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Encyclopedia > Fascism
Part of the Politics series on
Fascism

Definition
Definitions of fascism Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ...


Varieties and derivatives of fascism
Arrow Cross · Austrofascism · Brazilian Integralism · Clerical fascism · Greek fascism · Iron Guard · Italian fascism · Japanese fascism · Neo-Fascism · Rexism · Ustaše
Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (believed by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism (Portuguese: Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... -1... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... An Ustaše guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The Ustaše (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ...


Fascist political parties and movements
Fascism as an international phenomenon
List of fascist movements by country This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Fascism in history
4th of August Regime · Fascio · Fascist Italy · Italian Social Republic · March on Rome
Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ...


Related subjects
Actual Idealism · Anti-fascism · Benito Mussolini · Black Brigades · Blackshirts · Class collaboration · Corporatism · Economics of fascism · Fascism and ideology · Fascist symbolism · Fascist unification rhetoric · Giovanni Gentile · Grand Council of Fascism · Nazi salute · National syndicalism · Neo-Fascism · Roman salute · Social fascism · Third Position
Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ...

Fascism Portal
Politics Portal

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Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. Fascism seeks to achieve a millenarian national rebirth by placing the interests of the individual as subordinate to that of the nation or race and promoting cults of unity, energy and purity.[1][2][3][4] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Race. ...


Fascists promote a type of national unity that is usually based on (but not limited to) ethnic, cultural, national, racial, and/or religious attributes. Various scholars attribute different characteristics to fascism, but the following elements are usually seen as its integral parts: patriotism, nationalism, statism, militarism, totalitarianism, anti-communism, economic planning (including corporatism and autarky), populism, collectivism, autocracy and anti-liberalism (i.e., opposition to political and economic liberalism).[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Race. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Statism (or Etatism) is a term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics in classical liberalism developed in the Enlightenment, and believed to be first fully formulated by Adam Smith which advocates minimal interference by government in the economy. ...


Some authors reject broad usage of the term or exclude certain parties and regimes.[12] Following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II, there have been few self-proclaimed fascist groups and individuals. In contemporary political discourse, the term fascist is often used by adherents of some ideologies as a pejorative description of their opponents. Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The word fascist ( or fascism) is sometimes used to denigrate people, institutions or groups that would not describe themselves as ideologically fascist, and that may not fall within the formal definition of the word. ...

Contents

The term fascism

The term fascismo was coined by the Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini and the Neo-Hegelian philosopher Giovanni Gentile. It is derived from the Italian word fascio, which means "bundle" or "union",[13] and from the Latin word fasces. The fasces, which consisted of a bundle of rods tied around an axe, were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrates; they were carried by his Lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command. Furthermore, the symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. It is also strongly associated with the fascist militia "fasci italiani di combattimento" ("League of Combat"). Originally, the term "fascism" (fascismo) was used by the political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. For the party of Mussolini, see National Fascist Party. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Neo-Hegelianism be merged into this article or section. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Roman fasces. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


Definitions and scope of the word

Historians, political scientists, and other scholars have engaged in long and furious debates concerning the exact nature of fascism and its core tenets. Since the 1990s, there has been a growing move toward some rough consensus reflected in the work of Stanley Payne, Roger Eatwell, Roger Griffin, and Robert O. Paxton. According to most scholars of fascism, there are both left and right influences on fascism as a social movement, but fascism, especially once in power, has historically attracted support primarily from the political right, especially the "far right" or "extreme right."[14] (See: Fascism and ideology). What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ...


Mussolini defined fascism as being a collectivistic ideology in opposition to socialism, classical liberalism, democracy and individualism. He wrote in The Doctrine of Fascism: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ...

Anti-individualistic, the fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only insofar as his interests coincide with those of the State, which stands for the conscience and the universal will of man as a historic entity.... The fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value.... Fascism is therefore opposed to that form of democracy which equates a nation to the majority, lowering it to the level of the largest number.... We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century. If the nineteenth century was the century of the individual we are free to believe that this is the 'collective' century, and therefore the century of the State.[15]

Since Mussolini, there have been many conflicting definitions of the term fascism. Former Columbia University Professor Robert O. Paxton has written that:

Fascism may be defined as a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victim-hood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion."[16]

Paxton further defines fascism's essence as:

...a sense of overwhelming crisis beyond reach of traditional solutions; 2. belief one’s group is the victim, justifying any action without legal or moral limits; 3. need for authority by a natural leader above the law, relying on the superiority of his instincts; 4. right of the chosen people to dominate others without legal or moral restraint; 5. fear of foreign `contamination."[16]

Stanley Payne's Fascism: Comparison and Definition (1980) uses a lengthy itemized list of characteristics to identify fascism, including the creation of an authoritarian state; a regulated, state-integrated economic sector; fascist symbolism; anti-liberalism; anti-communism; anti-conservatism.[17] He argues that common aim of all fascist movements was elimination of the autonomy or, in some cases, the existence of large-scale capitalism.[18] Semiotician Umberto Eco attempts to identify the characteristics of proto-fascism as the cult of tradition, rejection of modernism, cult of action for action's sake, life is lived for struggle, fear of difference, rejection of disagreement, contempt for the weak, cult of masculinity and machismo, qualitative populism, appeal to a frustrated majority, obsession with a plot, illicitly wealthy enemies, education to become a hero, and speaking Newspeak, in his popular essay Eternal Fascism: Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackshirt.[19] More recently, an emphasis has been placed upon the aspect of populist fascist rhetoric that argues for a "re-birth" of a conflated nation and ethnic people.[20] As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... In sociology, social action refer to any action that takes into account actions and reactions of another individuals (real or imagined) and is modified based on those events. ... Consensus has two common meanings. ... Manliness redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


Free market economists, principally those of the Austrian School, like Ludwig Von Mises argue that fascism is a form of socialist dictatorship similar to that of the Soviet Union.[21] Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Authoritarian and totalitarian state

Although the broadest descriptions of fascism may include every authoritarian state that has ever existed, most theorists see important distinctions to be made. Fascism in Italy arose in the 1920s as a mixture of syndicalist notions with an anti-materialist[citation needed] theory of the state; the latter had already been linked to an extreme nationalism. Fascists accused parliamentary democracy of producing division and decline, and wished to renew the nation from decadence. They viewed the state as an organic entity in a positive light rather than as an institution designed to protect individual rights, or as one that should be held in check. Fascism universally dismissed the Marxist concept of "class struggle", replacing it instead with the concept of "class collaboration". Fascists embraced nationalism and mysticism, advancing ideals of strength and power. Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Fascism is typified by totalitarian attempts to impose state control over all aspects of life: political, social, cultural, and economic, by way of a strong, single-party government for enacting laws and a strong, sometimes brutal militia or police force for enforcing them.[22] Fascism exalts the nation, state, or group of people as superior to the individuals composing it. Fascism uses explicit populist rhetoric; calls for a heroic mass effort to restore past greatness; and demands loyalty to a single leader, leading to a cult of personality and unquestioned obedience to orders (Führerprinzip). Fascism is also considered to be a form of collectivism.[23][24][25] Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the political institution. ... Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Fascist as epithet

Main article: Fascist (epithet)

The word fascist has become a slur throughout the political spectrum following World War II (WWII), and it has been uncommon for political groups to call themselves fascist. In contemporary political discourse, adherents of some political ideologies tend to associate fascism with their enemies, or define it as the opposite of their own views. In the strict sense of the word, Fascism covers movements before WWII, and later movements are described as Neo-fascist. The word fascist ( or fascism) is sometimes used to denigrate people, institutions or groups that would not describe themselves as ideologically fascist, and that may not fall within the formal definition of the word. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Some have argued that the term fascist has become hopelessly vague over the years and that it has become little more than a pejorative epithet. George Orwell wrote in 1944: Look up epithet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ...

