FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fan (implement)
Non-electric fan
Non-electric fan
Household Electric Fan
Household Electric Fan

A fan is a device used to induce airflow and generally made from broad, flat surfaces which revolve or oscillate. The most common applications of fans are for creature comfort, ventilation, or gaseous transport for industrial purposes. Leaves or flat objects, waved to produce a more comfortable atmosphere, are the simplest kind of fan. Image File history File links Derived from public domain images featured at: http://commons. ... Fan may refer to the following: Fan (aficionado) (the bracketed word being the Spanish translation), someone who has an intense liking of a sporting. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x1520, 509 KB) Summary DESCRIPTION: Non-electric fan of Asian origin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x1520, 509 KB) Summary DESCRIPTION: Non-electric fan of Asian origin. ... Download high resolution version (714x1062, 139 KB)Large image of electric household fan. ... Download high resolution version (714x1062, 139 KB)Large image of electric household fan. ... Return inlet (left)Supply outlet (right). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Typical applications include ornamental decorations, climate control, cooling systems, personal wind-generation (e.g., an electric table fan), ventilation (e.g., an exhaust fan), winnowing (e.g., separating chaff of cereal grains), removing dust (e.g., sucking as in a vacuum cleaner), drying (usually in addition to heat) and to provide draft for a fire. This article is about cereals in general. ... After just three years of use, dust has blocked this laptop heat sink, making the computer unusable Dust is a general name for minute solid particles with diameters less than 500 micrometers (otherwise, please see sand or granulates and, more generally, finely divided matter). ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... Regular vacuum cleaner for home use. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, and releases energy in varying intensities. ...


It is common to use the fan as an air-freshener. Tieing fabric softner to the end of the fan is common in homes and businesses.

Contents

History

Etymology

Old English fann referred to a basket or shovel for winnowing. It was a loan from Latin vannus, with the same meaning, derived from ventus "wind" or a related root (cf. vates). In the sense of "device for moving air" the word is first attested 1390, the hand-held version is first recorded in 1555. Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Vates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ...


Ancient

19th century depiction of ancient Egyptian fans and other items.
19th century depiction of ancient Egyptian fans and other items.

Fan history stretches back thousands of years. Since antiquity, fans have possessed a dual function – a status symbol and a useful ornament. In the course of their development, fans have been made of a variety of materials and have included decorative artwork. The simplest fans are leaves or flat objects, waved to produce a cooler atmosphere. These rigid or folding hand-held implements have been used for cooling, for air circulation, as a ceremonial device, and as a sartorial accessory throughout the world from ancient times. They are still widely used. Download high resolution version (471x736, 513 KB)[Egyptian lotus motifs, fans, boats, and paddles. ... Download high resolution version (471x736, 513 KB)[Egyptian lotus motifs, fans, boats, and paddles. ... A status symbol is something, usually an expensive or rare object, that indicates a high social status for its owner. ...


The earliest known fans are called 'screen fans' or 'fixed leaf fans'. These were manipulated by hand to cool the body, to produce a breeze, and to ward off insects. Such early fans usually took the form of palm leaves. Some of the earliest known fans have come from Egyptian tombs. Early Assyria and Egypt employed slaves and servants to manipulate the fan. In Egyptian reliefs, fans were of the rigid type. Tutankhamum's tomb possessed gold fans with ostrich feathers, matching depictions on tomb walls. Long-handled, disk-shaped fans were carried by attendants in ancient times and were associated with regal and religious ceremonies. They had handles or sticks attached to a rigid leaf or to feathers. Plumage of birds was used in fans, such as those of the Egyptians and Native American Indians, that had both practical and ceremonial uses. Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (also known as Palmae or Palmaceae), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order Arecales. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Slave redirects here. ... A servant is a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


In the ancient Americas, the Aztec, Maya, and South American cultures used bird feathers in their fans. Among the Aztec fans were used to depict merchants in illustrations of trades. The use of various feather types had a religious connotation. The Paracas people of South America (modern Peru) have left numerous examples of ancient feather fans among their mummies. In India, the Hindi term for a fan is 'pankha' (a derivative of "a feather" or "a bird's wing"). Pictorial evidence records that the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Romans used fans as cooling and ceremonial devices. In Greece, linen was stretched over leaf-shaped frames. In Rome, gilded and painted wooden fans were used. Roman ladies throughout the empire used circular fans. Chinese sources link the fan with mythical and historical characters. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of central México. ... The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Asia

