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Encyclopedia > Far right

Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitive position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Qualitative research is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. ... Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ...


The terms far right and far left are often used to imply that someone is an extremist. The terms are used by many political commentators to discuss political groups, movements, and political parties that are difficult to classify within conventional Right-wing politics. The terms extreme right or ultra right are used by some scholars to discuss only those right-wing political groups that step outside the boundaries of traditional electoral politics. This generally includes the revolutionary right, militant racial supremacists and religious extremists, fascists, neo-fascists, Nazis, and neo-Nazis.[1] In this usage, the terms are distinct from other forms of right-wing politics such as the less-militant sectors of the far right, right-wing populists and the more traditional conservatives.[2] The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ...


The term far right has been used by scholars in at least three somewhat conflicting ways:

  1. Reform-oriented right-wing movements or rightist factions of conservative political parties. These are sometimes called the dissident right, activist right, or right-wing populism. They are positioned between traditional conservatives and the extreme right. These participants are found outside mainstream electoral politics, but they generally produce a movement of reform rather than revolution.
  2. Neo-fascists and neo-Nazis are usually labeled extreme right or ultra right. Such groups are generally revolutionary in character rather than reformist. Neo-Nazi and Neo-fascist literally means "new Nazi" and "new fascist", implying that they are from the period following World War II.
  3. The whole range of right-wing politics, from the borders of conservatism out to the far reaches of the extreme right.

These categories are not universally accepted, and other uses exist, making comparative use of the term complicated. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Usage

See also: Left-Right politics

The term far right is usually rejected by right-wing political parties that consider themselves mainstream. Far right supporters are often strong advocates for forcibly intervening in society in order to protect or promote values that are viewed as traditional. This is in contrast to supporters of left-wing politics, who advocate intervention in favor of egalitarianism, and give little or no authority to tradition. Both stand in contrast also to less interventionist positions such as mainstream conservatism and liberalism, anarchism and libertarianism. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Libertarianism (disambiguation). ...


The political terms left and right arose during the French Revolution, and the original meaning of far right was the throne-and-altar reactionaries such as Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald. They rejected democracy, liberalism and individualism, and were in favour of an authoritarian monarchical government. They further proclaimed the submission of the individual to the so-called "natural associations" (families, regions, professions, nations, etc.). For them, humans should obey their superiors (the father in the family, the king in the state, the Pope in the Church) on earth because their authority is the mirror of the authority of God in the universe. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Joseph de Maistre (portrait by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, 1810) Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (April 1, 1753- February 26, 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher. ... Louis Gabriel Ambroise, vicomte de Bonald (October 2, 1754 - November 23, 1840), French philosopher and politician, was born at Le Monna, near Millau in Aveyron. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


The original French meaning of far right is specific to a Roman Catholic nation, and more specifically to a Gallican society in which church and state were closely tied to one another. In this context, the term can be expanded to include the kind of Caesaropapism that occasionally existed in some Eastern Orthodox kingdoms. This specific interpretation of the term far right especially lost favor in the decades following the Revolutions of 1848, as a return to the Ancien Régime became increasingly implausible. By the reign of Pope Pius XI, this interpretation of far right had essentially become anachronistic even in conservative Catholic circles. The last regime that was far-right in this sense was arguably that of General Francisco Franco in Spain (1939-1975)[3]. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs authority or the States authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Roman Popes. ... Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... “Franco” redirects here. ...


In the 2000s, the term far right is usually applied to those who support authoritarianism and policies that are considered right rather than left. In regions and nations that have no recent history of monarchy, such as Central America (discounting the Pre-Columbian era), Switzerland, and the United States, far-right politics is rarely monarchist, and usually advocates harsher law enforcement, particularly against disfavored groups, and sometimes fascist or military dictatorship. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ...