...the word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless. In conversation, of course, it is used even more wildly than in print. I have heard it applied to farmers, shopkeepers, Social Credit, corporal punishment, fox-hunting, bull-fighting, the 1922 Committee, the 1941 Committee, Kipling, Gandhi, Chiang Kai-Shek, homosexuality, Priestley's broadcasts, Youth Hostels, astrology, women, dogs and I do not know what else... almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist’.[26] Social Credit (often called Socred for short) is an economic ideology and a social movement which started in the early 1920s. ... Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering intended to change a persons behavior or to punish them. ... For other uses, see Fox hunting (disambiguation). ... Bull attacking a matador Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a blood sport that involves, most of the times, professional performers (matadores) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the... In British politics, the 1922 Committee consists of all backbench Conservative Members of Parliament, though when the party is in opposition, frontbench MPs other than the party leader may also attend its meetings. ... The 1941 Committee was a group of U.K. politicians, writers and other people of influence who got together in 1941. ... This article is about the British author. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... John Boynton Priestley, OM (born 13 September 1894, Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, died 14 August 1984, Warwickshire) was an English writer and broadcaster . ... Youth hostel in Rome. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...

Italian Fascism

See also: Fascio and Italian fascism.

Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word used in the late nineteenth century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. A number of nationalist fasci later evolved into the twentieth century movement known as fascism. Benito Mussolini claimed to have founded fascism, and Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under Mussolini's leadership. Fascism in Italy combined elements of corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, militarism and anti-Communism. Fascism won support as an alternative to the unpopular liberalism of the time. It also won the support of anti-socialist Italians. Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... A political party is a political organization that subscribes to a certain ideology and seeks to attain political power within a government. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Differences and similarities between Italian Fascism and Nazism

Further information: Nazism
Benito Mussolini giving the Roman salute standing next to Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini giving the Roman salute standing next to Adolf Hitler

Although the modern consensus sees Nazism as a type or offshoot of fascism, some scholars, such as Gilbert Allardyce and A.F.K. Organski, argue that Nazism is not fascism — either because the differences are too great, or because they believe fascism cannot be generic.[27][28] A synthesis of these two opinions, states that German Nazism was a form of racially-oriented fascism, while Italian fascism was state-oriented. The two ideologies almost came to blows over racial issues, as the Nazis claimed that the Fascists had the potential to be a positive force in Italy only if the Fascists worked to purify their party's ranks and the Italian nation itself. Nazis deemed the Italians a polluted race, while the Fascists took this as an insult to their country. Eventually, as Italy became diplomatically isolated, Fascist Italy drew closer to Germany and adopted anti-Semitic and other racially discriminatory policies. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1106 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Edit for WP:FPC ^ 17 U.S.C. §104A ^ http://en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1106 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Edit for WP:FPC ^ 17 U.S.C. §104A ^ http://en. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... Hitler redirects here. ... A.F.K. Organski was Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan and a cofounder of Decision Insights, Inc. ...


Racism

Nazism differed from Italian fascism in that it had a stronger emphasis on race, in terms of social and economic policies. Though both ideologies denied the significance of the individual, Italian fascism saw the individual as subservient to the state, whereas Nazism saw the individual, as well as the state, as ultimately subservient to the race.[29] But subservance to the Nazi state was also a requirement on the population. Mussolini's Fascism held that cultural factors existed to serve the state, and that it was not necessarily in the state's interest to interfere in cultural aspects of society. The only purpose of government in Mussolini's fascism was to uphold the state as supreme above all else, a concept which can be described as statolatry. Unlike Hitler, Mussolini repeatedly changed his views on the issue of race according to the circumstances of the time. One of the central questions of political philosophy is the purpose of government. ... Coined by Ludwig von Mises in his work Omnipotent Government, Statolatry is literally worship of the State analogous to idolatry as worship of idols. ...


In 1921, Mussolini promoted the development of the Italian race such as when he said:

"The nation is not simply the sum of living individuals, nor the instrument of parties for their own ends, but an organism comprised of the infinite series of generations of which the individuals are only transient elements; it is the supreme synthesis of all the material and immaterial values of the race." Benito Mussolini, 1921

[30]


Like Hitler, Mussolini pubicly declared his support of an eugenics policy to improve the status of Italians in 1926 to the people of Reggio Emilia: Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Graziano Delrio (from July 1, 2004) Elevation 58 m Area 231 km² Population  - Total 141,383  - Density 612/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Reggiani Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42100 Frazioni see list Patron San Prospero  - Day...

"We need to create ourselves; we of this epoch and this generation, because it is up to us, I tell you, to make the face of this country unrecgonizable in the next ten years. In ten years comrades, Italy will be unrecognizable! We will create a new Italian, an Italian that does not recognize the Italian of yesterday...we will create them according to our own imagination and likeness." Benito Mussolini, 1926

[31]


In private, in a conversation with Emil Ludwig in 1932, Mussolini derided the concept of a biologically superior race and denounced racism as being a foolish concept. Mussolini did not believe that race alone was that significant. Mussolini viewed himself as a modern day Roman Emperor, a cultural elite and wished to "Italianise" the parts of the Italian Empire he had desired to build.[32] A cultural superiority of Italians, rather than a view of racialism.[32] Mussolini believed that the development of a race was insignificant in comparison to the development of culture, but did believe that a race could be improved through moral development, but does not say that this will make a superior race: Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... The Italian empire in 1941 The Italian Empire (Italian: Impero Italiano) was a 19th and 20th century colonial empire, which lasted from 1889 to 1943. ...

"Race! It is a feeling, not a reality: ninety-five percent, at least, is a feeling. Nothing will ever make me believe that biologically pure races can be shown to exist today. [...] National pride has no need of the delirium of race."

"Only a revolution and a decisive leader can improve a race, even if this is more a sentiment than a reality. But I repeat that a race can change itself and improve itself. I say that it is possible to change not only the somatic lines, the height, but really also the character. Influence of moral pressure can act deterministically also in the biological sense."

