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Encyclopedia > Fall of Saigon
Fall of Saigon
Part of Vietnam War

This well-known photo taken by Hubert van Es shows South Vietnamese civilians scrambling to board a CIA Air America helicopter during the U.S. evacuation of Saigon.
Date 29 April 1975
Location Saigon, Republic of Vietnam
Result Capitulation of the South Vietnamese government and military,
Mass exodus of Vietnamese refugees,
Establishment of the Republic of South Vietnam under the Provisional Revolutionary Government.
Belligerents
Democratic Republic of Vietnam
National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam
Republic of Vietnam
Commanders
Van Tien Dung
Tran Van Tra
Hoang Cam
Le Duc Anh
Nguyen Van Toan
Nguyen Hop Doan
Strength
100,000 [1] 30,000 [1]
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sự kiện 30 tháng 4 - April 30 Incident; Giải phóng miền Nam - The Liberation of the South by supporters of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam; Ngày mất nước - The Day of losing the nation by supporters of the former Republic of Vietnam) was the capture of Saigon, the capital of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the armed forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Second Indochinese War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam under Communist rule. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Image File history File links Vietnamescape. ... Hubert van Es photo. ... Air America Pilots Cap Air America was an American passenger and cargo airline covertly owned and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Vietnam. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... Image File history File links FNL_Flag. ... Viet Cong redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Văn Tiến DÅ©ng (May 2, 1917 – March 17, 2002) was Chief of the General Staff for the Peoples Army of Vietnam from 1953 to 1978 and Minister of Defense of Vietnam from December, 1980 to 1986. ... Tran Van Tra (1918 – 20 April 1996) was the military leader of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam; a member of the Central Committee of the Lao Dong Party; a lieutenant general in the army of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam); chairman, Military Affairs Committee... Le Duc Anh (Born 1920) Is a former president of Vietnam. ... Lieutenant General Nguyen Van Toan Nguyen Van Toan (6 October 1932 -) was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). ... Colonel Nguyen Hop Doan Colonel Nguyen Hop Doan (1928-2002) was to be the last Mayor of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam and Governor of Gia Dinh Province, before the fall of Saigon that led to the reunification of Vietnam under the Communist party in 1975. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders unknown battalion commander Bui Dinh Dam John Paul Vann Strength 350 1,400 Casualties 18 dead 39 wounded 83 dead 108 wounded The Battle of Ap Bac was a small-scale action early in the Vietnam War that resulted in the first... Belligerents Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Tran Dinh Xu Franklin P. Eller Strength Estimated at 1,800[2] 4,300[3] Casualties and losses 32 confirmed killed[4] 201 killed (5 Americans killed) 192 wounded (8 Americans wounded) 68 missing (3 Americans missing). ... Combatants Viet Cong United States South Vietnam Casualties U.S casualties: 8 killed, 109 wounded and 20 aircraft destroyed or damaged. ... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Casualties 85 Dead 49 ARVN dead 5 American dead The Battle of Song Be was a major action between the NLF (Viet Cong) and ARVN, the South Vietnamese army. ... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Le Trong Tan Cao Van Vien, Charles W. Williams Strength 1,500 10,000 Casualties 700+ estimated KIA ARVN: 800+ killed U.S: 7 killed, 15 wounded and 13 missing The Battle of Dong Xoai was a battle that occurred during the... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders General Lewis W. Walt Strength 5,500 1,500 VC 1st Regiment Casualties 45 killed 203 wounded >614 killed 9 captured Operation Starlite was the first offensive military action conducted by a purely U.S. military unit during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Viet Cong Australia Commanders Unknown John Healy Casualties Unknown 6 wounded 2 missing presumed dead The Battle of Gang Toi was fought on November 8, 1965. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong United States Commanders Nguyen Huu An Thomas W. Brown Harold G. Moore (X-Ray) Robert McDade (Albany) Strength More than 4,000 (Albany and X-Ray) Over 1,000 (Albany and X-Ray) Casualties X-Ray: Est. ... Operation Hastings was an American military operation in the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States South Vietnam Republic of Korea North Vietnam Viet Cong Casualties 288 killed 990 wounded 2232 killed Operation Masher was a combined US, ARVN, and ROKA that began on January 28, 1966. ... Combatants United States South Vietnam North Vietnam Strength 395 2,000 Casualties U.S: 8 killed, 12 wounded and 5 missing South Vietnam: 47 killed or missing Unknown (U.S estimates put the number at 800) The Battle of A Shau was waged in 1966 during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States Viet Cong Strength 134 400+ Casualties 38 killed 71 wounded Unknown Vietnam War Ap Bac â€“ Binh Gia â€“ Pleiku â€“ Song Be â€“ Dong Xoai â€“ Starlite â€“ Gang Toi â€“ Ia Drang â€“ Hastings â€“ Masher/White Wing â€“ A Shau â€“ Xa Cam My â€“ Duc Co â€“ Long Tan â€“ Attleboro â€“ Cedar Falls â€“ Tra Binh Dong â€“ Bribie... Combatants North Vietnam South Korea Commanders Byung Soo Choi Casualties 134+ killed 7 killed 46 wounded In 1966, the Battle of Duc Co was a major engagement between the North Vietnamese 5th Battalion of the 88th Regiment and the South Korean 3rd Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Regiment. ... Combatants Australia, New Zealand, United States Viet Cong, North Vietnam Commanders Harry Smith Nguyen Thanh Hong Strength 108 1,500-2,650[1] Casualties 18 killed, 21 wounded Estimates range from about 50 killed, to 800 casualties total. ... Combatants United States North Vietnam Viet Cong Commanders Major Guy S. Meloy Unknown Casualties 155 US killed 494 US wounded At least 1,106 killed Operation Attleboro was a search-and-destroy operation by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. ... Operation Cedar Falls was conducted by the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces during the Vietnam War on January 8 – January 26, 1967 to rout out Viet Cong base camps in the so-called Iron Triangle. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Korea Commanders Unknown commander Captain Jin-Kyung Chung Strength 2,400+ 294 Casualties 200+ killed and 2 captured 15 killed and 33 wounded The Battle of Tra Binh Dong was probably the most famous battle fought by the South Korean Marines during the Vietnam... Combatants Australia Viet Cong Commanders Lt. ... Operation Junction City was one of the largest airborne operations since Market Garden in the latter half of World War II, and one of the largest operations of the Vietnam conflict. ... Operation Union was a military operation that took place in the Vietnam War. ... Combatants NVA United States Casualties 947 killed 455 killed, 455 wounded The Battle of Hill 881 was a battle between soldiers of the North Vietnamese Army and U.S. Marines during the Vietnam War. ... Operation Union II was a military operation that took place in the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Maj. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 1. ... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders David E. Lownds (local), William C. Westmoreland (theater) Tran Quy Hai (local), Vo Nguyen Giap (theater) Strength 6,000 ~30,000 Casualties 730 killed in action, 2,642 wounded, 7 missing[2] Unknown; estimated between 10,000 and 15... Combatants South Vietnam United States North Vietnam Viet Cong Commanders William Westmoreland Vo Nguyen Giap Strength  ? 35 Battlions Casualties  ?  ? The First Battle of Saigon fought during the Tet Offensive was the coordinated attack by the NVA and VC, by which they attacked South Vietnams Capital Saigon from all sides. ... Combatants South Viet Nam United States North Viet Nam Viet Cong Commanders Ngo Quang Truong Foster C. LaHue Tran Van Quang Strength Over 30,000 8,000, later 12,000 Casualties ARVN: 452 KIA; 2,123 WIA US: 216 KIA; 1,584 WIA[1] Total: 668 KIA; 3,707 WIA... Combatants North Vietnam United States Commanders Unknown Capt. ... Combatants United States Thailand Hmong guerillas North Vietnam Pathet Lao Commanders Vang Pao Vo Nguyen Giap Strength 1,300+ 3,000+ Casualties 8 Americans dead 42 Thai and Hmong Unknown The Battle of Lima Site 85 was a battle of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong United States South Vietnam Australia Strength 10,000+ 1,760+ Casualties  ??? 270+ killed or missing 9 aircraft loss The Battle of Kham Duc was the struggle for the United States Army Special Forces camp located in Quang Tin province, South Vietnam. ... Operation Speedy Express was a United States military operation of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States Marine Corps North Vietnamese Army Commanders Colonel Robert H. Barrow N/A Strength 5,000+ Casualties 130 killed, 932 wounded (USMC account) 1617 killed, unknown number wounded (USMC account) Operation Dewey Canyon was the last major offensive by the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War. ... Tet 1969 refers to the attacks mounted by principally North Vietnamese forces in February 1969 in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. ... Belligerents United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Melvin Zais Unknown Strength estimated at 1,800 estimated at 1,500 Casualties and losses 70 killed, 372 wounded 630+ dead The Battle of Hamburger Hill was a battle of the Vietnam War which was fought between the United States and the... Combatants Viet Cong North Vietnam Australia Casualties 91 killed 1 killed, 8 wounded The Battle of Binh Ba was a battle between soldiers of the Australian Army and NVA and VC soldiers during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants South Vietnam United States Viet Cong Commanders Do Cao Tri â€ } Nguyen Van Minh Bui Thanh Danh Le Nam Phong Strength 2,000 20,000 Casualties 37 killed, 167 wounded, 74 missing Unknown (South Vietnam claimed 1,043 killed) The Battle of Snuol was a major battle of the Vietnam... Combatants Democratic Republic of Vietnam United States Commanders Vo Nguyen Giap Chu Phong Doi Andre Lucas† Ben Harrison Strength 9 battalions 1 battalion Casualties 2400+ KIA 250~ KIA, 1,000+ WIA Wikisource has original text related to this article: After action report: Firebase Ripcord, 23 July 1970 The Battle of... Operation Tailwind was a covert incursion into southeastern Laos by a company-size element (Hatchet Force) of the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MACSOG or SOG) on 11 September 1970, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants Khmer Republic North Vietnam Commanders Brig. ... Combatants North Vietnam United States Commanders unknown Brig Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Hoang Xuan Lam Le Trong Tan (military) Le Quang Dao (political) Strength ARVN: 20,000 troops U.S.: 10,000 troops in support ~25,000 - ~35,000 troops Casualties ARVN: 8,483 killed 12,420 wounded 691 missing U... Combatants North Vietnam Khmer Republic Commanders Unknown Brigadier General Hou Hang Sin Strength VPA 9th Division 10 FANK Battalions Casualties Unknown Decimation of the FANK Battalions Operation Chenla II was launched on August 20, 1971 by the Cambodian military (or FANK) as an attempt to regain territories lost to the... Combatants South Vietnam United States North Vietnam Pathet Lao Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders Lt. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Commanders I Corps: Hoang Xuan Lam (replaced by Ngo Quang Truong) II Corps: Ngo Dzu (replaced by Nguyen Van Toan) III Corps: Nguyen Van Minh Tri-Thien-Hue Region: Van Tien Dung... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam Strength 30,000+ 8,000+ The First Battle of Quang Tri resulted in the first major victory for the North Vietnamese Army during the Nguyen Hue Offensive of 1972. ... Combatants South Vietnam, United States Viet Cong, North Vietnam Commanders Mark A. Smith â˜ Tran Van Tra Strength 1,000+ 40,000+ Casualties Unknown 10,000+ The Battle of Loc Ninh was a major battle fought during North Vietnams Nguyen Hue Campaign and lasted from April 4 to April 7... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Gen. ... Combatants South Vietnam North Vietnam Commanders Col. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam The Second Battle of Quang Tri began on June 28 and lasted until September 16, 1972, when the Army of the Republic of Vietnam defeated the North Vietnamese and recaptured most of the province. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army National Liberation Front Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung President Nguyen Van Thieu (Until April 5) Strength 300,000+ (est. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Vietnam Vietnam Peoples Army Commanders Maj. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Hoang Cam, Hoang The Thien Le Minh Dao Strength 40,000 6,000 Casualties ~5,000 dead and wounded ~2,036 dead and wounded The Battle of Xuan Loc also known as The last stand at Xuan Loc, was the last... Combatants North Vietnam South Vietnam The Battle of Truong Sa was a naval battle that resulted in the capture of the South Vietnamese-held Truong Sa Islands by North Vietnamese forces on April 29, 1975. ... Combatants United States of America Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Lt. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Operation Ranch Hand was a part of the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. ... Operation Pierce Arrow was a U.S. military operation during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States (U.S.) Republic of Vietnam (RVN) Kingdom of Laos Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Pathet Lao (PL) Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction and... For the American mail service, see Pony Express. ... During the Vietnam War, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson in February 1965 ordered a series of reprisal air strikes after a number of attacks on U.S. bases, particularly on a U.S. installation at Pleiku. ... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Joseph H. Moore, William W. Momyer, George S. Brown Phung The Tai (Air Defense), Nguyen Van Tien (Air Force) Casualties United States: ~835 killed, captured, or missing VNAF: Unknown ~20,000 military, ~72,000 civilian Operation Rolling Thunder was... Operation Steel Tiger was a covert US Air Force aerial interdiction effort targeted against North Vietnamese infiltration through southeastern Laos during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Operation Arc Light was the 1965 deployment of B-52 heavy bombers to bases in Guam. ... Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger/Tiger Hound Areas of Operations, 1965. ... Combatants United States Air Force North Vietnamese Air Force Commanders Robin Olds Unknown Strength 56 F-4C Phantom IIs (26 participated) 16 MiG-21 Fishbeds (11-14 engaged) Casualties None seven Mig-21s confirmed destroyed two MiG-21s probably destroyed Operation Bolo was a famous air battle fought in the... Text on this page is modified (with permission) from Paul N. Edwards, The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996). ... Combatants United States, Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Operation Commando Hunt was a covert Seventh/Thirteenth United States Air Force offensive initiative that took place during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Operation Menu was the codename of a covert U.S. Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge Operation Freedom Deal was a US Seventh Air Force interdiction and close air support campaign waged in Cambodia from 19 May 1970 until 15 August 1973, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders John W. Vogt, Jr. ... Combatants United States (U.S.) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Commanders John W. Vogt, jr. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam During the 1960s the United States military worked hard to interdict the movement of men and materiel along the Ho Chi Minh trail. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Saigon redirects here. ... The Peoples Army of Vietnam (PAVN) is the term used by the Vietnamese for their armed forces. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