The term far right also embraces extreme nationalism, and sometimes evokes a pure ideal of the nation, often defined by race. They may advocate the expansion or restructuring of existing state borders to achieve an ideal nation, often to the point of embracing war and imperialism. In English-speaking nations, this nationalism is often descended from militant aspects of British New Imperialism. Radical right-wing populism is a far right ideology that accepts representative democracy, but criticizes supposed political elites and appeals to ethno-nationalism. Fascism is generally, but not universally, classified as a far-right ideology. However, right-wing libertarian scholars F. A. Hayek and Ludwig von Mises[citation needed], as well as conservative author Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, are noteworthy dissenters from that view. Both have labeled fascism far left, based on their view of the political spectrum that equates left with support for increased government power and right with opposition to the same. However, some Miseans, such as Murray Rothbard put fascism on the right. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... Radical right-wing populism (RRP) is a contemporary political ideology prevalent in Europe. ... // Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation is entitled... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 – March 23, 1992) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (pronounced was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... Erik Maria Ritter von Kuehnelt-Leddihn (July 31, 1909–May 26, 1999) was an Austrian Catholic aristocrat intellectual who described himself as an extreme conservative arch-liberal. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ...


Ideologies and movements such as Strasserism, National Bolshevism, Third Position, National-Anarchism — and the ideologies of Juan Peron in Argentina, Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt, and the Baath in Syria and Iraq — are sometimes regarded as far right, but they transcend standard political boundaries. On one hand, these movements are anti-communist, but they often recruit among the lower and middle-classes, and when in power, have often nationalized industries and property, especially that owned by foreigners or by members of ethnicities not defined by them as part of their nation. Strasserism refers to the strand of neo-Nazism that calls for socialism to be initiated alongside nationalism. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nationalist anarchism. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine military officer and the President of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Baath Party of Iraq Baath son of Magog of Milesian tradition This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pro-communism refers to opposition to baby eating. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ...


Environmentalism, calls for full employment and other concerns common on the left are sometimes found in the far right. Populism, social unrest, violence, and revolution can be found in both the far right and far left. For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... In economics, full employment has more than one meaning. ... A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


The term "far right" has sometimes been used to describe certain "free market dictatorships", such as that of Augusto Pinochet in Chile.[4][5] While the term is occasionally applied to supporters of extreme laissez-faire capitalism, calling right-wing libertarians far right is a matter of controversy. Capitalist libertarians consider themselves proponents of Classical liberalism, which was the the main adversary of the original far right. In his essays "Left and Right: the Prospects for Liberty" and "Confessions of a Right-Wing Liberal", Murray Rothbard even put libertarianism on the left, claiming that conservatives are the right and socialists merely "middle-of-the road".[6][7]. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile as a military dictator [2] from 1974 to 1990, and head of the military junta from 1973 to 1974. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