—Benito Mussolini, 1932.[33]; [34]

Mussolini believed that a biologically superior race was not possible, but that a morally superior race was. That being said, he believed that Italian culture and morals were superior to those of other nations, such as African nations. For Mussolini, inclusion of people in a fascist society depended on their loyalty to the state. Meetings between Mussolini and Arab dignitaries from the colony of Libya convinced Mussolini that the Arab population was worthy to be given extensive civil rights, and allowed Muslims to join a Muslim section of the Fascist Party - the Muslim Association of the Lictor.[35] However under pressure from Nazi Germany, the Fascist regime eventually did take on racist ideology, such as promoting the concept of Italy settling Africa to create a white civilization in Africa[36] and handing out five-year criminal sentences for Italians caught in a sexual or marital relationship with native Africans.[37] For those colonial peoples who were not loyal, vicious repression was used, such as in Ethiopia, where in 1937, native Ethiopian settlements were burned to the ground by Italian armed forces.[38] Under Fascism, native Africans were allowed to join the Italian armed forces as colonial forces and appeared in Fascist propaganda.[2][3] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The Nazi movement, at least in its overt ideology, spoke of class-based society as the enemy, and wanted to unify the racial element above established classes; however, the Italian fascist movement sought to preserve the class system and uphold it as the foundation of established and desirable culture.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the Italian fascists did not reject the concept of social mobility, and a central tenet of the fascist state was meritocracy. Yet, fascism also heavily based itself on corporatism, which was supposed to supersede class conflicts.[citation needed] Despite these differences, Kevin Passmore (2002 p.62) observes: Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ...

There are sufficient similarities between Fascism and Nazism to make it worthwhile applying the concept of fascism to both. In Italy and Germany a movement came to power that sought to create national unity through the repression of national enemies and the incorporation of all classes and both genders into a permanently mobilized nation.[39]

Nazi ideologues such as Alfred Rosenburg were highly sceptical about the Italian race and Fascism but saw an improvement of the Italian race as possible if major changes were made to convert it into an acceptable "Aryan" race, and said that the Italian Fascist movement would only succeed if it purified the Italian race into an Aryan one.[40] Nazi theorists believed that the downfall of the Roman Empire was due to interbreeding of different races which created a "polluted" Italian race which was inferior.[41] Hitler believed this, but saw Mussolini as representing the attempt to revive the pure elements of the former Roman civilization, such as the desire to create a strong and aggressive Italian people, but Hitler was still audacious enough when meeting Mussolini for the first time in 1934 to tell him that all Medittereanean peoples were "tainted" by "Negro blood" and thus in his racist view, they were degenerate.[42] Alfred Rosenberg in 1933 Alfred Rosenberg (January 12, 1893–October 16, 1946) was a Nazi ideologist and politician. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


As relations were initially poor, things grew worse after the assassination of Austria's fascist chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss by Austrian Nazis in 1934. Austria under Dolfuss was a key ally to Mussolini and Mussolini was deeply angered by Hitler's attempt to take over Austria, and angrily mocked Hitler's earlier remark on the impurity of the Italian race by declaring that a "Germanic" race did not exist and notes how Hitler's society's repression of Jews indicates that Germany did not have a pure race: Engelbert Dollfuss. ...

"But which race? Does there exist a German race. Has it ever existed? Will it ever exist? Reality, myth, or hoax of theorists? (Another paranthesis: the theoretician of racism is a 100 percent Frenchman: Gobineau)

Ah well, we respond, a Germanic race does not exist. Various movements. Curiousity. Stupor. We repeat. Does not exist. We don't say so. Scientists say so. Hitler says so." Benito Mussolini, 1934

[43]


Mussolini and Hitler were not always allies. While Mussolini wanted the expansion of fascist ideology throughout the world, he did not initially appreciate Hitler and the Nazi party. Hitler was an early admirer of Mussolini and asked for Mussolini's guidance in how the Nazis could pull off their own March on Rome.[44] Mussolini did not respond to Hitler's requests as he did not have much interest in Hitler's movement and regarded Hitler to be somewhat crazy.[45] Mussolini did attempt to read Mein Kampf to find out what Hitler's National Socialist movement was but was immediately dissappointed, saying that Mein Kampf was "a boring tome that I have never been able to read" and claimed that Hitler's beliefs were "little more than commonplace clichés."[46] For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


Mussolini had personal reasons to oppose anti-Semitism: his longtime mistress and Fascist propaganda director, Margherita Sarfatti was Jewish. She had played an important role in the foundation of the Fascist movement in Italy and promoting it to Italians and the world through supporting the arts. However within the Italian Fascist movement, there were a minority who endorsed Hitler's anti-Semitism and wanted anti-Semitism in Italy. These included Roberto Farinacci and Julius Evola, who represented the far-right wing of the Fascist party. Margherita Sarfatti (1880 - 1961) was an Italian journalist, art critic, patron, collector, socialite, and one of Mussolinis mistresses. ... Roberto Farinacci Roberto Farinacci (October 16, 1892-April 28, 1945) was a leading member of the Italian Fascist Party before and during World War II. Born in Isernia, Italy, Roberto Farinacci was raised in poverty and dropped out of school at a young age. ... Julius Evola born Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, aka Baron Evola (May 19, 1898-June 11, 1974), was an Italian esotericist and occult author, who wrote extensively on Hermeticism, the metaphysics of sex, Tantra, Buddhism, Taoism, mountaineering, the Holy Grail, militarism, aristocracy, on matters political, philosophical, historical, racial, religious, as well...


There were also nationalistic reasons why Germany and Italy were not immediate allies. Habsburg Austria (Hitler's birthplace) had an antagonistic relationship with Italy since it was formed, largely because Austria had seized most of the territories once belonging to Italian states such as Venice. Although initially neutral, Italy entered the First World War on the side of the Allies against Germany and Austria-Hungary when promised several territories (South Tyrol, Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia). After the War had ended, Italy was rewarded with these territories but in Germany and Austria the annexation of South Tyrol was controversial as the province was made up of a large majority of German speakers. While Hitler did not pursue this claim, many in the Nazi Party felt differently. In 1939 Mussolini and Hitler agreed on the Alto Adige Option Agreement. However, when Mussolini's government collapsed in 1943 and the Italian Social Republic was created South Tyrol was annexed to Greater Germany, but restored to Italy after the war. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: Provincia autonoma di Bolzano; German: Autonome Provinz Bozen; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige/Südtirol (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3][4] or Sudtirol; English: Alto Adige or South Tyrol), is an... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ...


Foreign Affairs

While the two ideologies had a number of similarities and differences that could be overlooked, one issue that could not be overlooked was the potential of a clash between the Pan-German aims of the Nazis and the Italian nationalist aims of the Fascists, as the Italian region of Tyrol was German populated and part of Austrian Empire for centuries prior, while the Fascists claimed the area, as it had been part of the regin of Italy in the Roman Empire. With the collapse of Austria in World War I, an independent Austria was no longer a serious threat to Italy, but the popularity of Pan-German nationalism in both Germany and Austria was a threat. Due to this threat to Italy's territory, the Fascist regime opposed the Nazis expansionist efforts towards Austria and supported Austria's sovereignty and promoted the adoption of fascism in the country. Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


In the 1920s, Hitler wanted an alliance of the Nazi movement with Mussolini's regime, and recognized that his pan-German nationalism was being seen as a threat by Italy. In Hitler's unpublished sequel to Mein Kampf, Hitler attempts to address concerns among Italian Fascists about Nazism. In the book, Hitler puts aside the issue of Germans in Tyrol by explaining that overall Germany and Italy have more in common than not and that the Tyrol Germans must accept that it is in Germany's interests to be allied with Italy. Hitler claims that Germany, like Italy was subjected to oppression by its neighbours, and he denounces the Austrian Empire as having oppressed Italy from completing national unification just as France oppressed Germany from completing its national unification. Hitler's denounciation of Austria in the book is important as Italian Fascists were skeptical about him he was born in Austria which Italy long considered to be its primary enemy for centuries and saw Germany as being an ally to Austria. By declaring that the Nazi movement was not interested in the territorial legacy of the Austrian Empire, this is a way to assure the Italian Fascists that Hitler, the Nazi movement, and Germany were not enemies of Italy.


