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AffinityAttachmentBondingCasualCohabitationCompersionConcubinageCourtshipDivorceDower, dowry and bride priceFamilyFriendshipHusbandInfatuationIntimacyJealousyLimerenceLoveMarriageMonogamyNonmonogamyOffice romancePartnerPassionPederastyPlatonic lovePolyamoryPolygamyPsychology of monogamyRelationship abuseRomanceSeparationSexualityWeddingWidowhoodWife Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Look up family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... A casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without necessarily demanding or expecting a more formal relationship as a goal. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... Suitor redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infatuation (disambiguation). ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

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Family denotes a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, and co-residence. Although the concept of consanguinity originally referred to relations by "blood," many anthropologists have argued that one must understand the notion of "blood" metaphorically, and that many societies understand 'family' through other concepts rather than through genetic distance. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Photograph of a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso taken in 1997 by Frédéric de la Mure. ... Photograph of a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso taken in 1997 by Frédéric de la Mure. ... Goblins rule Ouagadougou is run by goblins who come out at night and the people you see walking around in the town are actually goblins in robotic suits that make them look like people. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Genetic distance is a measure of the disimilarity of genetic material between different species or individuals of the same species. ...


According to many sociologists and anthropologists, the primary function of the family is to reproduce society, either biologically, socially, or both. Thus, one's experience of one's family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is a family of orientation: the family serves to locate children socially, and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization. From the point of view of the parent(s), the family is a family of procreation the goal of which is to produce and enculturate and socialize children.[1] However, producing children is not the only function of the family; in societies with a sexual division of labor, marriage, and the resulting relationship between two people, is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household. Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... This is about the social science. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Matrimony redirects here. ...



A matrifocal family consists of a mother and her children. Generally, these children are her biological offspring, although adoption of children is a practice in nearly every society. This kind of family is common where women have the resources to rear their children by themselves, or where men are more mobile than women.


A consanguineal family consists of a mother and her children, and other people — usually the family of the mother, like her mistress husband. This kind of family is common where mothers do not have the resources to rear their children on their own, and especially where property is inherited. When important property is owned by men, consanguineal families commonly consist of a husband and wife, their children and other members of the husband's family.


A conjugal family consists of one or more mothers and their children, and/or one or more spouses (usually husbands). This kind of family is common where men desire to assert control over children, or where there is a sexual division of labor requiring the participation of both men and women, and where families are relatively mobile.

Contents

Economic functions

Anthropologists have often supposed that the family in a traditional society forms the primary economic unit. This economic role has gradually diminished in modern times, and in societies like the United States it has become much smaller — except in certain sectors such as agriculture and in a few upper class families. In China the family as an economic unit still plays a strong role in the countryside. However, the relations between the economic role of the family, its socio-economic mode of production and cultural values remain highly complex. Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ...

Extended middle-class Midwestern U.S. family of Danish/German extraction
Extended middle-class Midwestern U.S. family of Danish/German extraction

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2011x1509, 1378 KB) Typical extended middle-class U.S. family from Indiana of Danish/German extraction. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2011x1509, 1378 KB) Typical extended middle-class U.S. family from Indiana of Danish/German extraction. ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ...

Political functions

On the other hand family structures or its internal relationships may affect both state and religious institutions. J.F. del Giorgio in The Oldest Europeans points that the high status of women among the descendants of the post-glacial Paleolithic European population was coherent with the fierce love of freedom of pre-Indo-European tribes. He believes that the extraordinary respect for women in those families made that children raised in such atmosphere tended to distrust strong, authoritarian leaders. According to del Giorgio, European democracies have their roots in those ancient ancestors.