Parties alleged to be far right or extreme right

Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (ITS) is a political group in the European Parliament composed of 23 members from European parties variously described by their political adversaries as far right and extremely nationalist. ... The Media embedded Processor (MeP) is a configurable 32-bit processor design from Toshiba Semiconductor for embedded media processing applications. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Austrian Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, abbreviated to FPÖ) is a far-right political party in Austria. ... The Alliance for the Future of Austria (German: or BZÖ) is an Austrian political party founded by Jörg Haider, his sister Ursula Haubner, and other leading members of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) on April 4, 2005. ... Note that Flemish Block turned themselves into Flemish Interest (Vlaams Belang) since their condamnation in 2004 The Flemish Block (Dutch: Vlaams Blok) was a Flemish far-right nationalist political party which rejects the state of Belgium, calling for political independence for the Flemish half of the country. ... Vlaams Belang (English: Flemish Interest) is a political party in Belgium that supports Flemish independence and strict limits on non-European and non-Christian immigration, whereby immigrants need to adopt to the Western culture. ... The National Front (French: Le Front National) is a small Belgian neo-Nazi political party. ... The National Union Attack (Bulgarian: Национален съюз Атака, Natsionalen Sǎyuz Ataka; also translated as the Attack Coalition) is a nationalist political party in Bulgaria. ... Croatian Pure Party of Rights (Croatian: ) is a far-right wing political party in Croatia. ... THE USTASE CROATIAN LIBERATION MOVEMENT When streams of tears soaked the faces of millions of Croatian men and women, and the peace-loving politicians were hiding to save their necks, the voice of Starcevics follower was heard: a parliament deputy for the city of Zagreb, Dr. Ante Pavelic, who... The Danish Peoples Party (Danish: Dansk Folkeparti) is a social conservative and nationalist political party in Denmark. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... The National Democratic Party of Germany (German: , NPD) is a German nationalist political party. ... There is open debate on rather facism is rightwing or not. ... The Free German Workers Party (German: Freiheitliche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, FAP) is a political party in Germany that has been accused of Neo-Nazism. ... The German Peoples Union (German: Deutsche Volksunion, DVU) is a far-right political party in Germany. ... The German League for People and Homeland (German:Deutsche Liga für Volk und Heimat or DLVH) is a right wing political organization in Germany. ... Patriotic Alliance (Greek: Πατριωτική Συμμαχία, Patriotiki Symmachia, PATRIS) is a far-right Greek nationalist political party founded in 2004. ... SS election symbol Shiv Sena or शिव सेना (meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shiva) is a political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is the president of the party. ... The logo of the Kach party. ... Yisrael Beytenu ( Hebrew: Israel Our Home) is a right-wing political party in Israel with support from Jewish Russian immigrants to Israel who came from the lands of the former Soviet Union. ... Led by Giorgio Almirante the Italian Social Movement-National Right (Movimento Sociale Italiano-Destra Nazionale, MSI-DN) was a neo-Fascist party formed in 1946 by supporters of former dictator Benito Mussolini (the name National Right was joint in 1972, when other nationalist and conservative groups entered to the ISM... Nacionālā Spēka Savienība (National Power Union, abbreviated NSS; the party translates its name as National Power Unity, sometimes it is also translated as Union of National Force) is a far-right nationalist political party in Latvia. ... ) Categories: Stub | Netherlands political parties ... The Centre Party (in Dutch: Centrumpartij, CP) was a Dutch nationalist political party espousing an anti-immigrant program. ... Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) (Urdu: متحدہ مجلس عمل ) (United Council of Action) is a coalition between religious-political parties in Pakistan. ... The National Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Nacional) is a political party in Portugal, without parliamentary representation. ... Great Romania Party campaign poster for the Romanian presidential election, 2004. ... The Serbian Radical Party (Serbian: Српска радикална странка or Srpska radikalna stranka, SRS) is a nationalist far-right political party in Serbia. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... DN symbol National Democracy (in Spanish: Democracia Nacional) is a far-right political party in Spain. ... The National Democrats (Nationaldemokraterna, ND) is a minor political party in Sweden, formed by a faction of the Sweden Democrats in October 2001. ... Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD), founded in 1988 by Leif Zeilon, is a Swedish far-right political party. ... The Swiss Democrats (Schweizer Demokraten, Démocrates Suisses, Democratici Svizzeri) is a controversial right-wing (some say far-right) political party in Switzerland. ... The Swiss Peoples Party (SVP) also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre German: Schweizerische Volkspartei, French: Union Démocratique du Centre, Italian: Unione Democratica di Centro, Romansh: Partida Populara Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland. ... Map illustrating the partys performance at the 2007 general election by constituency. ... The British National Front (most commonly called the National Front) is a British far right political party whose major political activities were during the 1970s and 1980s. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative United States political party. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative third party in the United States, founded as the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1992. ... The American Independent Party is a California political party. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Fascism.", The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005
  2. ^ Betz & Immerfall 1998; Betz 1994; Durham 2000; Durham 2002; Hainsworth 2000; Mudde 2000
  3. ^ http://countrystudies.us/spain/22.htm
  4. ^ A Dictator's Legacy of Economic Growth (September 14, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  5. ^ http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2007/05/04/politico_funding/
  6. ^ "Left and Right: the Prospects for Liberty", Murray Rothbard
  7. ^ "Confessions of a Right-Wing Liberal", Murray Rothbard
  8. ^ a b Mahony, Honor. "Far-right group formed in European Parliament", EUobserver, 2007-01-09. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. 
  9. ^ a b Traynor, Ian. "Romania's first gift to the European Union - a caucus of neo-fascists and Holocaust deniers", The Guardian, 2007-01-08. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. 
  10. ^ "Rechtsaußenfraktion im EU-Parliament kommt", Der Standard, 2007-01-05. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. (German)
  11. ^ Fascist Australia, The Age, August 24, 2004.
  12. ^ Minority group in TV hijacking, The Australian, July 14, 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ignazi, Piero (1997), "The Extreme Right in Europe", in Merkl, Peter H. & Weinberg, Leonard, The Revival of Right-Wing Extremism in the Nineties, London: Peter Cass
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mudde, Cas (2000). The Ideology of the Extreme Right. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. 
  15. ^ Far-right party shows surprising strength in Austrian vote, CNN, October 3, 1999.
  16. ^ Political forces, Economist Country Briefings: Austria, 14 November 2006.
  17. ^ Political forces, Economist Country Briefings: Austria, 14 November 2006.
  18. ^ Cynthia M. Frank, The Impact of Electoral Engineering on Nationalist Parties in Post-War States, master's thesis (Georgia State University). Accessed 16 February 2007.
  19. ^ http://www.jasenovac-info.com/cd/biblioteka/pavelicpapers/hop/index.html
  20. ^ http://www.hidra.hr/stranke/programi/028368.htm
  21. ^ http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/pavelic.html
  22. ^ http://arcticbeacon.com/audio/2007/2007-LRN/07-2007-LRN/
  23. ^ Rise of the Right: Denmark, BBC News (undated) refers to the party as "extreme right-wing", but qualifies it as "milder in its approach than other European far-right parties." Accessed 16 February 2007.
  24. ^ CNN article on Pia Kjærsgaard - includes statement about the Progress Party being far right.
  25. ^ http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1323331,00.html
  26. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4556233.stm
  27. ^ ENF gathers in Athens from the European National Front website.
  28. ^ Police deny Shiv Sena arrest rumours.
  29. ^ Currently Listed Entities. Public Safety Canada (2006-11-06). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  30. ^ Far-right joins Israel coalition, BBC News (30). Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  31. ^ Return to (illiberal) diversity? — p. 9
  32. ^ Top Judge's Ouster Shakes Pakistan, Washington Post (27). Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  33. ^ Zúquete, José Pedro (September 2007). "Portugal: A New Look at the Extreme Right". Representation 43 (3): 179 - 198. doi:10.1080/00344890701463654. Retrieved on 15 August 2007. 
  34. ^ The Virtual and Global Social Democratic Party - Political Exchange World-wide: List of Extreme Right-wing & Left-wing Parties
  35. ^ Southeast Europe Portal - Serbia: Local Elections 2004 Results
  36. ^ Guardian: Extreme nationalist elected speaker of Serbian parliament
  37. ^ Boston.com news article: Milosevic ally gains key Serbian post
  38. ^ a b Rydgren, Jens. Radical Right-wing Populism in Sweden and Denmark. The Centre for the Study of European Politics and Society. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  39. ^ Schweizer Demokraten vor der Auflösung, NZZ Online (2007), "facing dissolution".
  40. ^ Rise of the Right: Switzerland, BBC News (2000), "also has a moderate wing".
  41. ^ Europe Coalition offer to Turkey's far right, BBC News (1999-05-21). Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  42. ^ British National Party: Nasty, brutish and short-lived?, The Economist, August 5, 2004.
  43. ^ a b Diamond, Sara. 1995. Roads to Dominion: Right–Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States. New York: Guilford.
  44. ^ Clarkson, Fred. 1997. Eternal Hostility: The Struggle between Theocracy and Democracy. Monroe, ME: Common Courage.