Despite public attempts of good will by Hitler to Mussolini, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy came close to blows when in 1934, Engelbert Dollfuss, the Austrofascist leader of Austria and ally of Italy, was assassinated by Nazi Brown shirts on Hitler's orders in preparation for a planned Anschluss, which prompted Mussolini to move troops to the Austrian-Italian border in readiness for war against Hitler. Hitler did not want to have a war with Mussolini's Italy, and reluctantly put aside immediate plans to annex Austria. When Hitler and Mussolini first met, Mussolini referred to Hitler as "a silly little monkey" before the Western Allies forced Mussolini into an agreement with Hitler.[47] Mussolini also reportedly asked the Pope to excommunicate Hitler. [4] From 1934 to 1936, Hitler and the Nazi regime continually attempted to woe the support of Italy for Nazi polices, such as by endorsing Italy's occupation of Ethiopia while the international community condemned Italy. With other countries opposing Italy, the Fascist regime had no choice but to draw closer to Nazi Germany to regain a stable bargaining position in international affairs. Germany joined Italy in sending forces and material to the fascist Spanish nationalist forces of Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. Later, Germany and Italy signed the Anti-Comintern Pact committing the two regimes to oppose communism. By 1938, Mussolini allowed Austria to be annexed in return for Hitler to officially renounce German claims to Tyrol. After the annexation of Austria and the abdication of claims to Tyrol, Mussolini supported Germany's annexation of the Suddetonland during the Munich agreement talks. In 1939, the Pact of Steel was signed, creating an official alliance of Germany and Italy. The Nazi party's official newspaper the Völkischer Beobachter claimed that the alliance was mutally beneficial and meant for both states to endorse each other's territorial claims while claiming to be striving for peace by saying: Engelbert Dollfuss. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Hitler addressing SA members in the late 1920s The Sturmabteilung (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ...

"Firmly bound together through the inner unity of their ideologies and the comprehensive solidarity of their interests, the German and the Italian people are determined also in future to stand side by side and to strive with united effort for the securing of their Lebensraum [living space] and the maintenance of peace." Völkischer Beobachter, May 23, 1939.

Hitler and Mussolini recognized commonalities in their politics, and the second part of Hitler's Mein Kampf — "The National Socialist Movement" — (1926) contains this passage:

I conceived the profoundest admiration for the great man south of the Alps, who, full of ardent love for his people, made no pacts with the enemies of Italy, but strove for their annihilation by all ways and means. What will rank Mussolini among the great men of this earth is his determination not to share Italy with the Marxists, but to destroy internationalism and save the fatherland from it. (p. 622)

Both regimes had a common despise for countries like France and Yugoslavia. Both the Fascists and the Nazis saw France as an enemy to both their countries as France held territories with Germans and Italians that were claimed by both Germany and Italy. For Hitler, Yugoslavia as a Slavic state was racially degenerate. For Mussolini, Italy had territorial aims on Yugoslav territory, such as Dalmatia, and saw the destruction of Yugoslavia as essential for Italian expansion. Hitler viewed all Yugoslavs as inferior but did not see importance in an immediate invasion of Yugoslavia, as he saw the Soviet Union as more important to focus attention on. Mussolini on the other hand favoured Croatian extreme nationalists called the Ustashe, as being able to be a useful tool to tear down Yugoslavia, led by a Serbian monarchy which Croatian nationalists despised. In 1941, with the Italian military campaign failing in Greece, Hitler reluctantly began a Balkan campaign by invading Yugoslavia along with Italy. In the aftermath, with the exception of Serbia and Macedonia, most of Yugoslavia was reshaped based on Italian Fascist foreign policy objectives. Mussolini demanded and received Dalmatia from the Croats in exchange for supporting the independence of Croatia. Mussolini's policy of creating an independent Croatia prevailed over Hitler's anti-Slavism and eventually the Nazis and the Ustashe regime of Croatia would develop closer bonds due to the Ustashe's brutal effectiveness at suppressing Serb dissidents. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


Fascism and Religion

According to a biographer of Mussolini, "Initially, fascism was fiercely anti-Catholic" - the Church being a competitor for dominion of the people's hearts. [48] The attitude of facism toward religion has run the spectrum from persecution, to denunciation to cooperation. [49] Relations were close in the likes of the Belgian Rexists (which was eventually denounced by the Church), but in the Nazi and Fascist parties it ranged from tolerance to near total renunciation.[50] Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ...


Mussolini, originally an atheist, published anti-Catholic writings and planned for the confiscation of Church property, but eventually moved to accomodation. [51] Hitler was born a Roman Catholic but renounced his faith at the age of twelve and largely used religious references to attract religious support to the Nazi political agenda. Mussolini largely endorsed the Roman Catholic Church for political legitimacy, as during the Lateran Treaty talks, Fascist officials engaged in bitter arguments with Vatican officials and put pressure on them to accept the terms that the regime deemed acceptable.[52] In addition, many Fascists were anti-clerical in both private and public life. [53] Hitler in public sought the support of both the Protestant and Roman Catholic religions in Germany, but in a far more muted manner than Mussolini's support of Roman Catholicism. Hitler and the Nazi regime attempted to found their own version of Christianity called Positive Christianity which made major changes in its interpretation of the Bible which said that Jesus Christ was the son of God, but was a Jew and claimed that Christ despised Jews, and that the Jews were the ones solely responsible for Christ's death. For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The Nazi party had decidedly pagan elements and there were quarters of Italian fascism which were quite anti-clerical, but religion did play a real part in the Ustasha in Croatia. [54] One position is that religion and fascism could never have a lasting connection because both are a "holistic wetanshauungen" claiming the whole of the person. [55] In Mexico the fascist[56][57][58] Red Shirts not only renounced religion but were vehemently atheist[59], killing priests, and on one occassions gunned down Catholics as they left Mass.[60] Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... The Red Shirts were a fascist[1] paramilitary organization, existing in the 1930s, founded by the virulently anti-Catholic and anticlerical Governor of Tabasco, Mexico, Tomás Garrido Canabal during his second term. ...


Although both Hitler and Mussolini were anticlerical, they both understood that it would be rash to begin their Kulturkampfs prematurely, such a clash, possibly inevitable in the future, being put off while they dealt with other enemies. [61] The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ...