Kinship terminology

Main article: Kinship terminology

Anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881) performed the first survey of kinship terminologies in use around the world. Though much of his work is now considered dated, he argued that kinship terminologies reflect different sets of distinctions. For example, most kinship terminologies distinguish between sexes (the difference between a brother and a sister) and between generations (the difference between a child and a parent). Moreover, he argued, kinship terminologies distinguish between relatives by blood and marriage (although recently some anthropologists have argued that many societies define kinship in terms other than "blood"). Kinship terminology refers to the words used in a specific culture to describe a specific system of familial relationships. ... Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was an American ethnologist, anthropologist and writer. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... Matrimony redirects here. ...


Morgan made a distinction between kinship systems that use classificatory terminology and those that use descriptive terminology. Morgan's distinction is widely misunderstood, even by contemporary anthropologists. Classificatory systems are generally and erroneously understood to be those that "class together" with a single term relatives whom actually do not have the same type of relationship to ego. (What defines "same type of relationship" under such definitions seems to be genealogical relationship. This is more than a bit problematic given that any genealogical description, no matter how standardized, employs words originating in a folk understanding of kinship.) What Morgan's terminology actually differentiates are those (classificatory) kinship systems that do not distinguish lineal and collatoral relationships and those (descriptive) kinship systems which do. Morgan, a lawyer, came to make this distinction in an effort to understand Seneca inheritance practices- a Seneca man's effects were inherited by his sisters' children rather than by his own children.[2]


Morgan identified six basic patterns of kinship terminologies:

  • Hawaiian: only distinguishes relatives based upon sex and generation.
  • Sudanese: no two relatives share the same term.
  • Eskimo: in addition to distinguishing relatives based upon sex and generation, also distinguishes between lineal relatives and collateral relatives.
  • Iroquois: in addition to sex and generation, also distinguishes between siblings of opposite sexes in the parental generation.
  • Crow: a matrilineal system with some features of an Iroquois system, but with a "skewing" feature in which generation is "frozen" for some relatives.
  • Omaha: like a Crow system but patrilineal.

Hawaiian kinship (also referred to as the Generational system) is a kinship system used to define family. ... Eskimo kinship (also referred to as Lineal kinship) is a kinship system used to define family. ... Iroquois kinship (also known as bifurcate merging) is a kinship system used to define family. ... Crow kinship is a kinship system used to define family. ... Omaha kinship is a kinship system used to define family. ...

Western kinship

See also: Cousin chart
The relationships and names of various family members in the English language.
The relationships and names of various family members in the English language.

Most Western societies employ Eskimo kinship terminology. This kinship terminology commonly occurs in societies based on conjugal (or nuclear) families, where nuclear families have a degree of relatively mobility. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eskimo kinship (also referred to as Lineal kinship) is a kinship system used to define family. ... A conjugal family is nuclear family of adult partners and their children (by birth or adoption) where the family relationship is principally focused inwardly and ties to extended kin are voluntary and based on emotional bonds, rather than strict duties and obligations. ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ...


Members of the nuclear family (or immediate family) use descriptive kinship terms:

  • Mother: a female parent
  • Father: a male parent
  • Son: a male child of the parent(s)
  • Daughter: a female child of the parent(s)
  • Brother: a male child of the same parent(s)
  • Sister: a female child of the same parent(s)

Such systems generally assume that the mother's husband has also served as the biological father. In some families, a woman may have children with more than one Man or a Man may have children with more than one woman. The system refers to a child who shares only one parent with another child as a "half-brother" or "half-sister". For children who do not share biological or adoptive parents in common, English-speakers use the term "stepbrother" or "stepsister" to refer to their new relationship with each other when one of their biological parents marries one of the other child's biological parents. Mom and Mommy redirect here. ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Son (disambiguation). ... An expecting couple with their daughter A daughter is a female offspring; a girl, woman, or female animal in relation to her parents. ... Brother and Sister redirect here. ... Brother and Sister redirect here. ...


Any person (other than the biological parent of a child) who marries the parent of that child becomes the "stepparent" of the child, either the "stepmother" or "stepfather". The same terms generally apply to children adopted into a family as to children born into the family.


