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Encyclopedia > Fallujah
Fallujah skyline before November 2004 battle
Fallujah skyline before November 2004 battle

Fallujah (Arabic: الفلوجة; sometimes transliterated as Falluja or Fallouja) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. Fallujah dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries. The city grew from a small town in 1947 to a pre-war population of about 350,000 inhabitants in 2003. The current population is unknown but estimated at over 350,000, with approximately 300 new residents arriving monthly. Within Iraq, it is known as the "city of mosques" for the more than 200 mosques found in the city and surrounding villages. The Iraq War has reportedly damaged 60% of the city's buildings, with 20% totally destroyed including 60 of the city's mosques. Map of Iraq showing relative position of Fallujah This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x1996, 936 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x1996, 936 KB) Source: http://www. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Al Anbar (Arabic: ) is a province in the nation of Iraq. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The region has been inhabited for many millennia. There is evidence that the area surrounding Fallujah was inhabited in Babylonian times. The etymology of the town's name is in some doubt, but one theory is that its Syriac name, Pallgutha, is derived from the word division. The city's name in Aramaic is Pumbedita. Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... ...


The region of Fallujah was a part of the Sassanid Persian province of Anbar. The word anbar is Persian and means "warehouse". This region was considered to be the warehouse of the Sassanid troops. [5] The city of Fallujah itself was called Misiche at that time. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Farsi redirects here. ...


The city played host for several centuries to one of the most important Jewish academies, the Pumbedita Academy, which from 258 CE to 1038 was one of the two most important centers of Jewish learning worldwide. [6] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Under the Ottoman Empire, Fallujah was a minor stop on one of the country's main roads across the desert west from Baghdad. Ottoman redirects here. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


In the spring of 1920, the British, who had gained control of Iraq after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, sent Lt Col Gerard Leachman, a renowned explorer and a senior colonial officer, to meet with local leader Shaykh Dhari, perhaps to waiver a loan given to the sheikh. Exactly what happened depends on the source, but according to the Arab version, Gerard Leachman was betrayed by the sheikh who had his relatives shoot him in the leg, then stabbed him to death.[7] Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colonel Leachman disguised as a Bedouin. ... Colonel Leachman disguised as a Bedouin. ...


During the brief Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941, the Iraqi army was defeated by the British in a battle near Fallujah. In 1947 the town had only about 10,000 inhabitants. It grew rapidly into a city after Iraqi independence with the influx of oil wealth into the country. Its position on one of the main roads out of Baghdad made it of central importance. Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ...


Under Saddam Hussein, who ruled Iraq from 1979 to 2003, Fallujah came to be an important area of support for the regime, along with the rest of the region labeled by the US military as the "Sunni Triangle". Many residents of the primarily Sunni city were employees and supporters of Saddam's government, and many senior Ba'ath Party officials were natives of the city. Fallujah was heavily industrialised during the Saddam era, with the construction of several large factories, including one closed down by United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) in the 1990s that may have been used to create chemical weapons. A new highway system (a part of Saddam's infrastructure initiatives) circumvented Fallujah and gradually caused the city to decline in national importance by the time of the Iraq War.[1] Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Sunni Triangle The Sunni Triangle refers to a roughly triangular area of Iraq to the northwest of Baghdad. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was a United Nations organisation performing arms inspections in Iraq after the Gulf War. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...

Fallujah as seen from the west in April 2004
Fallujah as seen from the west in April 2004

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 663 KB) Summary Photo is of Fallujah from the west by the Fallujah Hospital taken by User:Looper5920 in April 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 663 KB) Summary Photo is of Fallujah from the west by the Fallujah Hospital taken by User:Looper5920 in April 2004. ...