Economic planning

Further information: Economy of Italy under Fascism

Fascists opposed what they believe to be laissez-faire or quasi-laissez-faire economic policies dominant in the era prior to the Great Depression.[62] People of many different political stripes blamed laissez-faire capitalism for the Great Depression, and fascists promoted their ideology as a "third way [disambiguation needed]" between capitalism and Marxian socialism.[63] Their policies manifested as a radical extension of government control over the economy without wholesale expropriation of the means of production. Fascist governments nationalized some key industries, managed their currencies and made some massive state investments. They also introduced price controls, wage controls and other types of economic planning measures.[64] Fascist governments instituted state-regulated allocation of resources, especially in the financial and raw materials sectors. Italy had emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Third way can refer to: The Third Way, an economic and political idea that positions itself between democratic socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, combining the ordoliberal social market with neo-liberalism. ... Note: Marxian is not restricted to Marxian economics, as it includes those inspired by Marxs works who do not identify with Marxism as a political ideology. ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation. ... Economic interventionism is a term used to describe activity undertaken by a central government to affect a countrys economy in an attempt to increase economic growth and/or standards of living. ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ...


Other than nationalization of certain industries, private property was allowed, but property rights and private initiative were contingent upon service to the state.[65] For example, "an owner of agricultural land may be compelled to raise wheat instead of sheep and employ more labor than he would find profitable."[66][66] According to historian Tibor Ivan Berend, dirigisme was an inherent aspect of fascist economies.[67] The Labour Charter of 1927, promulgated by the Grand Council of Fascism, stated in article 7: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ... The Charter of Labour of 1927 (Italian: Carta del Lavoro) was one of the main pieces of legislation Mussolini, the Italian Fascist dictator from 1922-43, introduced in his attempts to modernise the Italian economy. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ...

"The corporative State considers private initiative, in the field of production, as the most efficient and useful instrument of the Nation," then goes on to say in article 9 that: "State intervention in economic production may take place only where private initiative is lacking or is insufficient, or when are at stakes the political interest of the State. This intervention may take the form of control, encouragement or direct management."

Fascism also operated from a Social Darwinist view of human relations. Their aim was to promote "superior" individuals and weed out the weak.[68] In terms of economic practice, this meant promoting the interests of successful businessmen while destroying trade unions and other organizations of the working class.[69] Lawrence Britt suggests that protection of corporate power is an essential part of fascism.[70] Historian Gaetano Salvemini argued in 1936 that fascism makes taxpayers responsible to private enterprise, because "the State pays for the blunders of private enterprise... Profit is private and individual. Loss is public and social."[71] Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Image:Gaetano Salvemini. ...


Economic policy in the first few years of Italian fascism was largely liberal, with the Ministry of Finance controlled by the old liberal Alberto De Stefani. The government undertook a low-key laissez-faire program - the tax system was restructured (February 1925 law, 23 June 1927 decree-law, etc.), there were attempts to attract foreign investment and establish trade agreements, efforts were made to balance the budget and cut subsidies. The 10% tax on capital invested in banking and industrial sectors was repealed,[72] while the tax on directors and administrators of anonymous companies (SA) was cut down by half.[72] All foreign capital was exonerated of taxes, while the luxury tax was also repealed.[72] Mussolini also opposed municipalization of enterprises.[72] Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Decree is an order by a head of state or government that has the force of law. ... S.A. is the abbreviation of Société Anonyme in French, Spółka Akcyjna in Polish, Sociedad Anónima in Spanish, Sociedade Anónima in Portuguese, or Naamloze Venootschap (N.V.) in Dutch, generally designating corporations in various countries. ... A tax on products not considered essential, such as expensive cars. ... Municipalization is the transfer to municipal ownership of corporations or other assets. ...


The 19 April 1923 law abandoned life insurance to private companies, repealing the 1912 law which had created a State Institute for insurances and which had envisioned to give a state monopoly ten years later.[73] Furthermore, a 19 November 1922 decree suppressed the Commission on War Profits, while the 20 August 1923 law suppressed the inheritance tax inside the family circle.[72] Life insurance or life assurance is a contract between the policy owner and the insurer, where the insurer agrees to pay a sum of money upon the occurrence of the insured individuals or individuals death. ... A war profiteer is any person or organization that makes profits (rightly or wrongly) from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to one or even both of the parties at war in their own or in foreign countries. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


There was a general emphasis on what has been called productivism - national economic growth as a means of social regeneration and wider assertion of national importance. Up until 1925, the country enjoyed modest growth but structural weaknesses increased inflation and the currency slowly fell (1922 L90 to £1, 1925 L145 to £1). In 1925 there was a great increase in speculation and short runs against the lira. The levels of capital movement became so great the government attempted to intervene. De Stefani was sacked, his program side-tracked, and the Fascist government became more involved in the economy in step with the increased security of their power. Productivism is the (purported) ideology that measurable economic productivity and growth is the purpose of human organization and perhaps the purpose of life itself. ... Lira is the name of the monetary unit of a number of countries, as well as the former currency of Italy, San Marino and the Vatican City. ...


In 1925, the Italian state abandoned its monopoly on telephones' infrastructure, while the state production of matches was handed over to a private "Consortium of matches' productors."[73] In some sectors, the state did intervene. Thus, following the deflation crisis which started in 1926, banks such as the Banca di Roma, the Banca di Napoli or the Banca di Sicilia were assisted by the state.[74] Capitalia is an Italian banking group headquartered in Rome. ...


Fascists were most vocal in their opposition to finance capitalism, interest charging, and profiteering.[75] Some fascists, particularly Nazis, considered finance capitalism a "parasitic" "Jewish conspiracy".[76] Nevertheless, fascists also opposed Marxism and independent trade unions. Financial capital, or economic capital, is any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth, or other styles of capital. ... For other senses of this word, see interest (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...


According to sociologist Stanislav Andreski, fascist economics "foreshadowed most of the fundamental features of the economic system of Western European countries today: the radical extension of government control over the economy without a wholesale expropriation of the capitalists but with a good dose of nationalisation, price control, incomes policy, managed currency, massive state investment, attempts at overall planning (less effectual than the Fascist because of the weakness of authority)."[64] Politics professor Stephen Haseler credits fascism with providing a model of economic planning for social democracy.[77] Stanisław Andrzejewski (Stanislaw Andreski) born 1919, is a Polish-British sociologist known best for his scathing indictment of the pretentious nebulous verbosity endemic in the modern social sciences in his classic work Social Sciences as Sorcery (1972). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


In Nazi economic planning, in place of ordinary profit incentive to guide the economy, investment was guided through regulation to accord to the needs of the State. The profit incentive for business owners was retained, though greatly modified through various profit-fixing schemes: "Fixing of profits, not their suppression, was the official policy of the Nazi party." However the function of profit in automatically guiding allocation of investment and unconsciously directing the course of the economy was replaced with economic planning by Nazi government agencies.[78]


Anti-Communism

Main article: Anti-Communism

The Russian Revolution inspired attempted revolutionary movements in Italy, with a wave of factory occupations. Most historians view fascism as a response to these developments, as a movement that both tried to appeal to the working class and divert them from Marxism. It also appealed to capitalists as a bulwark against Bolshevism. Italian fascism took power with the blessing of Italy's king after years of leftist-led unrest led many conservatives to fear that a communist revolution was inevitable (Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci popularized the conception that fascism was the Capital's response to the organized workers' movement). Mussolini took power during the 1922 March on Rome. Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Biennio rosso (English: Two red years) were two years, 1919 and 1920, in which there was a massive struggle for political power by the workers of Italy. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ...