Typically, societies with conjugal families also favor neolocal residence; thus upon marriage a person separates from the nuclear family of their childhood (family of orientation) and forms a new nuclear family (family of procreation). This practice means that members of one's own nuclear family once functioned as members of another nuclear family, or may one day become members of another nuclear family. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Members of the nuclear families of members of one's own (former) nuclear family may class as lineal or as collateral. Kin who regard them as lineal refer to them in terms that build on the terms used within the nuclear family:

A father with their daughter
A father with their daughter
  • Grandparent
    • Grandfather: a parent's father
    • Grandmother: a parent's mother
  • Grandson: a child's son
  • Granddaughter: a child's daughter

For collateral relatives, more classificatory terms come into play, terms that do not build on the terms used within the nuclear family: “Grandfather” redirects here. ...

  • Uncle: father's brother, mother's brother, father's/mother's sister's husband
  • Aunt: father's sister, mother's sister, father's/mother's brother's wife
  • Nephew: sister's son, brother's son, wife's brother's son, wife's sister's son, husband's brother's son, husband's sister's son
  • Niece: sister's daughter, brother's daughter, wife's brother's daughter, wife's sister's daughter, husband's brother's daughter, husband's sister's daughter

When additional generations intervene (in other words, when one's collateral relatives belong to the same generation as one's grandparents or grandchildren), the prefix "grand" modifies these terms. (Although in casual usage in the USA a "grand aunt" is often referred to as a "great aunt", for instance.) And as with grandparents and grandchildren, as more generations intervene the prefix becomes "great grand", adding an additional "great" for each additional generation.


Most collateral relatives have never had membership of the nuclear family of the members of one's own nuclear family.

  • Cousin: the most classificatory term; the children of aunts or uncles. One can further distinguish cousins by degrees of collaterality and by generation. Two persons of the same generation who share a grandparent count as "first cousins" (one degree of collaterality); if they share a great-grandparent they count as "second cousins" (two degrees of collaterality) and so on. If two persons share an ancestor, one as a grandchild and the other as a great-grandchild of that individual, then the two descendants class as "first cousins once removed" (removed by one generation); if the shared ancestor figures as the grandparent of one individual and the great-great-grandparent of the other, the individuals class as "first cousins twice removed" (removed by two generations), and so on. Similarly, if the shared ancestor figures as the great-grandparent of one person and the great-great-grandparent of the other, the individuals class as "second cousins once removed". Hence the phrase "third cousin once removed upwards".

Distant cousins of an older generation (in other words, one's parents' first cousins), though technically first cousins once removed, often get classified with "aunts" and "uncles".


Similarly, a person may refer to close friends of one's parents as "aunt" or "uncle", or may refer to close friends as "brother" or "sister", using the practice of fictive kinship. Fictive kinship is the process of giving someone a kinship title and treating them in many ways as if they had the actual kinship relationship implied by the title. ...


English-speakers mark relationships by marriage (except for wife/husband) with the tag "-in-law". The mother and father of one's spouse become one's mother-in-law and father-in-law; the female spouse of one's child becomes one's daughter-in-law and the male spouse of one's child becomes one's son-in-law. The term "Sister-in-law" refers to three essentially different relationships, either the wife of one's sibling, or the sister of one's spouse, or the wife of one's spouse's sibling. "Brother-in-law" expresses a similar ambiguity. No special terms exist for the rest of one's spouse's family. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


The terms "half-brother" and "half-sister" indicate siblings who share only one biological or adoptive parent.


