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Encyclopedia > Fanzine

A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. The term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and first popularized within science fiction fandom, from whom it was adopted by others. A zine—an abbreviation of the word fanzine, and originating from the word magazine[1][2]—is most commonly a small circulation, non-commercial publication of original or appropriated texts and images. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ... Louis Russell Russ Chauvenet (February 12, 1920 - June 24, 2003) was one of the founders of science fiction fandom, as an early member of Bostons Stranger Club. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ...


Typically, publishers, editors and contributors to fanzines receive no financial compensation. Fanzines are traditionally circulated free of charge, or for a nominal cost to defray postage or production expenses. Copies are often offered in exchange for similar publications, or for contributions of art, articles, or letters of comment (LoCs), which are then published.


Some fanzines have evolved into professional publications (sometimes known as "prozines"), and many professional writers were first published in fanzines; some continue to contribute to them after establishing a professional reputation. The term fanzine is sometimes confused with "fan magazine", but the latter term most often refers to commercially-produced publications. A fan magazine is a professionally written and published magazine intended for the amusement of fans of the subject matter which it covers. ...

Contents

Origin

The origins of amateur "fan" publications are obscure, but can be traced at least back to 19th century literary groups in the United States which formed amateur press associations to publish collections of amateur fiction, poetry and commentary. These publications were produced first on small tabletop printing presses, often by students. An Amateur Press Association or APA is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


As professional printing technology progressed, so did the technology of fanzines. Early fanzines were hand-drafted or typed on a manual typewriter and printed using primitive reproduction techniques (e.g., the spirit duplicator or even the hectograph). Only a very small number of copies could be made at a time, so circulation was extremely limited. The use of mimeograph machines enabled greater press runs, and the photocopier increased the speed and ease of publishing once more. Today, thanks to the advent of desktop publishing and self-publication, there is often little difference between the appearance of a fanzine and a professionally produced magazine. Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... A spirit duplicator (also referred to as a Ditto machine or Banda machine) was a low-volume printing method used mainly by schools and churches. ... The hectograph or gelatin duplicator is a printing process which involves transferring from an original sheet prepared with special inks to a gelatin pad. ... Mimeograph machine The mimeograph machine (commonly abbreviated to mimeo) or stencil duplicator was a printing machine that was far cheaper per copy than any other process in runs of several hundred to several thousand copies. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Self-publishing is the publishing of books or other media by those who have written them. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Genres

Science fiction fanzines

When Hugo Gernsback published the first scientifiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, he allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses. By 1927 readers, often young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine. Science fiction fanzines had their beginnings in Serious & Constructive (later shortened to sercon) correspondence. Fans finding themselves writing the same letter to several correspondents sought to save themselves a lot of typing by duplicating their letters. A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ... Hugo Gernsback (August 16, 1884 - August 19, 1967) was an inventor and magazine publisher who also wrote science fiction and whose publication included the first science fiction magazine. ... Science Fiction redirects here. ... First issue of Amazing Stories, art by Frank R. Paul Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, was first published in April 1926 in New York City, thereby becoming the first magazine devoted exclusively to publishing stories in the genre presently known as science fiction (SF). ...


Early efforts included simple carbon copies but that proved insufficient. The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis.[1] The term "fanzine" was coined by Russ Chauvenet in the October 1940 edition of his fanzine Detours. "Fanzines" were distinguished from "prozines," (a term Chauvenet also invented): that is, all professional magazines. Prior to that, the fan publications were known as "fanmags" or "letterzines." Carbon copying, often abbreviated to c. ... The Comet was the first science fiction fanzine, and was first published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Raymond A. Palmer (1910-1977) was the influential editor of Amazing Stories from 1938 through 1949, when he left publisher Ziff-Davis to form his own company. ... Louis Russell Russ Chauvenet (February 12, 1920 - June 24, 2003) was one of the founders of science fiction fandom, as an early member of Bostons Stranger Club. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Science fiction fan magazines used a variety of printing methods. Typewriters, school dittos, church mimeos and (if they could afford it) multi-color letterpress or other mid-to-high level printing. Some fans wanted their news spread, others reveled in the artistry and beauty of fine printing.


The hectograph, introduced around 1876, was so named because it could produce (in theory) up to a hundred copies. Hecto used an aniline dye, transferred to a tray of gelatin, and paper would be placed on the gel, one sheet at a time, for transfer. Messy and smelly, the process could create vibrant colors for the few copies produced . The easiest aniline dye to make is purple (technically indigo) and the next step after hecto is the spirit duplicator, essentially the hectography process using a drum instead of the gelatin. Introduced by Ditto Corporation in 1923, these machines were known for the next six decades as Ditto Machines and used by fans because they were cheap to use and could (with a little effort) print in color. The hectograph or gelatin duplicator is a printing process which involves transferring from an original sheet prepared with special inks to a gelatin pad. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. ... Indigo is the color on the spectrum between about 450 and 420 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... A spirit duplicator (also referred to as a Ditto machine or Banda machine) was a low-volume printing method used mainly by schools and churches. ...