In China, screen fans were used throughout society. The earliest known Chinese fans are a pair of woven bamboo side-mounted fans from the 2nd century BC. The Chinese character for "fan" (扇) is etymologically derived from a picture of feathers under a roof. The Chinese fixed fan, pien-mien, means 'to agitate the air'. Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... 漢字 / 汉字 Chinese character in Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja, Hán Tá»±. Red in Simplified Chinese. ...

19th century depiction of a Japanese folding fan.
19th century depiction of a Japanese folding fan.
Hokusai's Five Fans.
Hokusai's Five Fans.

Fans were part of the social status for the Chinese people. A particular status and gender would accord a specific type of fan to an individual. The folding fan was invented in Japan in the 8th century and taken to China in the 9th century. The Akomeogi (or Japanese folding fan; 衵扇; Hiôgi) originated in the 6th century. These were fans held by aristocrats of the Heian period when formally dressed. They were made by tying thin stripes of hinoki (or Japanese cypress) together with thread. The number of strips of wood differed according to the person's rank. They are used today by Shinto priests in formal costume and in the formal costume of the Japanese court (they can be seen used by the Emperor and Empress during coronation and marriage) and are brightly painted with long tassels. The Chinese dancing fan was developed in the 7th century. The Chinese form of the hand fan was a row of feathers mounted in the end of a handle. [Fan with maple leaves] SUMMARY: Ukiyo-e print book wrapper (fukuro). ... [Fan with maple leaves] SUMMARY: Ukiyo-e print book wrapper (fukuro). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2534x1814, 1457 KB) Source: http://visipix. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2534x1814, 1457 KB) Source: http://visipix. ... Katsushika Hokusai, (葛飾北斎), (1760—1849[1]), was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period . ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Binomial name Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


In China, the folding fan came into fashion during the Ming dynasty between the years of 1368 and 1644, and Hangzhou was a center of folding fan production. The Mai Ogi (or Chinese dancing fan) has ten sticks and a thick paper mount showing the family crest. Chinese painters crafted many fan decoration designs. The slats, of ivory, bone, mica, mother of pearl, sandalwood, or tortoise shell, were carved and covered with paper or fabric. Folding fans have "montures" which are the sticks and guards. The leaves are usually painted by craftsman. Social significance was attached to the fan in the Far East. The management of the fan became a highly regarded feminine art. The function and employment of the fan reached its high point of social significance (fans were even used as a weapon - called the iron fan, or tiě shān in Chinese, tessen in Japanese). Simple Japanese paper fans are sometimes known as "harisens". In Japanese current pop culture, Harisens are featured frequently in animation and graphic novels as weapons. For other uses, see Ming. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city in the Peoples Republic of China and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Strand of akoya pearls from China Pearl farm, Seram, Indonesia A pearl is a hard, rounded object produced by certain animals, primarily mollusks such as pearl oysters. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Tortoiseshell is a material that was widely used in the 1960s and 70s to make things from combs, to sunglasses, to guitar picks. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ... A tessen (iron fan), on display in Iwakuni Castle, Japan A number of war fans were used in Japanese feudal warfare, of varying size and material, for different purposes. ... Tessen(鉄扇) (literally meaning iron fan) were constructed of either an actual folding fan with metal ribs or a non-folding solid bar of either iron or wood and shaped like a folded fan. ... Tessen(鉄扇) (literally meaning iron fan) were constructed of either an actual folding fan with metal ribs or a non-folding solid bar of either iron or wood and shaped like a folded fan. ...


Printed fan leaves and painted fans are done on a paper ground. The paper was originally hand made and displayed the characteristic watermarks. Machine made paper fans, introduced in the 19th century, are smoother with an even texture. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Folding fans (扇子 Japanese "sensu", Chinese: "shān zi";) continue to be important cultural symbols and popular tourist souvenirs in East Asia.