Family in the West

Family arrangements in the United States have become more diverse with no particular household arrangement representing half of the United States population.
Family arrangements in the United States have become more diverse with no particular household arrangement representing half of the United States population.[3]

The different types of families occur in a wide variety of settings, and their specific functions and meanings depend largely on their relationship to other social institutions. Sociologists have a special interest in the function and status of these forms in stratified (especially capitalist) societies. Image File history File links Families_US.png‎ I created the graph myself using US Census Bureau data published in the sociology book, Marriages, Families & Intimate Relationships by Brian K. Williams, Stacey C. Sawyer, and Carl M. Wahlstrom. ... Image File history File links Families_US.png‎ I created the graph myself using US Census Bureau data published in the sociology book, Marriages, Families & Intimate Relationships by Brian K. Williams, Stacey C. Sawyer, and Carl M. Wahlstrom. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Non-scholars, especially in the United States and Europe, use the term "nuclear family" to refer to conjugal families. Sociologists distinguish between conjugal families (relatively independent of the kindreds of the parents and of other families in general) and nuclear families (which maintain relatively close ties with their kindreds). The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ...


Non-scholars, especially in the United States and Europe, also use the term "extended family". This term has two distinct meanings. First, it serves as a synonym of "consanguinal family". Second, in societies dominated by the conjugal family, it refers to kindred (an egocentric network of relatives that extends beyond the domestic group) who do not belong to the conjugal family. Extended family (or joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings. ... Kindred may refer to: The novel by Octavia Butler, see Kindred (novel). ...


These types refer to ideal or normative structures found in particular societies. Any society will exhibit some variation in the actual composition and conception of families. Much sociological, historical and anthropological research dedicates itself to the understanding of this variation, and of changes in the family form over time. Thus, some speak of the bourgeois family, a family structure arising out of 16th-century and 17th-century European households, in which the family centers on a marriage between a Man and woman, with strictly-defined gender-roles. The Man typically has responsibility for income and support, the woman for home and family matters. This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Philosophers and psychiatrists like Deleuze, Guattari, Laing, Reich, explained that the patriarchal-family conceived in the West tradition (husband-wife-children) serves the purpose of perpetuating a propertarian and authoritarian society. The child grows according to the Oedipal model typical of capitalist societies and he becomes in turn owner of submissive children and protector of the woman.[4][5][6][7][8][9] Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French militant, institutional psychotherapist and philosopher, a founder of both schizoanalysis and ecosophy. ... R.D.Laing in 1983 Ronald David Laing (October 7, 1927 – August 23, 1989), was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness and particularly the experience of psychosis. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority, or, by extension, a member of the ruling class or government of a society controlled by senior men. ... Propertarianism is the advocacy of the private individual or group ownership of legal, transferable, private property titles within a free market. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... The Oedipus complex is a concept within psychoanalytic theory referring to a stage of psychosexual development where a child of either gender regards the parent of the same gender as an adversary, and competitor, for the exclusive love of the parent of the opposite gender. ... Submissiveness is the trait of being willing to yield to the will of another person or a superior force. ...


According to the analysis of Michel Foucault, in the west: Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ...

the [conjugal] family organization, precisely to the extent that it was insular and heteromorphous with respect to the other power mechanisms, was used to support the great "maneuvers" employed for the Malthusian control of the birthrate, for the populationist incitements, for the medicalization of sex and the psychiatrization of its nongenital forms. Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... The Rev. ...

Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality vol I, chap. IV, sect. Method, rule 3, p.99

According to the work of scholars Max Weber, Alan Macfarlane, Steven Ozment, Jack Goody and Peter Laslett, the huge transformation that led to modern marriage in Western democracies was "fueled by the religio-cultural value system provided by elements of Judaism, early Christianity, Roman Catholic canon law and the Protestant Reformation".[10] The History of Sexuality is the title of a three-volume series of books by Michel Foucault written in 1976. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Alan Macfarlane is Professor of Anthropological Science at the University of Cambridge. ... Steven E. Ozment (born February 21, 1939 in McComb, Mississippi) is an American historian of early modern and modern Germany, the European family, and the Protestant Reformation. ... Jack Goody (born 1918 or 1919) is a British social anthropologist. ... (Thomas) Peter Ruffell Laslett (18 December 1915 - 8 November 2001) was an English historian. ...