Throughout Europe, numerous aristocrats, conservative intellectuals, capitalists and industrialists lent their support to fascist movements in their countries that emulated Italian Fascism. In Germany, numerous right-wing nationalist groups arose, particularly out of the post-war Freikorps used to crush both the Spartacist uprising and the Bavarian Soviet Republic. Aristocrat redirects here. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ...


With the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, liberalism and the liberal form of capitalism seemed doomed, and Communist and fascist movements swelled. These movements were bitterly opposed to each other and fought frequently, the most notable example of the conflict being the Spanish Civil War. This war became a proxy war between the fascist countries and their international supporters — who backed Francisco Franco — and the worldwide Communist movement, which was aided by the Soviet Union and which allied uneasily with anarchists — who backed the Popular Front. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ...


Initially, the Soviet Union supported a coalition with the western powers against Nazi Germany and popular fronts in various countries against domestic fascism. This policy largely failed due to distrust shown by the western powers (especially Britain) towards the Soviet Union. The Munich Agreement between Germany, France and Britain heightened Soviet fears that the western powers endeavored to force them to bear the brunt of a war against Nazism. The lack of eagerness on the part of the British during diplomatic negotiations with the Soviets served to make the situation even worse. The Soviets changed their policy and negotiated a non-aggression pact known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. Vyacheslav Molotov claims in his memoirs that the Soviets believed this agreement was necessary to buy them time to prepare for an expected war with Germany. Stalin expected the Germans not to attack until 1942, but the pact ended in 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Fascism and communism reverted to being deadly enemies. The war, in the eyes of both sides, was a war between ideologies. For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov...


Even within socialist and communist circles, theoreticians debated the nature of fascism. Communist theoretician Rajani Palme Dutt crafted one view that stressed the crisis of capitalism.[79] Leon Trotsky, an early leader in the Russian Revolution, believed that fascism occurs when "the workers' organizations are annihilated; that the proletariat is reduced to an amorphous state; and that a system of administration is created which penetrates deeply into the masses and which serves to frustrate the independent crystallization of the proletariat."[80] Rajani Palme Dutt (1896 - 1974) was a leading figure in the Communist Party of Great Britain. ... In economics, crisis is an old term in business cycle theory, referring to the sharp transition to a recession. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


Fascism, sexuality, and gender roles

Further information: Gender role
A propaganda poster of the pro-Nazi Italian Social Republic showing a woman kissing the Fascist flag
A propaganda poster of the pro-Nazi Italian Social Republic showing a woman kissing the Fascist flag

There has been a revival of interest in recent times, among many academic historians, with regard to the so-called "cult of masculinity" that permeated fascism, the attempts to systematically control female sexuality and reproductive behavior for the ends of the State.[citation needed] Italian fascists viewed increasing the birthrate of Italy as a major goal of their regime, with Mussolini launching a program, called the 'Battle For Births', to almost double the country's population. The exclusive role assigned to women within the State was to be mothers and not workers or soldiers;[81] however, Mussolini did not practice what some of his supporters preached. From an early stage, he gave women high positions within Fascism, and in Germany, the leader of one of the major feminist organizations pleaded with Hitler to be incorporated into the Nazi Party as early as 1928.[citation needed] Fascists have generally been opposed to the concept of women's rights per se, preferring the traditions of chivalry to guide male-female relations.[citation needed] A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ...


According to Anson Rabinbach and Jessica Benjamin, "The crucial element of fascism is its explicit sexual language, what Theweleit calls 'the conscious coding' or the 'over-explicitness of the fascist language of symbol.' This fascist symbolization creates a particular kind of psychic economy which places sexuality in the service of destruction. According to this intellectual theory, despite its sexually-charged politics, fascism is an anti-eros, 'the core of all fascist propaganda is a battle against everything that constitutes enjoyment and pleasure'… He shows that in this world of war the repudiation of one's own body, of femininity, becomes a psychic compulsion which associates masculinity with hardness, destruction, and self-denial."[82] Klaus Theweleit (* 1942 in Ebenrode, East Prussia - today Nesterow, Russia) is a german sociologist and writer. ... Eros ( érōs) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. ...


See also

Fascism Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... Ecofascism is a term for radical environmentalism. ... The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments. ... The Faisceau was a short-lived French Fascist party. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... Nashism is the name given to an ideological framework underpinning the Nashi movement in Russia. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Grange poster depicting the independent, industrious farmer as the keystone figure in society. ... So Disdained is the second published novel by British author, Nevil Shute. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ...