See also: Chinese paper art Chinese paper art In a culture that invented paper back in the 1st century AD (Cai Lun, during the Han Dynasty), Chinese paper arts have existed for thousands of years, spanning from painted or pattern cut paper fans, lanterns, to decorative designs and structures accomplished by folding and/or cutting. ...


Europe

Depiction of an 18th century folding fan with French design patterns.
Depiction of an 18th century folding fan with French design patterns.

In Europe, during the Middle Ages, the fan was absent. The West's earliest fan is a flabellum (or ceremonial fan), which dates to the 6th century. Hand fans were reintroduced to Europe in the 13th century and 14th century. Fans from the Middle East were brought back by Crusaders. In the 15th century, Portuguese traders brought fans to Europe from China and Japan. Fans became generally popular. [French design patterns. ... [French design patterns. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


In the 1600s the folding fan, introduced from China, became popular in Europe. These fans are particularly well displayed in the portraits of the high-born women of the era. Queen Elizabeth 1st of England can be seen to carry both folding fans decorated with pom poms on their guardsticks as well as the older style rigid fan, usually decorated with feathers and jewels. These rigid style fans often hung from the skirts of ladies, but of the fans of this era it is only the more exotic folding ones which have survived. Those folding fans of the 15th century to found in museums today have either leather leaves with cut out designs forming a lace-like design or a more rigid leaf with inlays of more exotic materials like mica. One of the characteristics of these fans is the rather crude bone or ivory sticks and they way the leather leaves are often slotted onto the sticks rather than glued as with later folding fans. However, despite the relative crude methods of construction folding fans were at this era high status, exotic items on par with elaborate gloves as gifts to royalty. November 5, 1605 â€” The Gunpowder Plot to blow up the British Parliament. ...


In the 17th century the rigid fan which was seen in portraits of the previous century had fallen out of favour as folding fans gained dominance in Europe. Fans started to display well painted leaves, often with a religious or classical subject. The reverse side of these early fans also started to display elaborate flower designs. The sticks are often plain ivory or tortoiseshell, sometimes inlaid with gold or silver pique work. The way the sticks sit close to each other, often with little or no space between them is one of the distinguishing characteristics of fans of this era. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


In 1685 the Edict of Nantes was revoked in France. This caused large scale immigration from France to the surrounding Protestant countries (such as England) of many fan craftsman. This dispersion in skill is reflected in the growing quality of many fans from these non-French countries after this date. Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ...


In the 18th century, fans reached a high degree of artistry and were being made throughout Europe often by specialised craftsmen, either in leaves or sticks. Folded fans of lace, silk, or parchment were decorated and painted by artists. Fans were also imported from China by the East India Companies at this time. Around the middle 1700s, inventors started designing mechanical fans. Wind-up fans (similar to wind-up clocks) were popular in the 1700s. In the 19th century in the West, European fashion caused fan decoration and size to vary. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Lace appliqué and bow at the bust-line of a nightgown. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ...


It has been said that in the courts of England, Spain and elsewhere fans were used in a more or less secret, unspoken code of messages. These fan languages were a way to cope with the restricting social etiquette. But in fact this language is a marketing tip used by fan makers like Duvelleroy in London.


Mechanical development

The first recorded mechanical fan was the punkah fan used in the Middle East in the 1500s. It was invented by a man named Zachary Zoia. It had a canvas covered frame that was suspended from the ceiling. Servants, known as punkah wallahs, pulled a rope connected to the frame to move the fan back and forth. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ...

Patent drawing for a Fan Moved by Mechanism, 27 November 1830.
Patent drawing for a Fan Moved by Mechanism, 27 November 1830.