Gulf War, 1991

During the Gulf War, Fallujah suffered one of the highest tolls of civilian casualties. Two separate failed bombing attempts on Fallujah's bridge across the Euphrates River hit crowded markets, killing an estimated 200 civilians. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


The first bombing occurred early in the Gulf War. A British jet intending to bomb the bridge dropped two laser-guided bombs on the city's main market. Between 50 and 150 civilians died and many more were injured. In the second incident, Coalition forces attacked Fallujah's bridge over the Euphrates with four laser-guided bombs. At least one struck the bridge while one or two bombs fell short in the river. The fourth bomb hit another market elsewhere in the city, reportedly due to failure of its laser guidance system.[2]


Iraq War, 2003

Downtown Fallujah, December 2003

Fallujah was one of the least affected areas of Iraq immediately after the 2003 invasion by the US-led Coalition. Iraqi Army units stationed in the area abandoned their positions and disappeared into the local population, leaving unsecured military equipment behind. Fallujah was also the site of a Ba'athist resort facility called 'Dreamland', located only a few kilometers outside the city proper. The US occupation of Fallujah began in April 2003, one month following the beginning of the invasion. ... Downtown Fallujah, December 2003 By HHC 505th PIR From http://www. ... Downtown Fallujah, December 2003 By HHC 505th PIR From http://www. ... Once a Baathist resort in Iraq, Dreamland is now the smaller of two major U.S. bases maintained just outside Fallujah. ...


The damage the city had avoided during the initial invasion was negated by damage from looters, who took advantage of the collapse of Saddam's regime. The looters targeted former government sites, the Dreamland compound, and the nearby military bases. Buildings were stripped of anything of value, including floor tiles, window frames, and door frames.[citation needed] Aggravating this situation was the proximity of Fallujah to the infamous Abu Ghraib prison, from which Saddam, in one of his last acts, had released all prisoners. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... See Abu Ghraib prison and Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. ...


Citizens of Fallujah had to defend their own homes and property from these looters and criminals in the absence of peace-keeping authorities.[citation needed] The new mayor of the city—Taha Bidaywi Hamed, selected by local tribal leaders—was strongly pro-American. When the US Army entered the town in April 2003, they positioned themselves at the vacated Ba'ath Party headquarters. A Fallujah Protection Force composed of local Iraqis was set up by the US-led occupants to help fight the rising resistance. An Iraqi, Taha Bidaywi Hamed was elected to lead the town council of Fallujah shortly before the First Battle of Fallujah broke out in 2004. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → A timeline of events in the news for April 2003. ...


On the evening of April 28, 2003, a crowd of 200 people defied a curfew imposed by the Americans and gathered outside a secondary school used as a military HQ to demand its reopening. Soldiers from the 82nd Airborne stationed on the roof of the building opened fire on the crowd, resulting in the deaths of 17 civilians and the wounding of over 70. [3]. The events leading up to the event are disputed. American forces claim they were responding to gunfire from the crowd, while the Iraqis involved deny this version, although conceding rocks were thrown at the troops. A protest against the killings two days later was also fired upon by US troops resulting in two more deaths. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The shootings aggravated feelings against the occupation. Over the next year, various Sunni rebel groups, including foreign terrorists aligned to al-Qaeda[citation needed], entrenched themselves in the city, using it as a command base and a symbol of defiance against the multinational forces and the interim Iraqi government, to whom sovereignty was returned in July 2004. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


On March 31, 2004, Iraqi insurgents in Fallujah ambushed a convoy containing four American private military contractors from Blackwater USA, who were conducting delivery for food caterers ESS.[4] is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Combatants Blackwater USA Iraqi insurgents Commanders unknown Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 4 N/A Casualties 4 killed none The 31 March 2004 Fallujah ambush saw Iraqi insurgents in Fallujah ambush a convoy containing four American private military contractors from Blackwater USA who were conducting delivery for food caterers ESS... A private military contractor (PMC) is a corporation that provides armed forces trained in combat, private military, for other corporations, organizations, individuals and state military forces. ... Blackwater USA is an international security contractor founded in 1997 by Erik Prince and Al Clark. ... Eurest Support Services (ESS), a subsidiary of the giant catering company, the Compass Group. ...


