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Encyclopedia > False analogy

False analogy is a fallacy applying to inductive arguments. It is often mistakenly considered to be a formal fallacy, but it is not, because a false analogy consists of an error in the substance of an argument (the content of the analogy itself), not an error in the logical structure of the argument. Thus, it is an informal fallacy, not a formal fallacy.. Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about induction in philosophy and logic. ... In logic, an argument is a set of statements, consisting of a number of premises, a number of inferences, and a conclusion, which is said to have the following property: if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true or highly likely to be true. ... In philosophy, the term logical fallacy properly refers to a formal fallacy : a flaw in the structure of a deductive argument which renders the argument invalid. ... In Philosophical logic, an informal fallacy is a pattern of reasoning which is false due to the falsity of one or more of its premises. ... In philosophy, the term logical fallacy properly refers to a formal fallacy : a flaw in the structure of a deductive argument which renders the argument invalid. ...

In an analogy, two concepts, objects, or events proposed to be similar in nature (A and B) are shown to have some common relationship with another property. The premise is that A has property X, and thus B must also have property X (due to the assumed similarity of A and B). In false analogies, though A and B may be similar in one respect (such as color) they may not both share property X (e.g. size). Thus, even if bananas and the sun appear yellow, one could not conclude that they are the same size. Many languages have culturally idiosyncratic idioms for invalid analogies or comparisons; for example, such false analogies are likened to "comparing grandmothers and frogs" in Serbian and to "comparing apples and oranges" in English. Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion because: this page is a test If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The word property, in philosophy, mathematics, and logic, refers to an attribute of an object; thus a red object is said to have the property of redness. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sun (Latin: ) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect (former standard was known as Serbo-Croatian language). ... Some different types of apples Apples and oranges refers to the idiom comparing apples and oranges, which is used to indicate that two items or groups of items have not been validly compared. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

• In the field of international relations theory, the fallacy known as the 'domestic analogy' is committed when relationships between political communities (nations) are treated as analogous to relations within political communities (between individuals), such that familiar morals and remedies for interpersonal issues are projected onto foreign policy narratives. To the extent that relationships are different at the local and international level, such analogies are invalid (Hidemi Suganami, The Domestic Analogy and World Order Proposals, CUP, 1989).
• Another example is the following:
The universe is like an intricate watch.
A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker.
Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.[1]
While the universe may be like a watch in that it is intricate, this does not in itself justify the assumption that watches and the universe have similar origins. For this reason, most scientists and philosophers do not accept the analogy, known as the argument from design, with this one specifically known as The Watchmaker Analogy.
By changing a term, the fallacy becomes apparent:
The universe is like an intricate watch.
Many early watches were designed by locksmiths.
Therefore, the universe may have been designed by some kind of locksmith.
The structure of the argument is similar, but here we can more easily see the evolution of watches in terms of
less complex mechanisms and tools. The false analogy becomes more apparent in terms of comparing locks to watches,
and locks to the universe. It should also be noted that many early watch and clockmakers were gunsmiths.

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Domestic analogy is an international affairs term coined by Professor Hedley Bull. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... A teleological argument (or an argument from design) is an argument for the existence of God based on evidence of design in nature. ... The watchmaker analogy, or watchmaker argument, is a teleological argument for the existence of God. ...

## References

1. ^ Life-How did it get here? By evolution or by creation? New York: International Bible Students Association, 1985.

Results from FactBites:

 False analogy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (681 words) False analogy is a fallacy applying to inductive arguments. It is often mistakenly considered to be a logical fallacy, but it is not, because a false analogy consists of an error in the substance of an argument (the content of the analogy itself), not an error in the logical structure of the argument. Many languages have culturally idiosyncratic idioms for invalid analogies or comparisons; for example, such false analogies are likened to "comparing grandmothers and frogs" in Serbian and to "comparing apples and oranges" in English.
 Logical Fallacy: Weak Analogy (486 words) Analogies are neither true nor false, instead they come in degrees from near identity to extreme dissimilarity. Some arguments from analogy are based on analogies that are so weak that the argument is too weak for the purpose to which it is put. Therefore, while the strength of an argument from analogy depends upon the strength of the analogy in its premisses, it is not solely determined by that strength.
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