The Industrial Revolution in the late 1800s introduced belt-driven fans powered by factory waterwheels. Attaching wooden or metal blades to shafts overhead that were used to drive the machinery, the first industrial fans were developed. One of the first workable mechanical fans was built by A.A. Sablukov in 1832. He called his invention, a kind of a centrifugal fan, an Air Pump. Centrifugal fans were successfully tested inside coal mines and factories in 1832-1834. When Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla introduced electrical power in the late 1800s and early 1900s for the public, the personal electrical fan was introduced. Between 1882 and 1886, Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler developed the two-bladed desk fan, a type of personal electric fan. It was commercially marketed by the American firm Crocker & Curtis electric motor company. In 1882, Philip H. Diehl introduced the electric ceiling fan. Diehl is considered the father of the modern electric fan. In the late 1800s, electric fans were used only in commercial establishments or in well-to-do households. Heat-convection fans fueled by alcohol, oil, or kerosene were common around the turn of the 20th century. Download high resolution version (1200x981, 849 KB)Patent drawing of Fan Moved by Mechanism, 11/27/1830. ... Download high resolution version (1200x981, 849 KB)Patent drawing of Fan Moved by Mechanism, 11/27/1830. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A Watt steam engine. ... Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1805 - 1815). ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1805 - 1815). ... // Public flight demonstration of an airplane by Alberto Santos-Dumont in Paris, November 12, 1906. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Schuyler Skaats Wheeler (May 17, 1860 – April 20, 1923) was an American engineer who invented the two-blade electric fan at age 22. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1805 - 1815). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In the 1920s, industrial advances allowed steel to be mass-produced in different shapes, bringing fan prices down and allowing more homeowners to afford them. In the 1930s, the first art deco fan was designed. Before this fan, called the Silver Swan, most household fans were fairly plain. In the 1950s, fans were manufactured in colors that were bright and eye catching. Central air conditioning in the 1960s brought an end to the golden age of the electric fan. In the 1970s, Victorian-style ceiling fans became popular. The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...


In the twentieth century, fans have become utilitarian. During the 2000s, fan aesthetics have become a concern to fan buyers. The fan is part of everyday life in the Far East, Japan, and Spain (among other places). Electric fans have been largely replaced by air conditioners in households and offices, even though electric fans consume much less energy than air conditioners. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...


Mechanical devices

Large fan used to blow fresh air into a Virginia coal mine.
Large fan used to blow fresh air into a Virginia coal mine.

Mechanically, a fan can be any revolving vane or vanes used for producing currents of air. Fans produce air flows with high volume and low pressure, as opposed to a gas compressor which produces high pressures at a comparatively low volume. Fans are useful for moving large quantities of air, which is suited for applications such as winnowing grain or blowing a fire, cooling and ventilation purposes, and in conjunction with a heat source for heating and drying. A fan blade will often rotate when exposed to an air stream, and devices that take advantage of this, such as anemometers and wind turbines often have designs similar to that of a fan. LARGE FAN EQUIPMENT USED TO BLOW FRESH AIR INTO VIRGINIA-POCAHONTAS COAL COMPANY MINE #2 NEAR RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA IT TAKES A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF POWER TO FORCE THE AIR INTO ALL THE TUNNELS OF THE MINE. IT IS WINDY IN THE MAIN SHAFTS AS THE AIR PASSES BY ON ITS... LARGE FAN EQUIPMENT USED TO BLOW FRESH AIR INTO VIRGINIA-POCAHONTAS COAL COMPANY MINE #2 NEAR RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA IT TAKES A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF POWER TO FORCE THE AIR INTO ALL THE TUNNELS OF THE MINE. IT IS WINDY IN THE MAIN SHAFTS AS THE AIR PASSES BY ON ITS... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... Cup-type anemometer with vertical axis and turnabout counter located at the Dübendorf museum of military aviation An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Mechanical revolving blade fans are made in a wide range of designs. In a home you can find fans that can be put on the floor or a table, or hung from the ceiling, or are built into a window, wall, roof, chimney, etc. They can be found in electronic systems such as computers where they cool the circuits inside, and in appliances such as hair dryers and space heaters. They are also used for cooling in air-conditioning systems, and in automotive engines, where they are driven by belts or by direct motor. Fans create a wind chill but do not lower temperatures directly. A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... Wind chill is the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human (or animal) body due to the combination of air temperature and wind speed. ...