The mimeograph machine, which forced ink through a wax paper stencil cut by the keys of a typewriter, was the standard for many decades. A second-hand mimeo in your parents' basement could print hundreds of copies and (with more than a little effort) print in color. The electronic stencil cutter (shortened to "electrostencil" by most) could add photographs and illustrations to a mimeo stencil. A mimeo'd zine could look terrible or look beautiful, depending more on the skill of the mimeo operator than the quality of the equipment. Only a few fans could afford more professional printers, or the time it took them to print, until photocopying became cheap and ubiquitous in the 1970s. With the advent of computer printers and desktop publishing in the 1980s, fanzines began to look far more professional. The rise of the internet made correspondence cheaper and much faster, and the world wide web has made publishing a fanzine as simple as coding a web page. Mimeograph machine The Mimeograph machine (commonly abbreviated to Mimeo), or stencil duplicator was a printing machine that was far cheaper per copy than any other process in runs of several hundred to several thousand copies. ... The World Wide Web and WWW redirect here. ...


Fanspeak is rich with abbreviations, concatenations and in-jokes. Where teenagers labored to save typing on ditto masters, they now save strokes when text messaging. 4e invented nonstoparagraphing: When the typist comes to the end of a paragraph, they simply move the platen down one line: a space-saving measure that is easy on a typewriter and difficult in html. Fanspeak is the slang or jargon current in science fiction and fantasy fandom, especially those terms in use among readers and writers of science fiction fanzines. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ...


As mentioned above, fanzines did not originate in science fiction fandom, although the term did. Never commercial enterprises, most science fiction fanzines were (and many still are) available for "the usual," meaning that a sample issue will be mailed on request; to receive further issues, a reader sends a "letter of comment" (LoC) about the fanzine to the editor. The LoC might be published in the next issue: some fanzines consisted almost exclusively of letter columns, where discussions were conducted in much the same way as they are in internet newsgroups and mailing lists today, though at a relatively glacial pace. Often fanzine editors ("faneds") would simply swap issues with each other, not worrying too much about matching trade for trade, somewhat like being on one another's friends list. Without being closely connected with the rest of fandom, a budding faned could read fanzine reviews in prozines; and fanzines reviewed other fanzines. Recent technology has changed the speed of communication between fans and the technology available, but the basic concepts developed by science fiction fanzines in the 1930s can be seen online today. Blogs -- with their threaded comments, personalized illustrations, shorthand in-jokes, wide variety in quality and wider variety of content -- follow the structure developed in science fiction fanzines, without (usually) realizing the antecedent. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. ... LiveJournal (often abbreviated LJ) is a virtual community where Internet users can keep a blog, journal, or diary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Since 1937, science fiction fans have formed amateur press associations (APAs); the members contribute to a collective assemblage or bundle that contains contributions from all of them, called apazines and often containing mailing comments. Some APAs are still active, and some are published as virtual "e-zines," distributed on the Internet. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... An Amateur Press Association or APA is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group. ...


