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Fantasy

Fantasy media Fantasy is a genre of art, literature, film, television, and music that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of either plot, theme, setting, or all three. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Genre studies Fantastic art is a loosely defined art genre. ... Many anime TV series, movies, and OAVs fall into the fantasy genre. ... Fantasy Art by Boris Vallejo Fantasy Art by George Grie Fantasy Art by Michael Parkes Fantasy Art by Heinz Zander Fantasy art is a genre of art that depicts magical or other supernatural themes, ideas, creatures or settings. ... The definition of a fantasy author is somewhat diffuse, and a matter of opinion - Jules Verne considered H. G. Wells to be a fantasy author - and there is considerable overlap with science fiction authors and horror fiction authors. ... A number of fantasy comics abound on the web. ... Fantastic magazine Fantasy fiction magazines are magazines which publish fantasy fiction primarily, as opposed to other sorts of fiction, or fantasy comics or other forms of visual art (though most have published poetry, illustration and other art, and some have published at least some kinds of cartoons). ... Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fantasy television is a genre of television featuring elements of the fantastic, often including magic, supernatural forces, or exotic fantasy worlds. ...

Categories The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The fantasy genre has spawned many new subgenres with no clear counterparts in the myths or folklore upon which the tradition of fantasy storytelling is based, although inspiration from mythology and folklore remains a consistent theme. ... Fantastique is a French term for a literary and cinematic genre that overlaps with parts of science fiction, horror and fantasy. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagners Die Walküre: the magic sword, such as Nothung, is a common fantasy trope. ... This article is about the word, for other meanings see Quest (disambiguation) A quest is a journey towards a goal with great meaning and is used in mythology and literature as a plot device. ... The term, magic item can be used to refer to several historical and fictional topics: // Historical In a historical context, magic items are those artifacts which have been reputed to contain magical properties such as the Holy Grail. ... Many fantasy stories and worlds call their main sapient humanoid species races rather than species. ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ... A legendary creature is a mythological or folkloric creature (often known as fabulous creatures in historical literature). ... Lovecraftian horror is a sub-genre of horror fiction which emphasizes the psychological horror of the unknown (in some cases, unknowable) over gore or other elements of shock, which may still be present. ... The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes his garden bear fruit and flowers in winter. ... Magic Circle by John William Waterhouse Magic in fiction is the endowing of fictional characters or objects with magical powers. ... Tolkienology is a term used by Tolkien fans to describe the study of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien treating Middle-earth as a real world and using academic techniques to determine if chronicler Tolkien has left enough clues to come to some fitting conclusions. ...

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Fantasy is a genre that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting. The genre is usually associated with the overall look, feel and themes of the European Middle Ages (including architecture, dress and technology), while the actual setting is often a fictional plane or planet where magic and magical beings are commonplace. For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events, objects, people, and physical phenomena) through mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... In literature, a plot is all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular artistic or emotional effect. ... Setting is a term in literature and drama usually referring to the time and location in which a story takes place. ... In literature, a theme is a broad idea in a story, or a message or lesson conveyed by a work. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Early medieval European dress, from about 400 to 1100, changed very gradually. ... Medieval treadwheel crane Reading Saint Peter with eyeglasses (1466) During the 12th and 13th centuries, medieval Europe saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. ... In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, supraphysical world, or egg) is conceived as a subtle region of space (and/or consciousness) beyond, but permeating, the known physical universe (or a portion of the physical...


Fantasy is generally distinguished from science fiction and horror by the expectation that it steers clear of technological and macabre themes, respectively, though there is a great deal of overlap between the three (collectively known as speculative fiction). Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Horror can mean several things: Horror (emotion) Horror fiction Horror film This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... For other uses, see Macabre (disambiguation). ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In its broadest sense, fantasy comprises works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians, from ancient myths and legends to many recent works embraced by a wide audience today. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Traits of fantasy

The identifying traits of fantasy are the inclusion of fantastic elements in a self-coherent (internally consistent) setting.[1] Within such a structure, any location of the fantastical element is possible: it may be hidden in, or leak into the apparently real world setting, it may draw the characters into a world with such elements, or it may occur entirely in a fantasy world setting, where such elements are part of the world.[2] Consistency has three technical meanings: In mathematics and logic, as well as in theoretical physics, it refers to the proposition that a formal theory or a physical theory contains no contradictions. ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ...


Within a given work, the elements must not only obey rules, but for plot reasons, must also contain limits to allow both the heroes and the villains means to fight; magical elements must come with prices, or the story would become unstructured.[3]


American fantasy, starting with the stories chosen by John W. Campbell, Jr. for the magazine Unknown, is often characterized by internal logic. That is, the events in the story are impossible, but follow "laws" of magic, and have a setting that is internally consistent.[4] John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Sinister Barrier by Eric Frank Russell Unknown (also known as Unknown Worlds) was a pulp fantasy magazine, edited by John W. Campbell, that was published from 1939 to 1943. ...