Types

A diagram of a centrifugal fan, with top view to show airflow
A diagram of a centrifugal fan, with top view to show airflow
An 80 mm DC axial fan
An 80 mm DC axial fan

There are three main types of fans used for moving air, axial, centrifugal (also called radial) and cross flow (also called tangential). The axial-flow fans have blades that force air to move parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate. Axial fans blow air across the axis of the fan, linearly, hence their name. This is the most commonly used type of fan, and is used in a wide variety of applications, ranging from small cooling fans for electronics to the giant fans used in wind tunnels. The centrifugal fan has a moving component (called an impeller) that consists of a central shaft about which a set of blades form a spiral pattern. Centrifugal fans blow air at right angles to the intake of the fan, and spin (centrifugally) the air outwards to the outlet. An impeller rotates, causing air to enter the fan near the shaft and move perpendicularly from the shaft to the opening in the scroll-shaped fan casing. A centrifugal fan produces more pressure for a given air volume, and is used where this is desirable such as in leaf blowers, air mattress inflators, and various industrial purposes. They are typically noisier than comparable axial fans. The cross flow fan has a squirrel cage rotor (a rotor with a hollow center and axial fan blades along the periphery). Tangential fans take in air along the periphery of the rotor, and expel it through the outlet in a similar fashion to the centrifugal fan. Cross flow fans give off an even airflow along the entire width of the fan, and are very quiet in operation. They are comparatively bulky, and the air pressure is low. Cross flow fans are often used in air conditioners, automobile ventilation systems, and for cooling in medium-sized equipment such as photocopiers. The action of a fan or blower causes pressures slightly above atmospheric, which are called plenums. Centrifugal fan diagram, drawn by myself File links The following pages link to this file: Fan (implement) Categories: BSD images ... Centrifugal fan diagram, drawn by myself File links The following pages link to this file: Fan (implement) Categories: BSD images ... Image File history File links Protechnic80mmfan. ... Image File history File links Protechnic80mmfan. ... Parallel is a term in geometry and in everyday life that refers to a property in Euclidean space of two or more lines or planes, or a combination of these. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Fig. ... The leaf blower was invented by Japanese engineers in the early 1970s and introduced to the United States as a lawn and garden maintenance tool. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Plenum may refer to: the antithesis of a vacuum; in other words, completely filled space. ...


Fans typically go along together with electric motors. An electric motor's poor low speed torque and powerful high speed torque are a natural match for a fan's load. Fans are often attached directly to the motor's output, with no need for gears or belts. The electric motor is either hidden in the fan's center hub or extends behind it. For big industrial fans, 3-phase asynchronous motors are commonly used. Smaller fans are often powered by shaded pole AC motors, or brushed or brushless DC motors. AC-powered fans usually use mains voltage, while DC-powered fans use low voltage, typically 24 V, 12 V or 5 V. Cooling fans for computer equipment exclusively use brushless DC motors, which produce much less EMI. In machines which already have a motor, the fan is often connected to this rather than being powered independently. This is commonly seen in cars, large cooling systems and winnowing machines. Electric motors of various sizes. ... Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ...

  • Table fan

Basic elements of a typical table fan include the fan blade, base, armature and lead wires, motor, blade guard, motor housing, oscillator gearbox, and oscillator shaft. The oscillator is a mechanism that motions the fan from side to side. The axle comes out on both ends of the motor, one end of the axle is attached to the blade and the other is attached to the oscillator gearbox. The motor case joins to the gearbox to contain the rotor and stator. The oscillator shaft combines to the weighted base and the gearbox. A motor housing covers the oscillator mechanism. The blade guard joins to the motor case for safety. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A safety barrier is a component which prevents access to a dangerous area. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ...


Electro-mechanical fans, among collectors, are rated according to their condition, size, age, and number of blades. Four-blade designs are the most common. Five-blade or six-blade designs are rare. The materials from which the components are made, such as brass, are important factors in fan desirability.

Ceiling fan with light.
Ceiling fan with light.

A fan suspended from the ceiling of a room is a ceiling fan. For in-depth discussion of ceiling fans, please see the article here. A ceiling fan is a fan suspended from the ceiling of a room. ... Ceiling fan with light. ... Ceiling fan with light. ... A ceiling fan is a fan suspended from the ceiling of a room. ...

  • Solar powered fan

Electric fans used for ventilation may be powered by solar panels instead of mains current. This is an attractive option because once the capital costs of the solar panel have been covered, the resulting electricity is free. In addition, electricity is always available when the sun is shining and the fan needs to run. A laundromat in California with flat-plate solar water heating collectors on its roof. ...