For additional information on specific science fiction fanzines and fanwriters, one can see: separate articles on David Langford (writer/editor of Ansible), Cheryl Morgan (Emerald City), Alison Scott, Steve Davies and Mike Scott (Plokta), Mike Glyer (File 770), Richard and Nicki Lynch, (Mimosa), Steven H Silver (Argentus), Steve Green and Martin Tudor (Critical Wave), Peter Weston (Prolapse) and Christopher J. Garcia (The Drink Tank). Many artists working for fanzines have risen to prominence in the field, including Joe Mayhew, Brad W. Foster, Bill Rotsler, Steve Stiles, Dan Steffan, Stu Shiffman, Vaughan Bode, Alexis Gilliland, Harry Bell, Jim Barker, Alicia Austin, Marc Schirmeister, Derek Carter, Tim Kirk, Joan Hanke Woods, Teddy Harvia, Ian Gunn, Taral Wayne, Ken Fletcher, Reed Waller, Ray Nelson, Ross Chamberlain, Frank Wu and many, many others. Specific Hugo Awards are given for fanzines, fan writing and fanart. David Langford David Rowland Langford (born April 10, 1953, in Newport, Monmouthshire) is a British author, editor and critic, largely active within the science fiction field. ... Emerald City is a science fiction fanzine published in print and on the internet by Cheryl Morgan. ... Plokta is a science fiction fanzine, first published in 1996. ... File 770 is named for the party in Room 770 at the 1951 Worldcon science fiction convention that upstaged the convention. ... Mimosa was a science fiction fanzine edited by Richard and Nicki Lynch, Mimosa won six Hugo Award for Best Fanzine and was nominated a full 13 times. ... Steven H Silver (born April 19, 1967 in Hinsdale, Illinois) is a science fiction fan, writer, and editor. ... Critical Wave, later sub-titled The European Science Fiction & Fantasy Review, was a British small-press magazine, published and co-edited by Steve Green and Martin Tudor during the period 1987-96. ... Peter Weston is an influential British science fiction fan. ... Brad W. Foster is a five-time winner of the Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist, the most prestigious awards in science fiction and fantasy. ... William Bill Rotsler (July 3, 1926 - October 8, 1997) was an American author of several science fiction novels and short stories; television and film novelizations; and a number of non-fiction works on a variety of topics, ranging from Star Trek to pornography. ... Steve Stiles is a science-fiction artist and writer, coming out of the fanzine tradition. ... Alexis Arnaldus Gilliland (born 1931) is an American science fiction writer and cartoonist. ... This is a list of ice hockey players who have only played one game in the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1917-18 to 1999-00. ... Jim Barker is the General Manager of the Calgary Stampeders. ... Marc Schirmeister An illustrator, cartoonist, storyboarder, inker, man who draws stuff, based in California. ... Tim Kirk is a five-time winner of the Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist, the most prestigious awards in science fiction and fantasy. ... Teddy Harvia is the nom de plume of David Thayer, an award-winning science fiction fan artist. ... Taral Wayne is likely Canadas best known science fiction fan artist, and has been nominated for the fields most prestigious award, the Hugo, six times. ... This article is about the tennis player. ... Reed Waller (August 3, 1949- ) is an American comic book writer best known for his work on Omaha the Cat Dancer, with Kate Worley. ... Radell Ray Faraday Nelson (1931-) is a science fiction author most famous for his short story Eight OClock in the Morning, which was later used by John Carpenter as the basis for his 1988 film They Live, starring Roddy Piper and Keith David. ... Frank Wu was the winner of the 2004 Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... Hugo Award for Best Fanzine. ... Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer. ... Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist. ...


Comics and graphic arts fanzines

Comics were mentioned and discussed as early as the late 1930s in science fiction fanzines. Famously, the first version of Superman (a bald-headed villain) appeared in the third issue of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction. Malcolm Willits and Jim Bradley started The Comic Collector's News, the first comics fanzine, in October, 1947. By 1952 Ted White had done a four-page pamphlet about Superman, and James Taurasi did the short-lived Fantasy Comics. In 1953 Bhob Stewart published The EC Fan Bulletin, which launched EC fandom and several subsequent imitative EC this and EC that titles. Somewhat later Stewart, White and Larry Stark did Potrzebie and started the second wave of EC fanzines, the best-known of which was Ron Parker's Hoo-Hah!. After that came fanzines by the followers of Harvey Kurtzman's Mad, Trump and Humbug. Publishers of these included future underground comics stars like Jay Lynch and Robert Crumb. Richard and Pat Lupoff's science fiction fanzine Xero began featuring a series of nostalgic and analytical articles about comics, by Richard, Don Thompson and others, under the heading, All In Color For A Dime. In 1961 came Jerry Bails' Alter Ego, devoted to costumed heroes, a slick revived version of which survives as a semi-prozine. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Jerome Jerry Siegel a. ... Joseph Joe Shuster (July 10, 1914 - July 30, 1992) was a Canadian-born comic book artist best known for co-creating the DC Comics character Superman, with writer Jerry Siegel, first published in Action Comics #1 (March 1938). ... Frank Frazettas cover illustration for Ted Whites Phoenix Prime Ted White (born February 4, 1938) is an American science fiction author and editor as well as a music critic. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Bhob Stewart is an American writer, editor and artist who has written for a variety of publications over a span of five decades. ... Entertaining Comics was headed by William Gaines but is better known by its publishing name of EC Comics. ... Larry Stark (born August 4, 1932 in New Brunswick, New Jersey) is an American journalist and reviewer best known for his in-depth coverage of the Boston theater scene at his website, Theater Mirror. ... Ronald J.D. Parker is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... Harvey Kurtzman (October 3, 1924 - February 21, 1993) was a U.S. cartoonist and magazine editor. ... Mad is an American humor magazine founded by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines in 1952. ... Trump was a glossy magazine of satire and erotic humor, mostly in the forms of comic-strip features and short stories. ... Humbug was a humor magazine edited by Harvey Kurtzman. ... The term underground comics or comix describes the self-published or small press comic books that sprang up in the US in the late 1960s. ... Jay Lynch, born January 7, 1945 in Orange, New Jersey, is an American cartoonist who played a key role in the underground comix movement with his Bijou Funnies and other titles. ... Robert Dennis Crumb (born August 30, 1943), often credited simply as R. Crumb, is an American artist and illustrator recognized for the distinctive style of his drawings and his critical, satirical, subversive view of the American mainstream. ... A 1957 photo of Dick Lupoff in what he has described as full Army regalia. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... Xero can refer to: Xero (software), an online accounting system designed specifically for small and medium businesses Xero (band), an Australian punk rock band from the late 1970s and early 1980s Xero (rock band), an American rock band, who eventually became Linkin Park Xero (SF fanzine), a science fiction fanzine... Maggie Thompson (born November 29, 1942), is the editor of Comics Buyers Guide. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alter Ego was one of the earliest superhero comics fanzines, founded in 1961 by Jerry Bails and later taken over by Roy Thomas. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ...