Neo-fascism

GOP redirects here. ... // For the general identity of an individual with certain core essential religious doctrines, see Christianity. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, founder of the Nouvelle Droite (English: ) and head of the French think tank GRECE. Benoist is little known outside his native France but his writings have been highly influential on anti-globalist thought, primarily on the political right, with... International Third Position (ITP) was a United Kingdom group formed by the Italian Roberto Fiore and as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement that originated in the Third Positionist British National Front in the early 1980s. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... This article refers to the United States-based organization. ... See Nationalist anarchism for more general article. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fascist (epithet). ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Nouvelle Droite (English: New Right) is a school of political thought founded largely on the works of Alain de Benoist and GRECE. Although most popular and well known in France, Nouvelle Droite has been very influential in other European right-wing movements. ... William Luther Pierce III (September 11, 1933 – July 23, 2002) was the leader of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement. ... George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 – August 25, 1967) was a United States Navy Commander and founder of the American Nazi Party. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Robert O. Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism, page 218. Knopf, 2004
  2. ^ Roger Griffin, Nature of Fascism, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991, p. xi
  3. ^ Kevin Passmore, Fascism: A Very Short Introduction, page 31. Oxford University Press, 2002
  4. ^ "fascism." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Apr. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9117286>
  5. ^ Eatwell, Roger. 1996. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.
  6. ^ Griffin, Roger. 1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York: St. Martin’s Press. On "populism, see p. 26: "Fascism is a genus of political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultra-nationalism".
  7. ^ Nolte, Ernst The Three Faces Of Fascism: Action Française, Italian Fascism National Socialism, translated from the German by Leila Vennewitz, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965.
  8. ^ Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 1-4000-4094-9
  9. ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914-45. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 0-299-14874-2
  10. ^ "populism," See: Fritzsche, P. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and political mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
  11. ^ "collectivism." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 12 January 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024764> "Collectivism has found varying degrees of expression in the 20th century in such movements as socialism, communism, and fascism."; Grant, Moyra. Key Ideas in Politics. Nelson Thomas 2003. p. 21; De Grand, Alexander. Italian Fascism: Its Origins and Development. U of Nebraska Press. p. 147 "Nationalism, statism, and authoritarianism culminated in the cult of the Duce. Finally, collectivism was important...Despite general agreement on these four themes, it was hard to formulate a definition of fascism..."
  12. ^ Griffiths, Richard Fascism. (Continuum, 2005), 91-136. ISBN 0-8264-8281-3
  13. ^ Payne, Stanley (1996). A History of Fascism. Routledge. ISBN 1857285956 p.3
  14. ^ Laqueuer, 1996 p. 223; Eatwell, 1996, p. 39; Griffin, 1991, 2000, pp. 185-201; Weber, [1964] 1982, p. 8; Payne (1995), Fritzsche (1990), Laclau (1977), and Reich (1970).
  15. ^ Benito Mussolini "The Doctrine of Fascism"
  16. ^ a b Paxton, Robert O. The Anatomy of Fascism. (Knopf Publishing Group, 2005), 218. ISBN 1-4000-4094-9
  17. ^ Payne, Stanley (1980). Fascism: Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press, 7. 
  18. ^ Payne, Stanley (1996). A History of Fascism. Routledge. ISBN 1857285956 p.10
  19. ^ Umberto Eco (1995). "Eternal Fascism Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackshirt". New York Review of Books (June 22): 12–15. 
  20. ^ Griffin, Roger (1995). Fascism. Oxford University Press. 
  21. ^ Ludwig von Mises, [1] Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, Inc.. 1981
  22. ^ David Baker, The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality? New Political Economy, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227 – 250
  23. ^ Triandis, Harry C.; Gelfand, Michele J. (1998). "Converging Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 (1): 119. ; Collectivism. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 14, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024764
  24. ^ Calvin B. Hoover, "The Paths of Economic Change: Contrasting Tendencies in the Modern World," The American Economic Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Supplement, Papers and Proceedings of the Forty-seventh Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. (Mar., 1935), pp. 13-20; Philip Morgan, Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945, New York Tayolor & Francis 2003, p. 168
  25. ^ Friedrich A. Hayek. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. Routledge Press
  26. ^ George Orwell: ‘What is Fascism?’
  27. ^ Gilbert Allardyce (1979). "What Fascism Is Not: Thoughts on the Deflation of a Concept". American Historical Review 84 (2): 367-388. doi:10.2307/1855138. 
  28. ^ Paul H. Lewis (2000). Latin Fascist Elites. Praeger/Greenwood, 9. ISBN 0-275-97880-X. 
  29. ^ Grant, Moyra. Key Ideas in Politics. Nelson Thomas 2003. p. 21
  30. ^ Gillette, Aaron. Racial Theories in Fascist Italy. London: Routledge. p39
  31. ^ Gillette. p39
  32. ^ a b "Mussolini's Cultural Revolution: Fascist or Nationalist?", jch.sagepub.com, 8 January 2008. 
  33. ^ Montagu, Ashley. Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race| publisher = Rowman Altamira| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=tkHqP3vgYi4C&pg=PA187&lpg=PA187&dq=%22+Nothing+will+ever+make+me+believe+that+biologically+pure+races+can+be+shown+to+exist+today%22&source=web&ots=ao7O_J0vr8&sig=22zZBSKlbcxbrBF1PXP3_PJygj0&hl=en
  34. ^ Gillette. p42
  35. ^ Sarti, Roland. 1974. The Ax Within: Italian Fascism in Action. New York: New Viewpoints. p190.
  36. ^ Sarti, 1974. p189.
  37. ^ Sarti, 1974. p190.
  38. ^ Sarti, 1974. p191.
  39. ^ http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/kp/
  40. ^ Gillette. p42
  41. ^ Gillette. p42
  42. ^ Gillette. p42
  43. ^ Gillette. p45
  44. ^ Smith, Denis Mack. 1983. Mussolini: A Biography. New York: Vintage Books. p172
  45. ^ Smith, Denis Mack. 1983. p172
  46. ^ Smith. 1983. p172
  47. ^ What happened in June 1934 - Historical Events, News Archives
  48. ^ Farrell, Nicholas Mussolini: A New Life p.5 2004 Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
  49. ^ Laqueur, WalterFascism: Past, Present, Future p.41 1996 Oxford University Press]
  50. ^ Laqueur, WalterFascism: Past, Present, Future p.41 1996 Oxford University Press]
  51. ^ Laqueur, WalterFascism: Past, Present, Future p.41 1996 Oxford University Press]
  52. ^ Pollard, John F. (1985). The Vatican and Italian Fascism, 1929-32. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press. p53
  53. ^ Laqueur, WalterFascism: Past, Present, Future p.42 1996 Oxford University Press]
  54. ^ Laqueur, WalterFascism: Past, Present, Future p.148 1996 Oxford University Press]
  55. ^ Laqueur, WalterFascism: Past, Present, Future p.41 1996 Oxford University Press]
  56. ^ "Garrido Canabal, Tomás". The Columbia Encyclopedia Sixth Edition (2005).
  57. ^ The New International Yearbook p. 442, Dodd, Mead and Co. 1966
  58. ^ Millan, Verna Carleton, Mexico Reborn, p.101, 1939 Riverside Press
  59. ^ Krauze, Enrique THE TROUBLING ROOTS OF MEXICO'S LÓPEZ OBRADOR: Tropical Messiah The New Republic June 19, 2006
  60. ^ Parsons, Wilfrid Mexican Martyrdom, p. 238, 2003 Kessinger Publishing
  61. ^ Laqueur, WalterFascism: Past, Present, Future pp. 31, 42, 1996 Oxford University Press]
  62. ^ David Baker, "The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality?", New Political Economy, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227–250.
  63. ^ Philip Morgan, Fascism in Europe, 1919–1945, Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 168.
  64. ^ a b Stanislav Andreski, Wars, Revolutions, Dictatorships, Routledge 1992, page 64
  65. ^ James A. Gregor, The Search for Neofascism: The Use and Abuse of Social Science, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 7
  66. ^ a b Herbert Kitschelt, Anthony J. McGann. The Radical Right in Western Europe: a comparative analysis. 1996 University of Michigan Press. p. 30
  67. ^ Tibor Ivan Berend, An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 93
  68. ^ Alexander J. De Grand, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, Routledge, 1995. pp. 47.
  69. ^ De Grand, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, pp. 48–51.
  70. ^ Britt, Lawrence, "The 14 characteristics of fascism", Free Inquiry, Spring 2003, p. 20.
  71. ^ Salvemini, Gaetano. Under the Axe of Fascism 1936.
  72. ^ a b c d e Daniel Guérin, Fascism and Big Business, Chapter IX, Second section, p.193 in the 1999 Syllepse Editions
  73. ^ a b Daniel Guérin, Fascism and Big Business, Chapter IX, First section, p.191 in the 1999 Syllepse Editions
  74. ^ Daniel Guérin, Fascism and Big Business, Chapter IX, Fifth section, p.197 in the 1999 Syllepse Editions
  75. ^ Frank Bealey & others. Elements of Political Science. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, p. 202
  76. ^ Postone, Moishe. 1986. "Anti-Semitism and National Socialism." Germans & Jews Since the Holocaust: The Changing Situation in West Germany, ed. Anson Rabinbach and Jack Zipes. New York: Homes & Meier.
  77. ^ Stephen Haseler. The Death of British Democracy: Study of Britain's Political Present and Future. Prometheus Books 1976. p. 153
  78. ^ Arthur Scheweitzer (Nov., 1946), "Profits Under Nazi Planning", The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 61, No. 1: 5 
  79. ^ Rajani Palme Dutt: Fascism. Fascism and Social Revolution: A Study of the economics and Politics of the Extreme Stages of Capitalism in Decay (1934). Retrieved on November 5, 2006.
  80. ^ LEON TROTSKY: Fascism. Fascism: What It Is and How to Fight It. Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  81. ^ Durham, Martin: Women and Fascism, Routledge 1998, ISBN 0-415-12280-5
  82. ^ Theweleit, Klaus; Erica Carter, Anson Rabinbach, Chris Turner (Translator), Anson Rabinbach (1989). Male Fantasies, Volume 2: Male Bodies—Psychoanalyzing the White Terror (Theory and History of Literature, Volume 23). United States: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1451-2. 

Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... Stanley George Payne is a historian of modern Spain and European Fascism at the University of Wisconsin--Madison. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (pronounced was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Daniel Guérin (May 19, 1904-April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author. ... Fascism and Big Business is a book first written in 1936 by the French historian Daniel Guérin. ... Daniel Guérin (May 19, 1904-April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author. ... Fascism and Big Business is a book first written in 1936 by the French historian Daniel Guérin. ... Daniel Guérin (May 19, 1904-April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author. ... Fascism and Big Business is a book first written in 1936 by the French historian Daniel Guérin. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

General

  • Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf (1992). London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-5254-X
  • "Labor Charter" (1927-1934)
  • Mussolini, Benito. "The Doctrine of Fascism", published as part of the entry for fascismo in the Enciclopedia Italiana 1932.
  • Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 1-4000-4094-9
  • Sorel, Georges. Reflections on Violence.
  • De Felice, Renzo Interpretations of Fascism, translated by Brenda Huff Everett, Cambridge; London: Harvard University Press, 1977 ISBN 0-674-45962-8.
  • Eatwell, Roger. 1996. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.
  • Hughes, H. Stuart. 1953. The United States and Italy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Nolte, Ernst The Three Faces Of Fascism: Action Française, Italian Fascism, National Socialism, translated from the German by Leila Vennewitz, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965.
  • Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914-45. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 0-299-14874-2
  • Reich, Wilhelm. 1970. The Mass Psychology of Fascism. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Seldes, George. 1935. Sawdust Caesar: The Untold History of Mussolini and Fascism. New York and London: Harper and Brothers.
  • Alfred Sohn-Rethel Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism,London, CSE Bks, 1978 ISBN 0906336007
  • Kallis, Aristotle A. ," To Expand or Not to Expand? Territory, Generic Fascism and the Quest for an 'Ideal Fatherland'" Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 38, No. 2. (Apr., 2003), pp. 237-260. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0094%28200304%2938%3A2%3C237%3ATEONTE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S

Hitler redirects here. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... The Doctrine of Fascism is a seminal essay signed by Benito Mussolini and officially attributed to him, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. ... Robert Paxton (b 1932) is a historian who worked on Vichy France. ... Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847-29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. ... Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... Stuart Hughes (born in Toronto, Ontario, August 9, 1959) is a Canadian actor well known for his leading roles on the stages of Shaw Festival, Stratford Festival, Soulpepper (of which he is a founding member), and many other Canadian theatre companies. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ... Stanley George Payne is a historian of modern Spain and European Fascism at the University of Wisconsin--Madison. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... George Seldes (November 16, 1890 – July 2, 1995) was an influential American investigative journalist and media critic. ... Alfred Sohn-Rethel (born January 4, 1899 in Neuilly-sur-Seine near, today in Paris; died April 6, 1990 in Bremen, Germany) was an economist, a philosopher especially interested in epistemology. ...

Fascist ideology

  • De Felice, Renzo Fascism : an informal introduction to its theory and practice, an interview with Michael Ledeen, New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Books, 1976 ISBN 0-87855-190-5.
  • Fritzsche, Peter. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505780-5
  • Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
  • Laqueur, Walter. 1966. Fascism: Past, Present, Future, New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-511793-X
  • Schapiro, J. Salwyn. 1949. Liberalism and The Challenge of Fascism, Social Forces in England and France (1815-1870). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Laclau, Ernesto. 1977. Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory: Capitalism, Fascism, Populism. London: NLB/Atlantic Highlands Humanities Press.
  • Sauer, Wolfgang "National Socialism: totalitarianism or fascism?" pages 404-424 from The American Historical Review, Volume 73, Issue #2, December 1967.
  • Sternhell, Zeev with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri. [1989] 1994. The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution., Trans. David Maisei. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Baker, David. "The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality?" New Political Economy, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227 – 250

Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... Michael Ledeen (born August 1, 1941) is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. ... Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ... Jacob Salwyn Schapiro (December 19, 1879 - December 30, 1973) was a Professor Emeritus of History at the City College of New York. ... Ernesto Laclau is a political theorist often described as post-marxist. ... Zeev Sternhell is the Léon Blum Professor of Political Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

International fascism

Kevin Coogan is an American investigative journalist. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Jonah Jacob Goldberg (born March 21, 1969), is an American political commentator and writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, From Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning is a bestselling book by Jonah Goldberg. ... Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Eugen Weber (April 24, 1925 – ) is the coolest guy on earth and a prominent historian on the side. ... This article is about the year. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Fascism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Critics

Michael Parenti (born 1933) is an American political scientist, historian, and media critic. ... Rajani Palme Dutt (1896 - 1974) was a leading figure in the Communist Party of Great Britain. ...

Proponents

  • The Doctrine of Fascism - by Benito Mussolini

Image File history File links Portal. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (believed by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism (Portuguese: Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... -1... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ... Enrico Corradini (1865, near Montelupo Fiorentino—1931, Rome) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... A Despotate is a State ruled under a Despot/Despoina (in this context it should not be confused with Despotism). ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... In Iran, the Velayat-e faqih refers to the controversial concept of guardianship of the jurist. ... Totalitarian democracy is a term coined by Israeli historian J. L. Talmon to refer to a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fascism - MSN Encarta (1217 words)
Fascism, modern political ideology that seeks to regenerate the social, economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity.
Because fascism had a decisive impact on European history from the end of World War I until the end of the World War II, the period from 1918 to 1945 is sometimes called the fascist era.
Marxist historians and political scientists (that is, those who base their approach on the writings of German political theorist Karl Marx) view fascism as a form of politics that is cynically adopted by governments to support capitalism and to prevent a socialist revolution.
Definition of Fascism (2397 words)
Fascism is an extreme measure taken by the middle classes to forestall
Fascism can also combine Marxist critiques of capitalism or faith based critics of the same to re-define middle class perceptions of democracy and to force its issues, confuse logic and create majority consensus between targeted groups.
Fascism attains power through the substitution of one state's form of class domination with another form, generally a middle class based republic segues into an open terrorist dictatorship, run by a few elite.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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