A typical example uses a detached 10 watt, 12x12 inch (30x30 cm) solar panel and is supplied with appropriate brackets, cables, and connectors. It can be used to ventilate up to 1250 square feet (100 m²) of area and can move air at up to 800 cubic feet per minute (400 L/s). Because of the wide availability of 12 V brushless DC electric motors and the convenience of wiring such a low voltage, such fans usually operate on 12 volts. The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ... Look up connector in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A square foot is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 foot (unit of length) long. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... The cubic foot (symbols ft³, cu. ... A brushless DC motor (BLDC) is an AC synchronous electric motor that from a modeling perspective looks very similar to a DC motor. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ...


The detached solar panel is typically installed in the spot which gets most of the sun light and then connected to the fan mounted as far as 20 to 25 feet (6 to 7 m) away. Other permanently-mounted and small portable fans include an integrated (non-detachable) solar panel. A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Gas turbine fan

The low pressure compressor in a turbofan engine is often called a fan. Typically, these units absorb thousands of horsepower, the power being provided by the expansion of hot combustion gases through the low pressure turbine. Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ...

  • Front fan

The fan is usually located at the front of the turbomachinery, immediately downstream of the air intake.


Modern civilian turbofans usually have a single fan stage, that is a row of rotating rotor blades, followed by a row of stationary exit guide vanes (or stators).


Military turbofans (e.g. those fitted to a combat aircraft) usually have two or more fan stages, the first stage, again, normally being a rotor followed by a stator assembly.

  • Aft fan

Several turbofans feature an aft fan, where the fan rotor blades are mounted radially outwards of the (LP) turbine rotor blades. This dispenses with the need for an (LP) shaft. In an early example, General Electric bolted a fan/turbine unit to the rear of a J79 turbojet, to convert it into the CJ805 turbofan. GE redirects here. ... The General Electric J79 was a turbojet engine built for use in a variety of fighter aircraft and bomber aircraft. ...


The unusual General Electric CF700 turbofan engine was also developed as an aft-fan engine with a 2.0 bypass ratio. This was derived from the T-38 Talon and the Learjet General Electric J85/CJ610turbojet (2,850 lbf or 12,650 N) to power the larger Rockwell Sabre 75/80 version of the Sabreliner aircraft, as well as the Dassault Falcon 20 with about a 50% increase in thrust (4,200 lbf or 18,700 N). The CF700 was the first small turbofan in the world to be certificated by the Federal Aviation Administration. There are now over 400 CF700 aircraft in operation around the world, with an experience base of over 10 million service hours. The CF700 turbofan engine was also used to train Moon-bound astronauts in the Apollo Project as the powerplant for the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle. In aeronautical engineering, and jet engine design in particular, bypass ratio is a common measurement that compares the amount of air deliberately blown past the engine to that moving through the core. ... The Northrop T-38 Talon is a widely used US-built supersonic jet trainer. ... Learjet is a manufacturer of business jets for civilian and military use. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engine. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 22. ...


The GE36 UDF Demonstrator used a similar arrangement to convert an F404 mixed exhaust turbofan into a propfan. General Electric GE-36 unducted fan engine on a McDonnell Douglas MD-81 testbed An unducted fan, (abbreviated as UDF), or propfan, is a modified turbofan engine with the fan placed outside of the engine nacelle on the same axis as the compressor blades. ... F404 turbofan being tested onboard an aircraft carrier The General Electric F404 and F414 are a family of afterburning turbofan engines in the 10,500-22,000 lbf (85 kN) class (static thrust). ...

  • Supersonic fan

Early gas turbine fans rotated at subsonic tip speeds, to avoid the generation of shock waves in the airflow. Modern fans, however, often rotate at supersonic tip speeds, and exploit the shock waves. Some advanced designs can generate a pressure ratio of more than 2.2:1 in a single stage, although 1.8:1 is more typical. This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ...

  • Supersonic through-flow fan

Although supersonic fans rotate at a supersonic tip speed, the axial flow is subsonic. However, some experimental devices have demonstrated supersonic axial flow. All the speed lines on the resulting fan map (or characteristic) are virtually horizontal, unlike those of more conventional units.