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References

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter (2006). "Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist Party Success" European Journal of Political Research (45):419-443
  • Betz, Hans-Georg and Stefan Immerfall, eds. 1998. The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Betz, Hans-Georg (1994). Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe. New York: St. Martins Press.
  • Durham, Martin (2000). The Christian Right, the Far Right and the Boundaries of American Conservatism. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.
  • Durham, Martin (2002). "From Imperium to Internet: the National Alliance and the American Extreme Right" Patterns of Prejudice 36(3), (July): 50-61.
  • Hainsworth, Paul (2000). The Politics of the Extreme Right: From the Margins to the Mainstream. London: Pinter.
  • Schoenbaum, David. Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany,. ISBN
  • Formisano, Ronald P. (2005). "Interpreting Right-Wing or Reactionary Neo-Populism: A Critique". Journal of Policy History 17 (2): 241-255. 
  • Radical conservatism : the right's political religion / Robert Brent Toplin., 2006
  • Radical conservatism and the future of politics / Göran Dahl., 1999
  • Fascists and conservatives : the radical right and the establishment in twentieth-century Europe / Martin Blinkhorn., 1990
  • The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right / Peter Davies., 2002
  • The terrorist next door : the militia movement and the radical right / Daniel Levitas., 2002
  • Right-wing populism in America : too close for comfort / Chip Berlet., 2000
  • The extreme right : freedom and security at risk / Aurel Braun., 1997
  • The impact of radical right-wing parties in West European democracies / Michelle Hale Williams., 2006
  • Right-wing extremism in the twenty-first century / Peter Merkl., 2003
  • Extreme right parties in Western Europe / Piero Ignazi., 2003
  • The United States and right-wing dictatorships, 1965-1989 / David Schmitz., 2006
  • The emergence of a Euro-American radical right / Jeffrey Kaplan., 1998
  • The politics of the extreme right : from the margins to the mainstream / Paul Hainsworth., 2000
  • The revival of right-wing extremism in the nineties / Peter Merkl., 1997
  • Shadows over Europe : the development and impact of the extreme right in Western Europe / Martin Schain., 2002
  • Western democracies and the new extreme right challenge / Roger Eatwell., 2004
  • The voice of modern hatred : encounters with Europe's new right / Nicholas Fraser., 2000
  • Extreme right activists in Europe : through the magnifying glass / Bert Klandermans., 2006
  • Preachers of hate : the rise of the far right / Angus Roxburgh., 2002
  • Movements of exclusion : radical right-wing populism in the Western world / Jens Rydgren., 2005
  • The myth of far right/ Brendan O'Neil, 2002

See also

The far-right tradition in France founds its origins, as the distinction of left and right in politics itself, to the 1789 French Revolution. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... Ultra-leftism is a term used initially to the Ultra Left current of Marxist communism closely related to council communism and left communism and, later, to identify and criticise positions, especially by those within the mainstream historical Marxist parties, to describe a position which is adopted without taking notice of... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Radical right-wing populism (RRP) is a contemporary political ideology prevalent in Europe. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This is a glossary of the French Revolution. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... Moralism is the philosophy of adherence to morality, created by Max Shapiro, of 20th century Los Angeles. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ...

External link

  • Extreme Right Electorates and Party Success Research Group (EREPS)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Far right at AllExperts (1629 words)
Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, radical right, or hard right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum.
The terms "far right" and "far left" are often used to say that someone is an "extremist." "Far right" is thus usually a pejorative term used by outsiders rather than a self-label.
The far right has often been associated in various degrees with social, cultural and religious conservatism, reactionary monarchism, reactionary nationalism, jingoistic chauvinism, populism, economic protectionism or economic free trade, anti-immigration or racist and xenophobic policies, but the usage varies greatly.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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