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A lie is a statement made by someone who believes or suspects it to be false, in the expectation that the hearers may believe it. Thus a true statement may be a lie if the speaker thinks it is false. Fictions, though false, are not necessarily lies. Inasmuch as lying involves pretended truth, the truth pretended is an imaginary antecedent. Depending on definitions, a lie can be a genuine falsehood or a selective truth, a lie by omission, or even the truth if the intention is to deceive or to cause an action not in the listener's interests. To lie is to tell a lie. A person who tells a lie, and especially a person who habitually tells lies, is a liar. To lie involves intentional deception. // Headline text Headline text Italic textItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold textBold textBold text--65. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Jump to: navigation, search When someone sincerely agrees with an assertion, they are claiming that it is the truth. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents


Morality of lying

Lying is against the moral standards of many people and is specifically prohibited as a sin in many religions. Ethical traditions and philosophers are divided over whether a lie is ever allowable but are generally opposed—Plato said yes, whereas Aristotle, Saint Augustine and Kant said no. A moral in basically me doing your mom. ... Sin has been a term most usually used in a religious context, and today describes any lack of conformity to the will of God; especially, any willful disregard for the norms revealed by God is a sin. ... Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. ... Jump to: navigation, search Statue of a philosopher, presumably Plato, in Delphi. ... Jump to: navigation, search Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... Jump to: navigation, search St. ... Jump to: navigation, search Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a German philosopher and scientist (astrophysics, mathematics, geography, anthropology) from East Prussia, generally regarded as one of Western societys and modern Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ...


In many countries affected by World War II, it is understood that lying to protect people from an immoral oppressor is generally permissible. Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that...


Lying in a way that escalates rather than de-escalates a conflict is usually considered the worst sin. An approach to conflict resolution and reducing tension during the discussion of controversial topics. ...


A liar is a person who is known to have a tendency to tell lies. People's tolerance for liars is generally very small, and it is often only necessary to be caught lying once to be labelled as a liar and not trusted again. This is of course moderated by the importance of the matter being lied about.


Jocular lying, more commonly known as kidding around, deceit for the purpose of humor, when the falsehood is generally understood, is often regarded as not immoral and is widely practiced by humorists and comedians.


The philosopher Leo Strauss stressed the necessity of lying in order to conceal a strategic position, or to aid diplomacy. So did earlier figures in political philosophy from Niccolò Machiavelli to Plato's "noble lie". Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calendar Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology Ideologies... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Statue of a philosopher, presumably Plato, in Delphi. ...


It seems extremely unlikely that lies will ever be entirely eliminated from politics, law or diplomacy, just as they cannot be removed from the warfare that these activities are, ultimately, supposed to help pre-empt. For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ...


Lying distinguished from *bullshitting*

In his book On Bullshit (2005), Princeton philosopher Harry Frankfort suggests that lying and bullshitting are not the same thing. A liar differs from a truth-teller in that the former wants to hide the truth while the latter wants to reveal it; but both are very much aware of what the truth is. A liar must remain mindful of the truth, if only so that he does not inadvertently reveal it. A bullshitter, however, is utterly indifferent to the truth. He would not mind if his statements turn out, by accident, to be true. For example, a bank robber who denies that he robbed the bank is a liar; but a car salesman who assures a buyer, without bothering to check, that the car he is trying to sell has been driven only 10,000 miles is a bullshitter. The salesman would not care if it were to turn out that his claim is true after all. He simply does not care what is the truth of the matter. On Bullshit is a philosophical book by Harry Frankfurt. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bullshit (often abbreviated bull or BS) is a common English expletive meaning humbug or nonsense. ...


"Bullshitting" could also be interpreted as a form of lying as opposed to a separate offense. If the speaker states that he has explicit knowledge of a given principle (as the used car salesmen would be doing when assuring a buyer of a certain number of miles on a car), the "truth" being concealed would not be the validity of the statement presented, but rather the fact the speaker is unsure of accuracy of the statement being made.


There is no modern alternative to the word bullshit, however offensive it may sound - although the old word, humbug, comes close.


Etiquette of lying

Etiquette is largely concerned with questions of lying, blaming and hypocrisy - things often decried in ethics but of great utility in society: Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ... See also: BLAME!, a manga by Tsutomu Nihei. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up Hypocrisy on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Hypocrisy is the act of pretending to have morals or virtues that one does not truly possess or practice. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... For the song by the California punk band Pennywise, see Society (song). ...