In contemporary Europe and the United States, people in academic, political and civil sectors have called attention to single-father-headed households, and families headed by same-sex couples,[citation needed] although academics point out that these forms exist in other societies. Also the term blended family or stepfamily describes families with mixed parents: one or both parents remarried, bringing children of the former family into the new family.[11] GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... “Stepmom” redirects here. ...


Contemporary views of the family

Contemporary society generally views family as a haven from the world, supplying absolute fulfillment. The family is considered to encourage "intimacy, love and trust where individuals may escape the competition of dehumanizing forces in modern society from the rough and tumble industrialized world, and as a place where warmth, tenderness and understanding can be expected from a loving mother, and protection from the world can be expected from the father. However, the idea of protection is declining as civil society faces less internal conflict combined with increased civil rights and protection from the state. To many, the ideal of personal or family fulfillment has replaced protection as the major role of the family. The family now supplies what is “vitally needed but missing from other social arrangements”.[12] Mom and Mommy redirect here. ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ...


Social conservatives often express concern over a purported decay of the family and see this as a sign of the crumbling of contemporary society. They feel that the family structures of the past were superior to those today and believe that families were more stable and happier at a time when they did not have to contend with problems such as illegitimate children and divorce. Others dispute this theory, claiming “there is no golden age of the family gleaming at us in the far back historical past”.[13] Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ...


A study performed by scientists from Iceland found that mating with a relative can significantly increase the number of children in a family. A lot of societies consider inbreeding unacceptable. Scientists warn that inbreeding may rise the chances of a child getting two copies of disease-causing recessive genes and in such a way it may lead to genetic disorders and higher infant mortality.


Scientists found that couples formed of relatives had more children and grandchildren than unrelated couples. The study revealed that when a husband and wife were third cousins, they had an average of 4.0 children and 9.2 grandchildren. If a woman was in relationship with her eight cousin, then the number of chilren declined, showing an average of 3,3 children and 7,3 grandchildren . [14]


See also

A small family expecting another child.
A small family expecting another child.

Image File history File linksMetadata Expecting_family. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Expecting_family. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... Illegitimacy is the status that was once commonly ascribed to individuals born to parents who were not married. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ... Pedigree collapse is a term created by Robert C. Gunderson to denominate the collapse of the family trees caused either by close cousin marriages or distant cousins unknowingly getting married. ... Domestic disturbance redirects here. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Complex Family is a generic term for any family structure involving more than two adults. ... A dysfunctional family is a family in which conflict, misbehavior and even abuse on the part of individual members of the family occur continually, leading other members to accommodate such actions. ... Elderly care or simply eldercare is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens. ... The family, although recognized as fundamental from Adam Smith on, received little systematic treatment in economics before the 1950s. ... Family history is the study of multiple generations of people who appear to be related. ... Grant Allen: The Woman Who Did (published in 1895) (a New Woman has a child but refuses to get married) Christine Bell: The Perez Family (Cuban exiles in Florida) Kate Bingham: Mummys Legs (three generations of women thinking they can do without men) Lily Brett: Just Like That (Holocaust... The family as a model for the organization of the state is a theory in political philosophy. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a persons name indicating the family to which the person belongs. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Grandfather” redirects here. ... Mom and Mommy redirect here. ... For other uses, see Parent (disambiguation). ... A family tree is generally the totality of ones ancestors represented as a tree structure, or more specifically, a chart used in genealogy. ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... A genogram is a pictorial display of a patients family relationships and medical history. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Kinship terminology refers to the words used in a specific culture to describe a specific system of familial relationships. ... For other uses, see Cousin (disambiguation). ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... An intimate relationship is a particularly close interpersonal relationship. ... Incest is defined as sexual intercourse or any form of sexual activity between closely related persons, especially within the nuclear family. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Sociology of the family is the study of the family unit from a sociological viewpoint. ... The Family: A Proclamation to the World is a statement issued by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in 1995, which defined the churchs official position on gender roles, human sexuality, and the family. ... The suffix centric denotes having a specified topic as a center. Therefore, familycentrics is defined as having the family as a central feature (of ones life). ... A Hindu Joint Family or Hindu united family (HUF) or a Joint Hindu Family is an extended family arrangement prevalent among Hindus of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of many generations living under the same roof. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Look up freedom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... This article is about virtue. ... Look up brotherhood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arbitrary arrest and detention, or (AAD), is the arrest and detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that he or she committed a crime against legal statute, or where there has been no proper due process of law. ... 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Mothers Rights concern the rights of mothers including both Womens Rights and Parental Rights. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... This article is about institutional education. ... Human rights education is the teaching of the history, theory, and law of human rights in schools as well as outreach to the general public. ... Freedom of education incorporates the right of any person to manage their own education, start a school, or to have access to education of their choice without any constraints. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... 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References