  • Variable pitch fan

Several ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan demonstrator engines (e.g. Rolls-Royce/SNECMA M45SD-02) have incorporated variable pitch fans, much like the variable pitch propellers on a turboprop engine. Varying the pitch of the rotor blades improves the low flight speed handling of the low pressure ratio fan unit, without the need to resort to a variable area cold or mixed flow nozzle. Reverse thrust down to zero aircraft speed is also practical. A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ...

  • Variable geometry fan

Some multi-stage, high pressure ratio, fans on military turbofan engines incorporate variable geometry (e.g. F404). The variability is usually confined to the inlet guide vanes. Although the leading edge of the vane is static, a piano-type hinge allows the trailing edge to be adjusted in pitch, to redirect the airflow onto the first rotor. VIGV's enhance the surge margin of the fan in the mid-flow region. Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ...

  • Propfan

Some ultra-high bypass ratio turbofans dispense with the fan nacelle and have an unducted fan rotor. The fan blades, which resemble scimitars, are especially shaped to work efficiently at flight speeds up to about Mach 0.75. General Electric demonstrated a propfan engine, called the GE36 UDF, in the 1980s. Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... General Electric GE-36 UDF Unducted Fan engine on a McDonnell Douglas MD-81 testbed A propfan is a modified turbofan engine, with the fan placed outside of the engine nacelle on the same axis as the compressor blades. ...

  • Overhung fan

Turbojets and early turbofans used the inlet guide vanes to support the front bearing of the (LP) compressor/fan rotor assembly. Today, the fans used in turbofan engines are often to an overhung design, where the fan rotor is cantilevered out forward, beyond the front bearing. This facilitates the removal of the inlet guide vanes. Consequently, the fan rotor blades are the first aerofoils encountered by the engine airflow. An airfoil (or aerofoil in British English) is a specially shaped cross-section of a wing or blade, used to provide lift or downforce, depending on its application. ...

  • Snubbered fan

Prior to the introduction of wide chord fan blades, fan blades fitted to turbofan engines often featured snubbers. These are protuberances that stick-out at right angles to the fan aerofoil, somewhere between mid-span and blade tip. The snubbers on adjacent fan blades butt-up against each other, in a peripheral sense, and improve the vibration characteristics of the blade. A wide chord fan engine is a term to describe the big fan in the inlet of a modern jet engine. ... A snubber is a simple electrical circuit used to suppress (snub) band to band electrical transients. ...


Wire lacing (e.g. Pegasus) is an alternative approach.

  • Wide chord fan

As might be expected, snubbers reduce the aerodynamic efficiency of fan aerofoils. Rolls-Royce pioneered a more efficient alternative: wide chord fan blades. The increased blade chord (i.e. width) is used to enhance the vibration characteristics. A wide chord fan engine is a term to describe the big fan in the inlet of a modern jet engine. ...


Wide chord first went into service in the RB311-535E4 for the Boeing 757 in 1984 and have been a feature of the RB211/Trent/V2500 engine family ever since. Potential weight increases are usually offset by making the blades hollow. Other engine manufacturers have now introduced wide chord fans.

  • Swept fan

Engine manufacturers are beginning to introduce so-called swept fan blades, which should yield benefits in aerodynamic efficiency and noise.


Other kinds of fans

A Ford Cologne V6 engine, showing the fan on the left side.
A Ford Cologne V6 engine, showing the fan on the left side.
  • In a fan heater, a fan (or blower) blows cool air past a heating element, heating the air (forced convection). It has a fan wheel with vanes fixed on a rotating shaft enclosed in a case or chamber, to create a blast of air (i.e., the fan blast) for forge purposes.
  • A Japanese war fan is a weapon made to look like a folding fan.
  • In automobiles, a mechanical fan, driven with a belt and pulley off the engine's crankshaft, or an electric fan switched on/off by a thermo switch is used to blow or suck air through a coolant filled radiator, to prevent the engine from overheating.
  • A fan is also a small vane or sail that is used to keep the large sail of a smock windmill always in the direction of the wind.