The moral reasons to tolerate lies have mostly to do with avoiding conflict. An ethical code will often specify when the truth is required, and when not. In courtrooms, for instance, the adversarial process and standard of evidence that applies restricts questions so that the need for a witness to lie is reduced - thus the truth on the matter at hand is supposed to be more easily revealed. Ethical codes are specialized and specific codes of ethics. ... An adversarial process is one that sets up a specific and focused conflict, typically with rewards for prevailing, often in the form of a game. ...


The need to sometimes lie is recognized in the term white lie or officious lie, where the lie is harmless, and there are circumstances where there is an expectation to be less than totally honest through necessity or pragmatism. Lies can be divided into classes - injurious or malicious, officious, and jocose, of which only the first class is serious (Catholicism classes the first as a mortal sin but also condemns the others as venial). According to the beliefs of Catholicism, a mortal sin, as distinct from a venial sin, must meet all of the following conditions: its subject must be ‘grave matter’; it must be committed with full knowledge, both of the sin and of the gravity of the offense; it must be committed... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ...


There are some types of lie that are considered acceptable, desirable, or even mandatory, due to social convention. Types of conventional lie include:

  • excuses to avoid or terminate an undesired social encounter;
  • assurance that a social encounter is desired or has been pleasurable;
  • telling a dying person whatever they want to hear;
  • concealment of a breach of taboo.

Most people engage in such conventional lying, and do not apply the usual moral disapproval of lying to such situations. Conventional lies are viewed as a lesser category of lie, similar to white lies. However, a minority of people view them as malicious lies. A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom declared as sacred and forbidden; breaking of the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society. ...


Paradox of lying

Lying is the subject of many paradoxes, the most famous one being known as the liar paradox, commonly expressed as "This sentence is a lie," or "This sentence is false." The so-called Epimenides paradox — "All Cretans are liars," as stated by Epimenides the Cretan — is a forerunner of this, though its status as a paradox is disputed. A class of related logic puzzles are known as knights and knaves, in which the goal is to determine who of a group of people is lying and who is telling the truth. Jump to: navigation, search Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-07, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Jump to: navigation, search In philosophy and logic, the liar paradox encompasses paradoxical statements such as: To avoid having a sentence directly refer to its own truth value, one can also construct the paradox as follows: // The words of Eubulides of Miletus The oldest version of the liar paradox is... The Epimenides paradox is a problem in logic. ... Knights and knaves are a type of logic puzzle devised by Raymond Smullyan. ...


Much ethical dilemma is based on related ethical paradox on issues of lying. Some famous ones include the question of whether anyone, hiding refugees from an oppressive and racist government, might owe the truth to an official who comes asking where they are. There seems to be a lot of confusion - even within Wikipedia - of the terms ethics and morals. ...


Psychology of lying

The capacity of hominids to lie is noted early and nearly universally in human development and language studies with Great Apes. One famous lie by the latter was when Koko the Gorilla, confronted by her handlers after a tantrum in which she had torn a steel sink out of its moorings, signed in American Sign Language, "cat did it," pointing at her tiny kitten. It is unclear if this was a joke or a genuine attempt at blaming her tiny pet. Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Lufengpithecus (extinct) Ankarapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Dryopithecus (extinct) Ouranopithecus (extinct) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Orrorin (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae... Human development is the physical and mental process of growing from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Koko (born July 4, 1971, in San Francisco, California) is the name of a captive, acculturated gorilla trained by Dr. Francine Penny Patterson and other scientists at Stanford University to allegedly communicate more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language. ... Jump to: navigation, search Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei A male silverback gorilla The gorilla, the largest of the primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of central Africa. ... Jump to: navigation, search American Sign Language (ASL, also Amslan obs. ... Jump to: navigation, search Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the domestic cat. ... See also: BLAME!, a manga by Tsutomu Nihei. ...


Evolutionary psychology is concerned with the theory of mind which people employ to simulate another's reaction to their story and determine if a lie will be believable. The most commonly cited milestone in the rising of this, what is known as Machiavellian intelligence, is at the human age of about four and a half years, when children begin to be able to lie convincingly. Before this, they seem simply unable to comprehend that anyone doesn't see the same view of events that they do - and seem to assume that there is only one point of view—their own—that must be integrated into any given story. Evolutionary psychology (or EP) proposes that human and primate cognition and behavior can be better understood in light of human and primate evolutionary history. ... Jump to: navigation, search The phrase theory of mind is used in several related ways. ... In cognitive science and evolutionary psychology, Machiavellian intelligence (political intelligence or social intelligence), is the capacity of an entity in successful political engagement with social groups. ... A point of view, viewpoint or POV, is the following: On a given topic, a point of view is a cognitive perspective. ...


