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Encyclopedia > Fallibilism

Fallibilism refers to the philosophical doctrine that absolute certainty about knowledge is impossible; or at least that all claims to knowledge could, in principle, be mistaken. As a formal doctrine, it is most strongly associated with Charles Sanders Peirce, who used it in his attack on foundationalism. Another proponent of fallibilism is Karl Popper, who builds his theory of knowledge, critical rationalism, on fallibilistic presuppotions. In recent times, the concept has also been employed by Willard Van Orman Quine to attack the possibility of analytic statements. The Gettier problem: Justified true belief? Theory of Knowledge: The Gettier problem The Duality of Knowledge Philosophy of Knowledge Glossary Wharton Knowledge Project - aimed to offer free access to course materials for students, teachers, and self-learners. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... ... Karl Popper from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy The Karl Popper Web Karl Popper Institute includes complete bibliography 1925-1999 University of Canterbury (NZ) brief biography of Popper Influence on Friesian Philosophy Open Society Institute George Soros foundations network A Skeptical Look at Karl Popper by Martin Gardner Sir Karl Popper... Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Raimund Popper, which is a logical generalization of his approach to science, falsificationism. ... W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ... Analytic may refer to Analytic proposition or analytic philosophy, in philosophy Analytic geometry, analytic function, analytic continuation, analytic set in mathematics. ...


Unlike scepticism, fallibilism does not imply the need to abandon our knowledge - we needn't have logically conclusive justifications for what we know. Rather, it is an admission that because empirical knowledge can be revised by further observation, any of the things we take as knowledge might possibly turn out to be false. Some fallibilists make an exception for things that are axiomatically true (such as mathematical and logical knowledge). Others remain fallibilists about these as well, on the basis that, even if these axiomatic systems are in a sense infallible, we are still capable of error when working with these systems. Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... Empirical is an adjective often used in conjunction with science, both the natural and social sciences, which means an observation or experiment based upon experience that is capable of being verified or disproved. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Mathematics Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Mathematics Look up Mathematics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mathematics Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles — A collection of articles on various math topics, with interactive Java... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


Moral Fallibilism

Moral fallibilism is a specific subset of the broader epistemological fallibilism outlined above. In the debate between moral subjectivism and moral objectivism, moral fallibilism holds out a third plausible stance: that objectively true moral standards exist, but that they cannot be reliably or conclusively determined by humans. This avoids the problems associated with the flexibility of subjectivism by retaining the idea that morality is not a matter of mere opinion, whilst accounting for the conflict between differing objective moralities. Notable proponents of such views are Isaiah Berlin (value pluralism) and Bernard Williams (perspectivism) Epistemology, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Moral objectivism is the position that certain acts are objectively right or wrong, independent of human opinion. ... Moral objectivism is the position that certain acts are objectively right or wrong, independent of human opinion. ... Sir Isaiah Berlin Sir Isaiah Berlin OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997) was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... Value-pluralism is the idea that two or more moral values may be equally ultimate (true), yet in conflict. ... Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams (September 21, 1929 – June 10, 2003) was an English moral philosopher, noted by The Times as the most brilliant and most important British moral philosopher of his time. ... Perspectivism is the philosophical view that all perception takes place from a specific perspective. ...


Selected Reading

  • Charles S. Peirce: Selected Writings, ed. by Philip P. Wiener (Dover, 1980)
  • Charles S. Peirce and the Philosophy of Science, ed. by Edward C. Moore (Alabama, 1993)

See also probabilism. In theology and philosophy, probabilism (from Latin probare, to test, approve) holds that in the absence of certainty, probability is the best criterion. ...

These five broad types of question are called analytical or logical, epistemological, ethical, metaphysical, and aesthetic respectively. ... The usefulness of dividing philosophy into Western philosophy and other philosophies is open to challenge, not the least for speaking down to those other philosophies. ... Western philosophy is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in Ancient Greece, and including the predominant philosophical thinking of Europe and its former colonies, and continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy tracks the multitudinous theories which aim at some kind of understanding, knowledge or wisdom on fundamental matters as diverse as reality, knowledge, meaning, value, being and truth. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... Below is a list of basic topics in philosophy -- topics which will help the beginner become familiar with the field of philosophy. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... Philosophers (and non-philosophers important in the history of philosophy), listed alphabetically: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Pietro dAbano, (1250?-1316) Firmin Abauzit... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or discriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This is a list of lists. ... Aesthetics is another meaning for visual style, such examples are Realism , Documentary realism, Psychological realism, Expressionism, and Surrealism // Aesthetics in History and Philosophy Thinkers and sages have pondered beauty and art all over the world for millennia, but the subject was formally distinguished as an independent philosophical discipline in the... Ethics (from Greek ethikos) is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Epistemology, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... The philosophy of history asks at least these questions: what is the proper unit for the study of the human past? the individual, the city or sovereign territory, the civilization, or nothing less than the whole of the species?; what broad patterns can we discern through the study of the... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy of mathematics is that branch of philosophy which attempts to answer questions such as: why is mathematics useful in describing nature?, in which sense(s), if any, do mathematical entities such as numbers exist? and why and how are mathematical statements true?. Various approaches to answering these questions will... Philosophy of mind is the philosophical study of the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, and consciousness. ... Meta-philosophy (philosophy of philosophy) is the study of the subject, matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Political philosophy is the study of the fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, property, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical foundations, assumptions, and implications of science, including the natural sciences such as physics, mathematics, and biology, and the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, political science, and economics. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... Agnosticism is the philosophical view that the truth values of certain claims—particularly theological claims regarding the existence of God, gods, or deities—are unknown, inherently unknowable, or incoherent, and therefore, (some agnostics may go as far to say) irrelevant to life. ... Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement of English-speaking countries, although one of its founders, Gottlob Frege, was German, and another, Ludwig Wittgenstein, was Austrian. ... It has been suggested that Nontheism be merged into this article or section. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... ... ... ... Materialism is the philosophical view that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... ... Philosophical skepticism or nihilistic skepticism [1] (UK spelling, scepticism) is the philosophical school of thought in which one critically examines whether the knowledge and perceptions one has are true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have true knowledge. ... Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jacques Maritain Center: Mariano Artigas (14463 words)
Fallibilism need in no way give rise to any skeptical or relativist conclusions (...) Every discovery of a mistake constitutes a real advance in our knowledge (...) Criticism, it seems, is the only way we have of detecting our mistakes, and of learning from them in a systematic way (44).
Fallibilism is mainly an attitude, namely «the acceptance of the fact that we may err»; this attitude is connected with logical arguments (for instance, the impossibility of verifying an universal statement by means of particular tests): but it has nothing to do with relativism.
One of the main difficulties of fallibilism seems to be that it provides a negative account of scientific method and, therefore, it does not justice to the positive results and the corresponding reliability of scientific theories.
Fallibilism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (504 words)
Fallibilism is the philosophical doctrine that absolute certainty about knowledge is impossible; or at least that all claims to knowledge could, in principle, be mistaken.
Another proponent of fallibilism is Karl Popper, who builds his theory of knowledge, critical rationalism, on fallibilistic presuppositions.
Moral fallibilism is a specific subset of the broader epistemological fallibilism outlined above.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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