–2002) was an associate of the American Nazi Party (ANP), founder of the National Alliance and one of the most prominent ideologues of the white nationalist movement. ... George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 - August 25, 1967) was the founder and Commander of the American Nazi Party and perhaps the most prominent American neo-Nazi leader. ...

Fascist mottos and sayings

  • Me ne frego, literally "I don't care," closer, in meaning, to "I don't give a damn": the Italian Fascist motto.
  • Libro e moschetto - fascista perfetto, "The book and the musket - make the perfect Fascist."
  • Viva la Morte, "Long live death (sacrifice)."
  • The above mentioned Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato, "Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State."

A motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of a sociological grouping or organization. ...

Related topics

Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word which in the 1890s came to refer to radical political groups. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Fascist manifesto was the initial declaration of the political stance of the founders of Fascism in Italy. ... George Seldes (November 16, 1890 – July 2, 1995) was an influential American investigative journalist and media critic. ... The Horst Wessel Lied, also known as Die Fahne Hoch (The flag on high) (from its opening line) was the anthem of the Nazi Party of Germany, chosen to glorify Horst Wessel as a Nazi martyr. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were many different symbols of Fascist movements as well. ... Japanese nationalism is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air. ...

References

Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... A Doctrine of Fascism was written by Giovanni Gentile which Mussolini signed the article and it was officially attributed to him. ... George Sorel (1847-1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of anarchosyndicalism. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

General bibliography

  • Hughes, H. Stuart. 1953. The United States and Italy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914-45. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Eatwell, Roger. 1996. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.

Bibliography on Fascist ideology

  • Laqueur, Walter. 1966. Fascism: Past, Present, Future, New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
  • Schapiro, J. Salwyn. 1949. Liberalism and The Challenge of Fascism, Social Forces in England and France (1815-1870). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Laclau, Ernesto. 1977. Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory: Capitalism, Fascism, Populism. London: NLB/Atlantic Highlands Humanities Press.
  • Sternhell, Zeev with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri. [1989] 1994. The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution., Trans. David Maisei. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Fritzsche, Peter. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195057805

Bibliography on international fascism

  • Coogan, Kevin. 1999. Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Autonomedia.
  • Griffin, Roger. 1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Weber, Eugen. [1964] 1982. Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.)

Further reading

  • Seldes, George. 1935. Sawdust Caesar: The Untold History of Mussolini and Fascism. New York and London: Harper and Brothers.
  • Reich, Wilhelm.1970. "The Mass Psychology of Fascism". New York : Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fascism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8416 words)
Despite the themes of social and economic reform in the initial Fascist manifesto of June 1919, the movement came to be supported by sections of the middle class fearful of socialism and communism.
The Fascist movement, on the other hand, sought to preserve the class system and uphold it as the foundation of established and desirable culture, although this is not to say that Fascists rejected the concept of social mobility.
The fascist economic model of corporatism promoted class collaboration by attempting to bring classes together under the unity of the state, a concept that is anathema to classic socialism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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