Paradoxically, a Big Lie is often easier to get people to believe, and more difficult for them to challenge even when facts contradict it. Propaganda is often based on choosing some very large but comfortable lie which is hard to challenge for social status or other reasons - and spreading this throughout a whole society. The phrase Big Lie refers to a propaganda technique which originated with Adolf Hitlers 1925 autobiography Mein Kampf. ... Jump to: navigation, search North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ...


Sociology and linguistics of lying

Lying and blaming are so basic to society that it is hard to formally study them. George Lakoff, in criticizing some claims of George W. Bush made prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, notes that See also: BLAME!, a manga by Tsutomu Nihei. ... For the song by the California punk band Pennywise, see Society (song). ... Jump to: navigation, search George P. Lakoff (, born 1941) is a professor of linguistics (in particular, cognitive linguistics) at the University of California, Berkeley where he has taught since 1972. ... Jump to: navigation, search George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States and a former Governor of the State of Texas. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article covers invasion specifics. ...

Are they lies—or are they merely exaggerations, misleading statements, mistakes, rhetorical excesses and so on? Linguists study such matters. The most startling finding is that, in considering whether a statement is a lie, the least important consideration for most people is whether it is true! The more important considerations are, Did he believe it? Did he intend to deceive? Was he trying to gain some advantage or to harm someone else? Is it a serious matter, or a trivial one? Is it "just" a matter of political rhetoric? Most people will grant that, even if the statement happened to be false, if he believed it, wasn't trying to deceive, and was not trying to gain advantage or harm any one, then there was no lie. If it was a lie in the service of a good cause, then it was a white lie. If it was based on faulty information, then it was an honest mistake. If it was just there for emphasis, then it was an exaggeration.
These have been among the administration's defenses. The good cause: liberating Iraq. The faulty information: from the CIA. The emphasis: enthusiasm for a great cause. Even though there is evidence that the President and his advisers knew the information was false, they can deflect the use of the L-word. The falsehoods have been revealed and they, in themselves, do not matter much to most people.

Jump to: navigation, search Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Look up Politics on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political...

Lies and trust

One reason that lying may persist as a strategy in social settings is that it is not the comparison of the facts against some abstract notion of truth, but rather, the assessment of whether or not a betrayal of trust has occurred, that determines the response to a lie. Jump to: navigation, search When someone sincerely agrees with an assertion, they are claiming that it is the truth. ... In general, trust refers to an aspect of a relationship between two parties, by which a given situation is mutually understood, and commitments are made toward actions in favor of a desired outcome. ...


In the case of the Iraq war, for instance, the fact that lies escalated a conflict may have made it a quite serious breach of trust and betrayal of those who would suffer in that conflict. However, anyone who accepts as true the assertion that the regime in place was an inevitable threat to those who perished fighting it, or whose lives are at risk in the aftermath of the invasion, would be far less likely to consider escalating the conflict at the most convenient time to be any kind of betrayal. The perspective of the common sense conservative quite often relies on this kind of assumption of certainty. But if conflicts that are to be escalated are chosen due to some ideology, it is hard to see how this differs from simple might makes right logic. A common sense conservative is an advocate of conservative politics who adopts the rhetoric of common sense to frame his arguments. ... Jump to: navigation, search An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Might makes right is an aphorism describing a morality which dictates that its those who are the strongest will rule others and have the power to determine right and wrong. ...


Lies during childhood

Lying begins at an early age. Young children learn from experience that stating an untruth can avoid punishment for misdeeds, before they develop the theory of mind necessary to understand why it works. In this stage of development, children will sometimes tell fantastic and unbelievable lies, resembling the lie of Koko the Gorilla discussed above, because they lack the conceptual framework to judge whether a statement is believable or even to understand the concept of believability. Jump to: navigation, search The phrase theory of mind is used in several related ways. ...


When children first learn how lying works, naturally they lack the moral understanding to refrain from doing it. It takes years of watching people lie and the results of lies to develop a proper understanding. Propensity to lie varies greatly between children, some doing so habitually and others being habitually honest. Habits in this regard are likely to change into early adulthood. A moral in basically me doing your mom. ...


Some view children as on the whole more prone to lie than adults. Others argue that the amount of lying stays the same, but adults lie about different things. Certainly adult lying tends to be more sophisticated. A lot of this judgement depends on whether one counts tactful untruths, social insincerity, political rhetoric, and other standard adult behaviours as lying.

  • See also: Lie-to-children

A lie-to-children is an expression that describes a form of simplification of material for consumption by children. ...

Lie detection

The question of whether lies can reliably be detected through non-verbal means is a subject of particular controversy. http://members. ...