Ford Cologne V6 engine from the left hand side. ... Ford Cologne V6 engine from the left hand side. ... Left side of a 2. ... Software being used to design HVAC systems HVAC (pronounced either H-V-A-C or, occasionally, H-VAK) is an initialism/acronym that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... A shaft can be Look up shaft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A blacksmiths forge For finery forges (making iron) see finery forge. ... A tessen (iron fan), on display in Iwakuni Castle, Japan A number of war fans were used in Japanese feudal warfare, of varying size and material, for different purposes. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... v-belt flat belt Belts are used to mechanically link two or more rotating items. ... Pulleys on a ship. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the systems temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. ... Electrical switches. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... A coolant, or heat transfer fluid, is a fluid which flows through a device in order to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that utilize or dissipate it. ... Radiators and convectors are types of heat exchangers designed to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. ... Weather vane Weather cock Aerovane A weather vane, also called a wind vane, is a movable device attached to an elevated object such as a roof for showing the direction of the wind. ... A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib For other uses, see Sail (disambiguation). ... A Dutch tower windmill surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ...

See also

Figure 1: Components of a centrifugal fan A centrifugal fan is a mechanical device for moving air or other gases. ... A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Dutch tower windmill surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... Many people in South Korea believe that, when operated in closed rooms, electric fans do not bring heat relief but sudden death, suffocating victims by stealing their oxygen. ... The Fan Museum was the first museum in the world devoted in its entirety to all aspects of the ancient art and craft of the fan. ... This page is about Greenwich in England. ... Computer cooling is the practice of relieving heat, a potentially damaging byproduct of operation, from electronic computers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer cooling. ...

Books

  • Rhead, G. Wooliscroft. "The History of the Fan", Kegan Paul, 1910
  • Irons, Neville John. "Fans of Imperial China". Kaiserreich Kunst Ltd, 1982.
  • Armstrong, Nancy. "Book of Fans". Smithmark Publishing, 1984. ISBN 0-8317-0952-9
  • Armstrong, Nancy. "Fans", Souvenir Press, 1984
  • Mayor, Susan. "Fans", Charles Letts, 1990
  • Mayor, Susan. "The Letts Guide to Collecting Fans". Charles Letts, 1991.
  • Alexander, Helene. "The Fan Museum", Third Millennium Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-9540319-1-1
  • Cowen, Pamela. "A Fanfare for the Sun King: Unfolding Fans for Louis XIV", Third Millennium Publishing (September, 2003) ISBN 1-903942-20-9
  • Hutt, Julia & Alexander, Helene. "Ogi: A History of the Japanese Fan". Art Media Resources; Bilingual edition (February 1, 1992) ISBN 1-872357-08-3
  • Qian, Gonglin. "Chinese Fans: Artistry and Aesthetics (Arts of China, #2)". Long River Press (August 31, 2004) ISBN 1-59265-020-1
  • North, Audrey. "Australia's fan heritage". Boolarong Publications (1985). ISBN 0-86439-001-7
  • Hart, Avril & Taylor, Emma. "Fans" (V & A Fashion Accessories Series). Publisher- V & A Publications. ISBN 1-85177-213-8
  • Bennett, Anna G. "Unfolding beauty: The art of the fan : the collection of Esther Oldham and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston". Thames and Hudson (1988). ISBN 0-87846-279-1
  • Roberts, Jane. "Unfolding Pictures: Fans in the Royal Collection". Publisher -Royal Collection (January 30, 2006. ISBN 1-902163-16-8
  • Gitter, Kurt A. "Japanese fan paintings from western collections". Publisher- New Orleans Museum of Art (1985). ISBN 0-89494-021-X

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hand Fans
Antique Fans
  • Antique Fan Collectors Association
Ceiling Fans

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fan (implement) Summary (4514 words)
The earliest known Chinese fans are a pair of woven bamboo side-mounted fans from the 2nd century BC.
The folding fan was invented in Japan in the 8th century and taken to China in the 9th century.
Fans are useful for moving large quantities of air, which is suited for applications such as winnowing grain or blowing a fire, cooling and ventilation purposes, and in conjunction with a heat source for heating and drying.
FAN - Search Results - MSN Encarta (0 words)
Fan (machine), power-driven device that produces a flow of air or gas.
A fan is a device used to induce airflow and generally made from broad, flat surfaces which revolve or oscillate.
A fan, aficionado, or supporter is someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a sporting club, person, group of persons, company, product, work of art, idea...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m