History

For more details on this topic, see History of fantasy.
See also: Sources of fantasy
Fairy tales and legends, such as Dobrynya Nikitich's rescue of Zabava Putyatichna from the dragon Gorynych, have been an important source for fantasy
Fairy tales and legends, such as Dobrynya Nikitich's rescue of Zabava Putyatichna from the dragon Gorynych, have been an important source for fantasy

Beginning perhaps with the Epic of Gilgamesh and the earliest written documents known to humankind, mythic and other elements that would eventually come to define fantasy and its various subgenres have been a part of some of the grandest and most celebrated works of literature. From The Odyssey to Beowulf, from the Mahabharata to The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, from the Ramayana to the Journey to the West, and from the Arthurian legend and medieval romance to the epic poetry of the Divine Comedy, fantastical adventures featuring brave heroes and heroines, deadly monsters, and secret arcane realms have inspired many audiences. In this sense, the history of fantasy and the history of literature are inextricably intertwined. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Dobryna. ... Image File history File links Dobryna. ... Bogatyrs (1898) by Viktor Vasnetsov Alongside Alyosha Popovich and Ilya Muromets, is a bogatyr (i. ... Dobrynya Nikitch rescues Princess Zabava from Zmey Gorynych, by Ivan Bilibin. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the epic poem. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: Sūn Wùkōng, Xuánzàng, Zhū Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... This article is about the type of character. ... This article is about the legendary creature. ... Esotericism refers to knowledge suitable only for the advanced, privileged, or initiated, as opposed to exoteric knowledge, which is public. ... A Realm is a primary synonym for a world usually other than our own. ...

Many works are unclear as to the belief of the authors in the marvels they contain, as in the enchanted garden from the Decameron
Many works are unclear as to the belief of the authors in the marvels they contain, as in the enchanted garden from the Decameron

There are many works where the boundary between fantasy and other works is not clear; the question of whether the writers believed in the possibilities of the marvels in A Midsummer Night's Dream or Sir Gawain and the Green Knight makes it difficult to distinguish when fantasy, in its modern sense, first began.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x800, 284 KB) Summary Title: The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo Artist: Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927) Technique: watercolour and bodycolour on paper Size: 72 x 103 cm. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x800, 284 KB) Summary Title: The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo Artist: Marie Spartali Stillman (1844-1927) Technique: watercolour and bodycolour on paper Size: 72 x 103 cm. ... The Decameron is a collection of novellas that was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1353. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ...


Although pre-dated by John Ruskin's The King of the Golden River (1841), the history of modern fantasy literature is usually said to begin with George MacDonald, the Scottish author of such novels as The Princess and the Goblin and Phantastes (1858), the latter of which is widely considered to be the first fantasy novel ever written for adults. MacDonald was a major influence on both J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The other major fantasy author of this era was William Morris, a popular English poet who wrote several novels in the latter part of the century, including The Well at the World's End. Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... The King of the Golden River or The Black Brothers: A Legend of Stiria by John Ruskin was originally written for the twelve year old Effie Gray in 1842, whom Ruskin later married. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... The Princess and the Goblin is a childrens fantasy novel by George MacDonald. ... Phantastes, A Faerie Romance for Men and Women is an 1858 fantasy novel written by George MacDonald. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ...


Despite MacDonald's future influence with At the Back of the North Wind (1871), and Morris's popularity with his contemporaries, it wasn't until the turn of the century that fantasy fiction began to reach a large audience. Edward Plunkett, better known as Lord Dunsany, established the genre's popularity in both the novel and the short story form. Many popular mainstream authors also began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling and Edgar Rice Burroughs. These authors, along with Abraham Merritt, established what was known as the "lost world" sub-genre, which was the most popular form of fantasy in the early decades of the 20th century, although several classic children's fantasies, such as Peter Pan and The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, were also published around this time. Best known as Lord Dunsany, Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany (July 24, 1878–October 25, 1957) was an Irish writer and dramatist notable for his work in fantasy and horror. ... H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... This article is about the British author. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... Abraham Merritt (January 20, 1884-August 21, 1943) was an American editor and author of works of fantastic fiction. ... This article is about the play by J.M. Barrie. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ...


Indeed, juvenile fantasy was considered more acceptable than fantasy intended for adults, with the effect that writers who wished to write fantasy had to fit their work in a work for children.[6] Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote many early works verging on fantasy, but in A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, intended for children, wrote fantasy.[7] For many years, this and successes such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), created the circular effect that all fantasy works, even the later The Lord of the Rings, were therefore classified as children's literature. In juvenile fantasy, protagonists are usually children or teens who have unique abilities, gifts, possessions or even allies that allow them to face powerful adversaries. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys (1852) is a book by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne. ...