  • Polygraph lie detector machines measure the physiological stress a subject endures in a number of measures while he or she gives statements or answers questions. Spikes in stress are said to indicate lying behavior. The accuracy of this method is widely disputed, and in several well-known cases it was proven to have been deceived. Nonetheless, it remains in use in many areas.
  • Various truth drugs have been proposed and used anecdotally, though none is considered very reliable. The CIA attempted to find a universal "truth serum" in the MK-ULTRA project, but it was largely a fiasco.
  • Facial microexpressions have been shown to reliably expose lying, according to Paul Ekman's Diogenes Project. Namely, a tiny flash of a "distress" facial expression, though difficult to see with the untrained eye, may give away when a person is lying.

More recently, neuroscientists have found that lying activates completely different brain structures during MRI scans, which may lead to a more accurate (if impractical) method of lie detection. Jump to: navigation, search Polygraph results are sometimes recorded on a chart recorder A polygraph or lie detector is a device which measures and records several physiological variables such as blood pressure, heart rate, respiration and skin conductivity while a series of questions is being asked, in an attempt to... Jump to: navigation, search Stress has different meanings in different fields: Look up stress on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A truth drug (or truth serum) is a drug used for the purposes of obtaining accurate information from an unwilling subject, most often by a police, intelligence, or military organization on a prisoner. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind control research program lasting from the 1950s through the 1970s. ... A microexpression is a tiny facial expression that lasts less than a quarter of a second. ... Paul Ekman (born 1934) was born in Washington, DC and grew up in Newark, New Jersey, Washington, Oregon, and southern California. ... Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system, divided most generally into the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), and the peripheral nervous system, consisting of the myriad nerve pathways running throughout the... For other meanings see Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). ...


Representations of lie

  • Carlo Collodi's Pinocchio is a wooden puppet often led into trouble by his propension to lie. His nose grows with every lie. A long nose has thus become a caricature of liars.

Carlo Lorenzini (November 24, 1826 - October 26, 1890), better known as Carlo Collodi, or simply Collodi, was an Italian writer and journalist. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pinoccho and his father Geppetto are reunited. ...

Related topic

Demagogy is the set of methods used by demagogues. ... The phrase Big Lie refers to a propaganda technique which originated with Adolf Hitlers 1925 autobiography Mein Kampf. ...

See also

Jump to: navigation, search Template:Keep Nonsense is an utterance or written text in what appears to be a human language or other symbolic system, that does not in fact carry any identifiable meaning. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bullshit (often abbreviated bull or BS) is a common English expletive meaning humbug or nonsense. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gibberish is a generic term in English for talking that sounds like speech but has no actual meaning (like the maves rint is slanphed up). This meaning has also been extended to meaningless text (such as ichiuseekskerasff). Gibberish language game Main article: Gibberish (language game... Gobbledygook or gobbledegook is an English term used to describe nonsensical language, sound that resembles language but has no meaning, or encrypted text. ... The boy who cried Wolf! is a fable by Aesop. ... Jump to: navigation, search Will the two prisoners cooperate to minimise total loss of liberty or will one of them, trusting the other to cooperate, betray him so as to go free? The prisoners dilemma is a type of non-zero-sum game (game in the sense of Game... In Shia Islamic tradition, Taqiyya (التقية) is the dissimulation of one’s religious beliefs when one fears for ones life, the lives of ones family members, or for the preservation of the faith. ... A tall tale is a story that claims to explain the reason for some natural phenomenon, or sometimes illustrates how skilled/intelligent/powerful the subject of the tale was. ...

References

Frankfort, Harry: On Bullshit Princeton University Press (2005).


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Falsehood in Wartime by Arthur Ponsonby M.P. (4001 words)
Falsehood in Wartime by Arthur Ponsonby M.P. The Introduction to the book of the same name by Arthur Ponsonby M.P. The object of this volume is not to cast fresh blame on authorities and individuals, nor is it to expose one nation more than another to accusations of deceit.
Falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful weapon in warfare, and every country uses it quite deliberately to deceive its own people, to attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy.
The use of the weapon of falsehood is more necessary in a country where military conscription is not the law of the land than in countries where the manhood of the nation is automatically drafted into the Army, Navy, or Air Service.
The Blinding of Truth by Falsehood (1055 words)
Falsehood said to the Ennead: Let [Tru]th [be brought] and blinded both his eyes and be assigned to be doorkeeper of my house.
Then Falsehood / went off to the fields to inspect his cattle, and he saw that that ox belonging to the boy was exceedingly beautiful in appearance.
Then Falsehood took an oath by the Lord, l.p.h., saying: By [Amon] and by the Ruler, l.p.h., if Truth be found alive, I shall be blinded both my eyes and be assigned [to be door]keeper in the [house of Truth].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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