  1. ^ George Peter Murdoch Social Structure page 13
  2. ^ Tooker, Elisabeth. “Another View of Morgan on Kinship.” Current Anthropology 20, no. 1 (March 1979): 131-134.
  3. ^ Williams, Brian; Stacey C. Sawyer, Carl M. Wahlstrom (2005). Marriages, Families & Intinamte Relationships. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-205-36674-0. 
  4. ^ (Italian) Gianni Vattimo Tutto in famiglia (article appeared on Il Manifesto October 15 2004)
  5. ^ (Italian) Luttazzi, Daniele Bollito misto con mostarda (2005) p.262
  6. ^ Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1972-80) see in particular volume Anti-Œdipus at the second chapter on the "family triangle".
  7. ^ Wilhelm Reich The Sexual Revolution 1975 - Pocket Books (p. 71-77)
  8. ^ Theodor W. Adorno and Stephen Crook Adorno ISBN 0415270995, p. 9-10
  9. ^ E. James Anthony, The Family and the Psychoanalytic Process in Children (1980). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 35:3-34
  10. ^ The Collapse of Marriage. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  11. ^ http://www.blendedandblessed.com/BlendedBlog.dsp
  12. ^ Ibid., Zinn and Eitzen(1987)
  13. ^ Ibid., Zinn (1987)
  14. ^ Related Couples Have More Children
  • American Kinship, David M. Schneider
  • A Natural History of Families, Scott Forbes, Princeton University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-691-09482-9
  • Foucault, Michel (1978). The History of Sexuality: Volume I: An Introduction. New York Vintage Books. ISBN-13: 978-0679724698
  • More Than Kin and Less Than Kind, Douglas W. Mock, Belknap Press, 2004, ISBN 0-674-01285-2
  • Denis Chevallier, « Famille et parenté : une bibliographie », Terrain, Numéro 4 - Famille et parenté (mars 1985) , [En ligne], mis en ligne le 17 juillet 2005. URL : http://terrain.revues.org/document2874.html. Consulté le 15 juin 2007. (French)
  • Jack Goody (1983) The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press); translated into Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese. review: JSTOR: Theory and Society: Vol. 14, No. 3 (May, 1985), pp. 371-379. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.

Gianni Vattimo at the National Gay Pride march, Como, 1999 Gianni Vattimo (born January 4, 1936) is an internationally recognized Italian author and politician. ... Il Manifesto (Italian for The Manifesto) is an Italian communist newspaper. ... Daniele Luttazzi Daniele Luttazzi (born in Santarcangelo di Romagna, Rimini, January 26, 1961), real name Daniele Fabbri, is an Italian comedian, writer, satirist, illustrator and singer/songwriter. ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French militant, institutional psychotherapist and philosopher, a founder of both schizoanalysis and ecosophy. ... Capitalism and Schizophrenia is a two-volume theoretical work by the French authors Deleuze and Guattari. ... Anti-Œdipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno (September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher, pianist, musicologist, and composer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David M. Schneider is an American cultural anthropologist. ... Jack Goody (born 1918 or 1919) is a British social anthropologist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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