In 1923 the first all-fantasy fiction magazine, Weird Tales, was created. Many other similar magazines eventually followed, most noticeably The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction. The pulp magazine format was at the height of its popularity at this time and was instrumental in bringing fantasy fiction to a wide audience in both the U.S. and Britain. Such magazines were also instrumental in the rise of science fiction, and it was at this time the two genres began to be associated with each other. This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ... F&SF April 1971, special Poul Anderson issue. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


By 1950 "sword and sorcery" fiction had begun to find a wide audience, with the success of Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarian and Fritz Leiber's Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser stories.[8] However, it was the advent of high fantasy, and most of all the popularity of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings in the late 1960s, that allowed fantasy to truly enter the mainstream.[9] Several other series, such as C. S. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia and Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea books, helped cement the genre's popularity. This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Fritz Leiber portrait by Ed Emshwiller on July 1969 special issue devoted to Leiber. ... Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser are two seminal sword-and-sorcery heroes created by Fritz Leiber (1910–1992). ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C. S. Lewis. ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsələ ˌkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... Cover to 1991 Bantam Books paperback edition of A Wizard of Earthsea, illustrated by John Jude Palencar Earthsea is a fictional realm created by Ursula K. Le Guin for her short story The Word of Unbinding, published in 1964, but that became more famous in her novel A Wizard of...


The popularity of the fantasy genre has continued to increase in the 21st century, as evidenced by the best-selling status of J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter books. Several fantasy film adaptations have achieved blockbuster status, most notably The Lord of the Rings film trilogy directed by Peter Jackson. Joanne Jo Murray, née Rowling OBE[1] (born 31 July 1965),[2] who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[3] is a British writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ...


Media

For more details on this topic, see fantasy art, fantasy literature, fantasy film, and fantasy television.

Fantasy is a popular genre, having found a home for itself in almost every medium. While fantasy art and recently fantasy films have been increasingly popular, it is fantasy literature which has always been the genre's primary medium. Fantasy Art by Boris Vallejo Fantasy Art by George Grie Fantasy Art by Michael Parkes Fantasy Art by Heinz Zander Fantasy art is a genre of art that depicts magical or other supernatural themes, ideas, creatures or settings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. ... Fantasy television is a genre of television featuring elements of the fantastic, often including magic, supernatural forces, or exotic fantasy worlds. ...


Fantasy role-playing games cross several different media. The "pen & paper" role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons was the first and is arguably the most successful and influential, though the pseudo-science fantasy role-playing game series Final Fantasy has been an icon of the console role-playing game genre. This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... This article is about the role-playing game. ... Science fantasy is a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements. ... This article is about the Final Fantasy franchise. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Subgenres

For more details on this topic, see Fantasy subgenres.

Modern fantasy, including early modern fantasy, has also spawned many new subgenres with no clear counterpart in mythology or folklore, although inspiration from mythology and folklore remains a consistent theme. Fantasy subgenres are numerous and diverse, frequently overlapping with other forms of speculative fiction in almost every medium in which they are produced. Noteworthy in this regard are the science fantasy and dark fantasy subgenres, which the fantasy genre shares with science fiction and horror, respectively. The fantasy genre has spawned many new subgenres with no clear counterparts in the myths or folklore upon which the tradition of fantasy storytelling is based, although inspiration from mythology and folklore remains a consistent theme. ... Science fantasy is a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements. ... Dark fantasy is a subgenre that combines elements of fantasy, including marvelous abilities, with those of horror. ...


Subculture

Professionals such as publishers, editors, authors, artists, and scholars within the fantasy genre get together yearly at the World Fantasy Convention. The World Fantasy Awards are presented at the convention. The first WFC was held in 1975, and it has occurred every year since. The convention is held at a different city each year. The World Fantasy Convention is an annual gathering of professionals, collectors, and others interested in the field of fantasy. ... First awarded in 1975, the World Fantasy Award is handed out annually at the World Fantasy Convention to recognize outstanding achievement in the field of fantasy. ...