It started modern-day superhero comics fandom and is thus sometimes cited mistakenly as the first comics fanzine. Contacts through these magazines were instrumental in creating the culture of modern comics fandom: conventions, collecting, etc. Much of this, like comics fandom itself, began as part of standard science fiction conventions, but comics fans have developed their own traditions. Comics fanzines often include fan artwork based on existing characters as well as discussion of the history of comics. Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of speculative fiction including science fiction and fantasy. ...


In Britain, there have since 2001 been created a number of fanzines pastiching children's comics of the 1970s and '80s (eg Solar Wind, Pony School, etc). These adopt a style of storytelling rather than specific characters from their sources, usually with a knowing or ironic twist. Solar Wind is a British small press comicbook. ... Ironic redirects here. ...


Horror film fanzines

As with comics zines, horror film fanzines grew from related interest within science fiction fan publications. Trumpet, edited by the late Tom Reamy, was a 1960s SF zine that branched into horror film coverage. Alex Soma's Horrors of the Screen, Calvin T. Beck's Journal of Frankenstein (later Castle of Frankenstein) and Gary Svehla’s Gore Creatures were the first horror fanzines created as more serious alternatives to the popular Forrest J Ackerman/James Warren 1958 magazine Famous Monsters of Filmland. Gore Creatures began in 1961 and continues today as the prozine Midnight Marquee. Garden Ghouls Gazette -- a 1960s horror title under the editorship of Dave Keil, then Gary Collins -- was later headed by the late Frederick S. Clarke and in 1967 became the respected journal Cinefantastique. It later became a prozine under journalist-screenwriter Mark A. Altman. Tom Reamy (1935-1977) was an award-winning American science fiction and fantasy author and important figure in science fiction fandom. ... Castle of Frankenstein was a fantasy film magazine, distributed by Kable News and published in New Jersey from 1962 to 1975 by Calvin Thomas Becks Gothic Castle Publishing Company. ... Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916) is an American science fiction fan and collector of science fiction books and movie memorabilia. ... James Warren (1726 – November 28, 1808) was the President of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts and a general during the American Revolution. ... Famous Monsters of Filmland #14, October 1961 issue. ... Cinefantastique is a horror, fantasy, and science fiction film magazine started in 1970 by publisher/editor Frederick S. Clarke. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Screenwriters, scenarists, or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies and television programs are made. ... Mark A. Altman is a film producer, screenwriter and actor. ...


Mark Frank’s Photon -- notable for the inclusion of an 8x10 photo in each issue -- was another fine '60s zine that lasted into the 1980s. The Baltimore-based Black Oracle from writer-turned-John Waters repertory member George Stover was a pint-sized gem that evolved into the larger-format Cinemacabre. Stover's Black Oracle partner Bill George later became editor of the Cinefantastique spinoff Femme Fatales. Japanese Fantasy Film Journal (JFFJ) from Greg Shoemaker covered Toho's Godzilla and his Asian brethren when no other publications much cared. FXRH (Special Effects by Ray Harryhausen) was a specialized 1970s zine co-created by future Hollywood FX artist Ernest D. Farino. And Richard Klemensen’s Little Shoppe of Horrors continues to be the definitive fanzine on Hammer horrors and has been publishing its generously-sized issues on an irregular schedule since 1972. For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... John Waters (born April 22, 1946) is an American filmmaker, writer, personality, visual artist and art collector, who rose to fame in the early 1970s for his transgressive cult films. ... The English-language version of Tohos famous logo, used from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. ... This article is about the character itself. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Ray Harryhausen, with creations from Clash of the Titans. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Special effects (also called SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ... New company logo as introduced in May 2007 A poster for Dracula: Prince of Darkness (1966). ...


Rock & Roll music fanzines

By the mid-1960s, several fans active in science fiction and comics fandom recognized a shared interest in rock music, and the rock fanzine was born. Paul Williams and Greg Shaw were two such SF-fans turned rock zine editors. Williams' Crawdaddy! (1966) and Shaw's two California-based zines, Mojo Navigator (full title, "Mojo-Navigator Rock and Roll News") (1966) and Who Put the Bomp?, (1970), are among the most important early rock fanzines. Paul Williams (born May 19, 1948 in Boston, Massachusetts) created the rock music magazine Crawdaddy! in 1966 in New York City, and had to end it in 2003 due to financial difficulties. ... Greg Shaw (January 1949 - October 19, 2004) was a Los Angeles-based fanzine publisher, music historian and record label owner. ... Crawdaddy! was the first U.S. magazine of rock and roll music criticism. ... Who Put The Bomp was a rock music fanzine edited and published by Greg Shaw from 1970-79. ...