The four armed contractors, Scott Helvenston, Jerry (Jerko) Zovko, Wesley Batalona, and Michael Teague, were dragged from their cars, beaten, and set on fire. Their burned corpses were then dragged through the streets before being hung over a bridge crossing the Euphrates.[5][6] This bridge is unofficially referred to as "Blackwater Bridge" by Coalition Forces operating there.[7][8] Scott Helvenston (1965-March 31, 2004) was a former United States Navy SEAL, and worked as a civilian contractor when he was killed while employed by private military contractor Blackwater Security in Iraq. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


This led to an abortive US operation to recapture control of the city in Operation Vigilant Resolve, and a successful recapture operation in the city in November 2004, called Operation Phantom Fury in English and Operation Al Fajr in Arabic. Operation Phantom Fury resulted in the reputed death of over 1,350 insurgent fighters. Approximately 95 American Marines were killed, and over 1,000 wounded. Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,200[1] 3,000 - 6,000 Casualties 83 KIA , WIA 90+ (U.S) [1] 615 military and civilian KIA Operation Vigilant Resolve, sometimes referred to as the First Battle of/for Fallujah was an abortive... Combatants United States Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi insurgents Tawhid wal Jihad Commanders Maj. ... For other uses, see Battle of Fallujah (disambiguation). ...


The U.S. military first denied that it has used white phosphorus as an anti-personnel weapon in Fallujah, but later retracted that denial, and admitted to using the substance against insurgents as an offensive weapon. [9] White phosphorus is a flare / smoke producing incendiary weapon,[1] or smoke-screening agent, made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus. ...


Current situation

Residents were allowed to return to the city in mid-December 2004 after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wear their ID cards all the time. US officials report that "more than half of Fallujah's 39,000 homes were damaged during Operation Phantom Fury, and about 10,000 of those were destroyed" while compensation amounts to 20 percent of the value of damaged houses, with an estimated 32,000 homeowners eligible, according to Marine Lt Col William Brown.[10] According to NBC, 9,000 homes were destroyed, thousands more were damaged and of the 32,000 compensation claims only 2,500 have been paid as of April 14, 2005.[11] According to Mike Marqusee of Iraq Occupation Focus writing in the Guardian, "Fallujah's compensation commissioner has reported that 36,000 of the city's 50,000 homes were destroyed, along with 60 schools and 65 mosques and shrines".[12] Reconstruction mainly consists of clearing rubble from heavily-damaged areas and reestablishing basic utility services. Ten per cent of the pre-offensive inhabitants had returned as of mid-January 2005, and 30% as of the end of March 2005.[13] In 2006, some reports say two thirds have now returned and only 15 percent remain displaced on the outskirts of the city.[14] At Disney World, biometric measurements are taken of the fingers of multi-day pass users to ensure that the pass is used by the same person from day to day. ... Combatants United States Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi insurgents Tawhid wal Jihad Commanders Maj. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


Pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable; the nominal population was assumed to have been 250,000-350,000. Thus, over 150,000 individuals are still living as IDPs in tent cities or with relatives outside Fallujah or elsewhere in Iraq. Current estimates by the Iraqi Ministry of Interior and Coalition Forces put the city's population at over 350,000, possibly closing in on half a million. Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution, war or natural disaster, but has not crossed an international border. ...


In the aftermath of the offensive, relative calm was restored to Fallujah.