Additionally, many science fiction conventions, such as Florida's FX Show or MegaCon, also cater to fantasy and horror fans; and anime conventions, such as JACON or Anime Expo frequently feature showings of fantasy, science fantasy, and dark fantasy series and films, such as Cardcaptor Sakura (fantasy), Sailor Moon (science fantasy), xxxHolic (dark fantasy), and Spirited Away (fantasy). Many science fiction/fantasy and anime conventions also strongly feature or cater to one or more of the several subcultures within the main subcultures, including the cosplay subculture (in which people make and/or wear costumes based on existing or self-created characters, sometimes also acting out skits or plays as well), the fan fiction subculture, and the fan vid or AMV subculture, as well as the large internet subculture devoted to reading and writing prose fiction and/or doujinshi in or related to those genres. Megacon is a large convention that caters to the anime, sci-fi, comic, and fantasy community, occurring February 24 - February 26, 2005 at the Orange County Convention Center. ... Animé redirects here. ... The Japanese Animation Club of Orlando (JACO) serves as the officially sanctioned anime club for the University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, Florida (Union Park campus). ... Anime Expo, abbreviated AX, is an anime convention that usually takes place on the July 4th weekend for 4 days each year in Southern California. ... Demographic Shōjo Magazine Nakayoshi Original run – Volumes 12 TV anime Director Morio Asaka Studio Madhouse Licensor Bandai Visual Geneon Nelvana Network NHK, Animax Original run – Episodes 70 Animated film: Director Morio Asaka Composer Takayuki Negishi Studio Madhouse Licensor Bandai Visual Geneon Nelvana Released August 21, 1999 Runtime 79 min. ... For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character) and for the first story arc, see Dark Kingdom arc. ... holic redirects here. ... Spirited Away , literally Sen and Chihiros Spiriting Away) is an Academy Award winning 2001 film by the Japanese anime studio Studio Ghibli, written and directed by famed animator Hayao Miyazaki. ... Cosplayers Cosplay ), a portmanteau of the English words costume and play, is a Japanese subculture centered on dressing as characters from manga, anime, tokusatsu, and video games, and, less commonly, Japanese live action television shows, fantasy movies, Japanese pop music bands, Visual Kei, fantasy music stories (such as stories by... Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ... An anime music video (abbreviated AMV) is a music video consisting of clips from one or more anime series or movies set to songs; the term usually refers to fan-made unofficial videos. ... Dōjinshi (; also romanized as doujinshi) are self-published Japanese works, including but not limited to comic books (manga), novels, fan guides, art collections, and games. ...


See also

Look up fantasy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A constructed world or conworld is a fictional world, often created for a novel, video game, or role-playing game, but sometimes for its own sake. ... This partial list of fantasy authors, perhaps unsurprisingly, contains many overlaps with the list of science fiction authors. ... This is a partial list of fictional fantasy worlds, according to the medium they appear in: // Alagaësia - Christopher Paolini novels Amber - Roger Zelaznys The Chronicles of Amber novels Arda - J.R.R. Tolkien novels Barsoom – Edgar Rice Burroughs novels Bas-Lag – China Miéville novels Calaspia - Insanity Saga... Some notable fantasy novels and novel series, in alphabetical order by title: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  - External links Abhorsen Trilogy by Garth Nix namely... This list contains a variety of examples of high fantasy fiction. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Online general-interest book databases are bibliographic databases intended primarily for general rather than academic use, and are often constructed in a way resembling social networking sites. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Supernatural fiction is a classification of literature used to describe fiction exploiting or requiring as plot devices or themes some contradictions of the commonplace natural world and materialist assumptions about it. ... There are many elements that show up throughout the fantasy genre in different guises. ... The fantasy genre has spawned many new subgenres with no clear counterparts in the myths or folklore upon which the tradition of fantasy storytelling is based, although inspiration from mythology and folklore remains a consistent theme. ...

References

  1. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Fantasy", p 338 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  2. ^ Jane Langton, "The Weak Place in the Cloth" p163-180, Fantasists on Fantasy, ed. Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski, ISBN 0-380-86553-X
  3. ^ Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p 143, ISBN 0-253-35665-2
  4. ^ Diana Waggoner, The Hills of Faraway: A Guide to Fantasy, p 10, 0-689-10846-X
  5. ^ Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p 14, ISBN 0-253-35665-2
  6. ^ C.S. Lewis, "On Juvenile Tastes", p 41, Of Other Worlds: Essays and Stories, ISBN 0-15-667897-7
  7. ^ Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p 62, ISBN 0-253-35665-2
  8. ^ L. Sprague de Camp, Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy, p 135 ISBN 0-87054-076-9
  9. ^ Jane Yolen, "Introduction" p vii-viii After the King: Stories in Honor of J.R.R. Tolkien, ed, Martin H. Greenberg, ISBN 0-312-85175-8

Paul Le Page Barnett (1949 - ) is a writer and editor of science fiction, poetry and non-fiction, who usually writes as John Grant or occasionally as Eve Devereux. He has published three original novels, as well as novels in the Judge Dredd and Legends of Lone Wolf series; has edited... John [Frederick] Clute is a Canadian born author and critic who lives in Britain. ... Cover art The Encyclopedia of Fantasy is a reference work on fantasy, edited by John Clute and John Grant. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers by L. Sprague de Camp, Arkham House, 1976 Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: the Makers of Heroic Fantasy is a 1976 work of collective biography on the formative authors of the heroic fantasy genre by L. Sprague de Camp, published by Arkham House. ...

External links


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