Crawdaddy! (1966) quickly moved from its fanzine roots to become one of the first rock music "prozines," with paid advertisers and newsstand distribution. Bomp remained a fanzine, featuring many writers who would later become prominent music journalists, including Lester Bangs, Greil Marcus, Ken Barnes, Ed Ward, Dave Marsh, Mike Saunders and R. Meltzer. Bomp featured cover art by Jay Kinney and Bill Rotsler, both veterans of SF and Comics fandom. Bomp was not alone; an August 1970 issue of Rolling Stone included an article about the explosion of rock fanzines. Other rock fanzines of this period include Flash, 1972, edited by Mark Shipper, Eurock Magazine (1973-1993) edited by Archie Patterson and Bam Balam, written and published by Brian Hogg in East Lothian, Scotland, beginning in 1974, and in the mid-1970s, Back Door Man and denim delinquent. Crawdaddy! was the first U.S. magazine of rock and roll music criticism. ... Lester Bangs during an interview Leslie Conway Bangs (December 14, 1948 – April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician. ... Greil Marcus (2006) Greil Marcus (born 1945) is an American author, music journalist and cultural critic. ... Ken Barnes is a Writer, producer, broadcaster, musicologist, film historian, film maker, songwriter and music publisher who has worked with such greats as Bing Crosby, Peter Sellers and Fred Astaire. ... Ed Ward (January 2005) Ed Ward (born 1948) is an American writer and radio commenter, known since 1986 as the rock-and-roll historian for NPRs program Fresh Air and one of the original founders of Austins South by Southwest music festival. ... Dave Marsh (born 1950) is an American music critic. ... Mike Saunders, better known as Metal Mike, is a rock critic and the singer of the Californian punk band, the Angry Samoans. ... Richard Meltzer (born May 11, 1945) was one of the earliest rock music critics. ... This article is about the magazine. ... denim delinquent was an influential rock and roll fanzine of seven issues in total, published from 1971 to 1976. ...


In the post-punk era several well-written fanzines emerged that cast an almost academic look at earlier, neglected musical forms, including Mike Stax' Ugly Things, Billy Miller and Miriam Linna's Kicks, Jake Austen's Roctober, Kim Cooper's Scram, P. Edwin Letcher's Garage & Beat, and the UK's Shindig! and Italy's Misty Lane. Ugly Things is a music magazine established in 1983, based in La Mesa, CA. Editor is Mike Stax, born 1962, England. ... Miriam Linna with Pete Best of The Beatles Miriam Linna, since 1986, has run the Brooklyn-based independent record label Norton Records with her husband, singer, producer, and songwriter Billy Miller. ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... A SCRAM is an emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor - though the term has been extended to cover shutdowns of other complex operations, such as server farms and even large model railroads (see Tech Model Railroad Club). ...


Punk fanzines

Main article: Punk zine

The punk subculture in the United Kingdom spearheaded a surge of interest in fanzines as a countercultural alternative to established print media. The first and perhaps still best known UK 'punk zine' was Sniffin' Glue, produced by Deptford punk fan Mark Perry. Sniffin' Glue ran for 12 photocopied issues; the first issue was produced by Perry immediately following (and in response to) the London debut of The Ramones on July 4, 1976. Other UK fanzines included Blam!, Bombsite Fanzine, Burnt Offering, Chainsaw (punk zine), New Crimes, Vague fanzine, Jamming, Love and Molotov Cocktails, New Youth (fanzine), Peroxide (punk zine), ENZK, Juniper beri-beri, Rox , Grim Humour and Cool Notes. Of these, Tony Fletcher's Jamming was the most far reaching, becoming a nationally distributed mainstream magazine for several years before its demise. A punk zine (or punkzine) is a fanzine devoted to punk rock music, bands, or the DIY punk philosophy. ... The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock. ... Sniffin Glue is the name of a famous and pioneering monthly punk fanzine started by Mark Perry in July 1976 and released for about a year. ... Deptford is an area of the London Borough of Lewisham, on the south bank of the River Thames in south-east London. ... Mark Perry is the name of: Mark Perry (impressionist), British impressionist known from 2DTV and Dead Ringers Mark Perry (musician), British fanzine publisher and musician Mark Perry (producer), an American television producer Mark Perry (amateur wrestler), College wrestler at the University of Iowa Mark Perry (English footballer), former footballer with... The Ramones (L-R, Johnny, Tommy, Joey, Dee Dee) on the cover of their debut self-titled album (1976), cementing their place at the dawn of the punk movement. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... BLAM! is a series of CD-ROM art publications released between 1993 and 1998 by the studio of Necro Enema Amalgamated. ... Sacrifice is the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... Chainsaw fanzine no. ... The term Jamming can refer to several things: Jamming as an electronic warfare (EW) - a technique to limit the effectiveness of an opponents communications and/or detection equipment, like Radio Jamming and Radar Jamming E-Mail Jamming- used by electronic political activists or hackers to disable e-mail systems... Rox may refer to the following: ROX Desktop, a Unix Desktop environment based around the ROX-Filer file manager Rox (TV series) is an independently produced TV series RoX, or Safrosoft RoX, a video game similar to Boulder Dash Brockton Rox, a minor league baseball team in Brockton, Massachusetts ROX... Fourth Dimension Records is a British record label, specialising in international underground music. ... The term Jamming can refer to several things: Jamming as an electronic warfare (EW) - a technique to limit the effectiveness of an opponents communications and/or detection equipment, like Radio Jamming and Radar Jamming E-Mail Jamming- used by electronic political activists or hackers to disable e-mail systems...