In December 2006, enough control had been exerted over the city to transfer operational control of the city from American forces to the 1st Iraqi Army Division. During the same month, the Fallujah police force began major offensive operations under their new chief. Coalition Forces, as of May 2007, are operating in direct support of the Iraqi Security Forces in the city. The city is one of Anbar province's centers of gravity in a newfound optimism among American and Iraqi leadership about the state of the counterinsurgency in the region.[15][16]


In June 2007, Regimental Combat Team 6 began Operation Alljah, a security plan modeled on a successful operation in Ramadi. After segmenting districts of the city, Iraqi Police and Coalition Forces established police district headquarters in order to further localize the law enforcement capabilites of the Iraqi Police.[17] The 6th Marine Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. ... Operation Alljah is an operation by the US Marines and Multi-national forces in Iraq to secure the neighborhoods of Fallujah. ... This article is about the city. ...


A similar program was met with success in the city of Ramadi in late 2006 and early 2007.


See also

Part of the weapons cache captured in Market Sweep During the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, or Iraq War, Operation Market Sweep involved troops from the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division, and their successful raid into the downtown Fallujah arms market on January 13, 2004. ... Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 2,200[1] 8,000[2] Casualties 27 killed, 90+ wounded[3] 184 insurgents, 616 civilians killed (estimated)[4] The First Battle of Fallujah, codenamed Operation Vigilant Resolve by the United States Military, was an unsuccessful... Combatants United States Iraqi Security Forces Mujahideen Shura of al-Falluja Al-Qaeda in Iraq Commanders Richard F. Natonski Abdullah al-Janabi Omar Hussein Hadid Strength 8,000 (including 5,000 non-combat troops) 4,000 - 5,000 (combatants) Casualties (December 23, 2004) U.S.: 95 killed, 630 wounded[1... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... This is a list of places in Iraq. ...

References

  1. ^ Global Security, Fallujah
  2. ^ Human Rights Watch
  3. ^ Human Rights Watch. Violent Response: The U.S. Army in al-Falluja, Part IV. Accessed 13 May 2007.
  4. ^ "The high-risk contracing business", Frontline, PBS. Accessed 13 May 2007.
  5. ^ Fisk, Robert. Report, The Independent, 1 April 2004. Accessed 13 May 2007.
  6. ^ Chandrasekaran, Rajiv (2007). Imperial Life in the Emerald City. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-9168-9. p 305.
  7. ^ Washington Post. Private security contractors living on edge in Iraq Photographs of the event were released to news agencies worldwide, causing outrage in the United States, and prompting the announcement of a campaign to reestablish American control over the city.
  8. ^ Chandrasekaran, Rajiv (2007). Imperial Life in the Emerald City. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-9168-9. p 305.
  9. ^ BBC News, Wednesday 16 November 2005 [1]
  10. ^ Washington Post, 18 April 2005.
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ The Guardian.
  13. ^ [3].
  14. ^ IRIN Middle East - IRAQ: Fallujah situation improving slowly.
  15. ^ New York Times, "Plan B? Let's Give Plan A a Chance First"
  16. ^ Seattle Times, "Anbar province revitalized as it tames insurgents"
  17. ^ [4]

is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Definition A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 33°21′N, 43°47′E This article does not cite any references or sources. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
McClatchy Washington Bureau | 11/06/2006 | Fallujah once again beset by violence (1512 words)
The city's reputation as the heart of the insurgency was cemented on March 31, 2004, when insurgents killed four American security contractors, hanging their mutilated and burned bodies from the spans of one of the city's main bridges.
With Fallujah's population estimated at 250,000 to 300,000, that would be 5,000 to 6,000 soldiers and police officers.
Jay M. Bargeron, the second in command of the U.S. Marine regiment that works in and around Fallujah, noted, for example, that Iraqis have stepped forward to replace the city council members killed by insurgents and construction is evident on nearly every street as residents work to rebuild destruction from the November 2004 American assault.
Fallujah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1925 words)
Fallujah (Arabic: الفلوجة‎; sometimes transliterated as Falluja or Fallouja) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
Fallujah was one of the least affected areas of Iraq immediately after the 2003 invasion by the U.S. led Coalition.
In the aftermath of the offensive calm was restored to Fallujah.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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