In the US, Flipside and Slash (fanzine) were important punk zines for the LA scene, both debuting in 1977. Among later titles, Maximum RocknRoll is a major punk zine, with over 250 issues published. As a result, in part, of the popular and commercial resurgence of punk in the late 1980s and after, with the growing popularity of such bands as Sonic Youth, Nirvana, Fugazi, Bikini Kill, Green Day and The Offspring, a number of other punk zines have appeared, such as Punk Planet, Razorcake Magazine, Tail Spins Magazine, Sobriquet Magazine, Profane Existence and Slug and Lettuce. The early American punkzine Search and Destroy eventually became the influential fringe-cultural magazine Re/Search. Some punk fanzines from the 80s, like Threatening Society are experiencing a second life by placing all past content online for free and adding new content. Flipside was a punk rock fanzine published in Los Angeles, California from 1977 - 2001. ... slash is the hottest man alive and the best guitarist that ever lived,,.... BOW DOWN TO THE KING! ... Maximum Rocknroll Issue #1 Maximum Rocknroll (also known as MRR) is a widely distributed, monthly punkzine based in San Francisco, USA. It features interviews, columns, and reviews from international contributors. ... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ... This article is about the American grunge band. ... Fugazi redirects here. ... Bikini Kill was a punk band of the Riot Grrrl movement formed in Olympia, Washington in October of 1990. ... This article is about the band Green Day. ... For other uses, see Offspring (disambiguation). ... Punk Planet is a 16,000 print run punk fanzine, based in Chicago, USA, that focuses most of its energy on looking at punk as a sub-culture rather than as simply some music that teenagers listen to. ... FIFTH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE Razorcake is the magazine arm of a non-profit organization based in Los Angeles, CA (with its sister underground book publisher Gorsky Press as Razorcake/Gorsky Press, Inc. ... The Profane Existence Collective (referred to occasionally as P.E.) is a Minneapolis-based[1] Anarcho-Punk collective. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Search and Destroy, or Seek and Destroy, or simply S&D, refers to a military strategy that became a notorious element of the Vietnam War. ... RE/Search Publications is a United States magazine and book publisher, based in San Francisco, founded and edited by V. Vale in 1980. ... Threatening Society was an alternative music fanzine published out of Philadelphia during the mid to late 90s. ...


In the UK Fracture and Reason To Believe were significant fanzines in the early 2000s, but both ended in late 2003. Though not technically a 'national' fanzine Rancid News has to a limited degree filled the gap left by these two zines. Fracture, was the first free, national, UK based fanzine. ... Rancid News is a relatively young punk fanzine, having only been started in the spring of 2003. ...


Mod fanzines

In the United Kingdom, the 1979 mod revival brought with it a burst of fresh creativity from fanzines, and for the next decade, the youth subculture inspired the production of dozens of independent publications. The most successful of the first wave was Maximum Speed, which successfully captured the frenetic world of a mod revival scene that was propelling bands like Secret Affair, Purple Hearts and The Chords into the UK charts. After the genre had started to go out of fashion with mainstream audiences in 1981, the mod revival scene went underground and successfully reinvented itself through a series of clubs, bands and fanzines that breathed fresh life into the genre, culminating in another burst of creative acceptance in 1985. This success was largely driven by the network of underground fanzines, the most important and far reaching of which were Extraordinary Sensations, produced by future radio DJ Eddie Piller, and Shadows & Reflections, published by future national magazine editor Chris Hunt. The latter in particular pushed back the boundaries of fanzine production, producing glossy, professionally written and printed publications at a time (1983-86) when most fanzines were produced via photocopier and letraset. The mod revival was a music genre and subculture that started in the United Kingdom in 1978 and later spread to other countries (to a lesser degree). ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... Secret Affair was a mod revival band, formed in 1978 and disbanding in 1982, reforming to perform and record in the 2000s. ... Purple Hearts were a British mod revival group. ... The Chords is a named shared by two unrelated musical groups of the 20th Century. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... World Cup Stories by Chris Hunt Chris Hunt is a magazine editor, journalist and author. ...


Local music fanzines

In the UK, there were also fanzines that covered the local music scene in a particular town or city. Mainly prevalent in the 70s and 80s, all music styles were covered, whether the bands were playing rock, punk, metal, futurist, ska or dance. Featured were local gig reviews and articles that were below the radar of the mainstream music press. They were produced using the technology of the time, ie typewriter and letraset. Examples include Bombsite Fanzine (Liverpool 1977), City Fun (Manchester), 1984 and Town Hall Steps (Bolton) and more recently mono (Fanzine), (Bradford) with many more across the country. City Fun was a magazine/fanzine documenting the music scene in Manchester, England between 1977 and 1984. ... Town Hall Steps was a local music fanzine in Bolton from 1981 to 1983. ... Monos logo mono is an underground Bradford music fanzine whose remit is alternative/independent Rock. ...


Role-playing fanzines

Another sizable group of fanzines arose in role-playing game (RPG) fandom, where fanzines allowed people to publish their ideas and views on specific games and their role-playing campaigns. Role-playing fanzines allowed people to communicate in the 1970s and 1980s with complete editorial control in the hands of the players, as opposed to the game publishers. These early RPG fanzines were generally typed, sold in an A5 format (in the UK) and were usually illustrated with abysmal or indifferent artwork. This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... In role-playing games, a campaign is a continuing storyline or set of adventures, typically involving the same characters. ...


A fanzine community developed and was based on sale to a reading public and exchanges by editor/publishers. Many of the pioneers of RPG zinedom got their start in, or remain part of, science fiction fandom. This is also true of the small but still active board game fandom scene, the most prolific subset of which is centered around play-by-mail Diplomacy. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... A shelf of board games. ... Play-by-mail games are games, of any type, played through postal mail or e-mail. ... Diplomacy is a board game, war game, and strategy game set in Europe in the era before the beginning of World War I. From two to seven may play, but the game dynamics are best with seven. ...


Sport

In the UK, most Premier League or Football League football clubs have one or more fanzines which supplement, oppose and complement the club's official magazine or matchday programme. A reasonably priced 'zine has a guaranteed audience, as is the culture of passion in being a football fan. Examples of UK football fanzines include TOOFIF, 4000 Holes and War of the Monster Trucks (a Sheffield Wednesday Fanzine named after a local TV station elected not to show the final scenes of an unlikely cup victory). For other sports leagues which may be referred to by this name, see list of professional sports leagues. ... The Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Theres Only One F in Fulham (TOOFIF) is an independently owned magazine dedicated to Fulham Football Club. ... War of the Monster Trucks is a fanzine for the English football club Sheffield Wednesday. ...


Fanzines are not exclusive to the top tiers of football however, with Northern Counties East League side Scarborough Athletic FC having a fanzine entitled Abandon Chip!, a pun based on both the perilous situation of predecessor club Scarborough FC and that club's sponsors, McCain. There are also a number of fanzines to be found in Ireland of which Shelbourne's Red Inc. is the longest running. The Northern Counties East League is an English association football league that was founded in 1982 by the merger of the former Yorkshire League and Midland Counties League. ... Scarborough Football Club are an English football team currently playing in the Nationwide Conference. ... McCain Foods Limited, a privately owned company established in 1957 by the McCain brothers in Florenceville, New Brunswick, Canada, is the worlds largest producer of french fries and other oven-ready frozen foods. ... Shelbourne Football Club is an Irish football club playing in the FAI National League. ...


And also away from the world of Football there are a number of established fanzines, for example Rugby League has such notable publications as Who The Hell Was St.George Anyway? (the world's longest-running Rugby League fanzine by supporters of Doncaster RLFC) and Scarlet Turkey of National League One club Salford Reds. Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... The Rugby League National Leagues (currently known as the LHF Healthplan National Leagues as a result of sponsorship) form the basis for rugby league competition in Great Britain below Super League. ... Salford City Reds are a British professional rugby league club based in Salford near Manchester. ...


Recent developments

In recent years the traditional paper zine has begun to give way to the webzine (or "e-zine") that is easier to produce and uses the potential of the Internet to reach an ever larger, possibly global, audience. Nonetheless, printed fanzines are still produced, either out of preference for the format or to reach people who don't have convenient Web access. Online versions of approximately 200 science fiction fanzines will be found at Bill Burns' [1]eFanzines web site, along with links to other SF fanzine sites. A Webzine is an ezine hosted on the World Wide Web rather than in print. ... A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ... A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ...


See also

Alt. ... An Amateur Press Association or APA is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group. ... A small number of British small press comics for sale at the Caption convention, 2005 British small press comics is a term used to describe comic books self-published by cartoonists and comic book creators within the UK. It also serves to describe the loose community of creators, publishers and... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Dōjinshi ) are self-published Japanese or English works, usually manga or novels. ... Fandom (from the noun fan and the affix -dom, as in kingdom, dukedom, etc. ... Fanposter (concatenated noun consisting of Fan and Poster) refers to a community of Fans (supporter) sharing common interests in a particular sport, hobby or genre who want to express their relation within this community by placing themselves on a poster (map) in close proximity. ... Hugo Award for Best Fanzine. ... Hugo Award for Best Semiprozine. ... This is a list of zine distros. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... Minicomics Co-Ops: The United Fanzine Organization, or UFO, is a co-op of minicomic creators that has existed since about 1968. ... A minicomic is a little comic that comes in the package of a figure. ... For other uses, see Print. ... For other uses, see Publishing (disambiguation). ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... A weblog (now more commonly known as a blog) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally, but not always, in reverse chronological order). ... ZineWiki is an open-source online encyclopedia devoted to zines and independent media. ...

References

  1. ^ Moskowitz, Sam; Joe Sanders (1994). "The Origins of Science Fiction Fandom: A Reconstruction". Science Fiction Fandom: 17-36, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. 
  • Schelly, Bill. The Golden Age of Comic Fandom. Introduction by Roy Thomas. Seattle, WA: Hamster Press, 1995.
  • Lupoff, Dick [Richard A.] and Don Thompson, eds. All in Color for a Dime. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1970.

Sam Moskowitz (1920-1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in science fiction and, later, a writer. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Indie, an abbreviation of independent, is a term regarding a trend seen in music, film, business and subculture originating in the late 20th century. ... For the publisher Alternative Comics, see Alternative Comics (publisher). ... An Amateur Press Association or APA is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group. ... The Dun Emer Press in 1903 with Elizabeth Yeats working the hand press Small press is a term often used to describe publishers who typically specialize in genre fiction, or limited edition books or magazines. ... A minicomic is a small, creator-published comic book, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. ... Minicomics Co-Ops: The United Fanzine Organization, or UFO, is a co-op of minicomic creators that has existed since about 1968. ... In popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels and an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing. ... An independent record label is variously described as a record label operating without the funding (or outside the organizations) of the major record labels, and/or a label that subscribes to indie philosophies such as DIY and anti-corporate art. ... An independent film, or indie film, is a film that is produced outside of the studio system. ... Home Movies is a dialogue-driven animated series about 8-year-old Brendon Small (voiced by the creator, head writer, and lead musician of Home Movies Brendon Small), who makes films with his friends, Melissa and Jason, in his spare time. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An independent station is a television station that is not affiliated with any network. ... Grindhouse redirects here. ... The double feature, also known as a double bill, was a motion picture industry phenomenon in which theatre managers would exhibit two films for the price of one, supplanting an earlier format in which one feature film and various short subject reels would be shown. ... The King of the Bs, Roger Corman, produced and directed The Raven (1963) for American International Pictures. ... This is a history of the early decades of the B movie, from its roots in the silent era through Hollywoods Golden Age of the 1930s and 1940s. ... This is a history of B movies in the 1950s. ... This is a history of B movies in the 1960s and 1970s. ... This is a history of B movies from the 1980s to the present. ... Z-movie (or Grade-Z movie) is a term applied to films with an extremely low budget and a miserable quality. ... A classic midnight movie in every sense of the term, Tod Brownings Freaks (1932) is the sort of (then) obscure horror film shown on late-night TV beginning in the 1950s; in the 1970s and early 1980s it was a staple of midnight screenings at theaters around the U... Software cracking is the modification of software to remove protection methods: copy prevention, trial/demo version, serial number, hardware key, CD check or software annoyances like nag screens and adware. ... The scene (often capitalised) is a term used by people belonging to various communities (social groups) dealing with software to describe the more extensive community that they collectively belong to. ... Homebrew is a term frequently applied only to video games that are produced by consumers on proprietary game platforms; in other words, game platforms that are not typically user-programmable, or use proprietary hardware for storage. ... An amateur adventure game is a freeware computer game belonging to the adventure genre. ... An indie role-playing game is a role-playing game published outside of traditional, mainstream means. ... -1... Independent soda is soft drink generally made by smaller privately run businesses or smaller corporations who use alternative marketing strategies to promote their product. ... For other meanings, see Homebrew. ... The indie design movement is made up of independent designers, artists and craftspeople who design and make a wide array of products without being part of large, industrialized businesses. ...

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