PAVN forces under the command of Senior General Van Tien Dung began their final attack on Saigon, which was commanded by General Nguyen Van Toan on 29 April, with a heavy artillery bombardment. By the afternoon of the 30th, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points within the city and raised their flag over the Independence Palace. South Vietnam capitulated shortly after. The city was renamed Ho Chi Minh City. Văn Tiến Dũng (May 2, 1917 – March 17, 2002) was Chief of the General Staff for the Peoples Army of Vietnam from 1953 to 1978 and Minister of Defense of Vietnam from December, 1980 to 1986. ... Lieutenant General Nguyen Van Toan Nguyen Van Toan (6 October 1932 -) was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saigon redirects here. ...


The fall of the city was preceded by the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians. The evacuation culminated in Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter evacuation in history.[2] In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war, and institution of new rules by the Communists contributed to a decline in the population of the city. USAF CH-53 helicopters on the deck of Midway during Operation Frequent Wind, April 1975 Operation Frequent Wind was the emergency evacuation of Americans by helicopter from Saigon, South Vietnam in April 1975 during the last days of the Vietnam War. ...

Contents

North Vietnamese advance

See also: Ho Chi Minh campaign

The rapidity with which the South Vietnamese position collapsed in 1975 was surprising to most American and South Vietnamese observers, and probably to the North Vietnamese and their allies as well. For instance, a memo prepared by the CIA and Army Intelligence and published on 5 March indicated that South Vietnam could hold through the current dry season—i.e. at least until 1976.[3] These predictions proved to be grievously in error. Even as that memo was being released, General Dung was preparing a major offensive in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, which began on 10 March and led to the capture of Ban Me Thuot. The ARVN began a disorderly and costly retreat, hoping to redeploy its forces and hold the southern part of South Vietnam, perhaps tan enclave south of the 13th parallel.[4] Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army National Liberation Front Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung President Nguyen Van Thieu (Until April 5) Strength 300,000+ (est. ... This article is about the day. ... Tây Nguyên, translated as Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ...


Supported by artillery and armor, the North Vietnamese continued to march towards Saigon, capturing the major cities of northern South Vietnam at the end of March—Huế on the 25th and Da Nang on the 28th. Along the way, disorderly South Vietnamese retreats and the flight of refugees—there were more than 300,000 in Da Nang[5]—damaged South Vietnamese prospects for a turnaround. After the loss of Da Nang, those prospects had already been dismissed as nonexistent by American Central Intelligence Agency officers in Vietnam, who believed nothing short of B-52 strikes against Hanoi could possibly stop the North Vietnamese.[6] Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... This article is about the city of Da Nang. ... CIA redirects here. ... B-52 can refer to the following: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber aircraft A hairstyle popular in the 1950s and 1960s, named after the aircraft A rock band, The B-52s, named after the hairstyle A cocktail This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ...


By 8 April, the North Vietnamese Politburo, which in March had recommended caution to Dung, cabled him to demand "unremitting vigor in the attack all the way to the heart of Saigon."[7] On 14 April, they renamed the campaign the "Ho Chi Minh campaign," after revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh, in the hopes of wrapping it up before his birthday on 19 May.[8] Meanwhile, South Vietnam failed to garner any significant increase in military aid from the United States, killing President Nguyen Van Thieu's hopes for renewed American support. April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ...


PAVN forces reached Xuan Loc, a strategic gateway situated on the highway into Saigon, on 9 April. The battle of Xuan Loc lasted until 20 April, and though the ARVN fought with extreme tenacity, the communists captured the town. The North Vietnamese front line was now just 26 miles (42 km) from downtown Saigon.[9] The victory at Xuan Loc, which had drawn many South Vietnamese troops away from the Mekong Delta area,[10] opened the way for PAVN to encircle Saigon, and they soon did so, moving 100,000 troops in position around the city by 27 April. With the ARVN having many fewer defenders, the fate of the city was effectively sealed. Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Hoang Cam General Hoang The Hiep (Political Commissar) General Le Minh Dao Strength 40,000 5,000 Casualties 30,000+ dead or wounded 1,500 dead or wounded The Battle of Xuan Loc was the last major... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Hoang Cam, Hoang The Thien Le Minh Dao Strength 40,000 6,000 Casualties ~5,000 dead and wounded ~2,036 dead and wounded The Battle of Xuan Loc also known as The last stand at Xuan Loc, was the last... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 18th Division was an infantry division in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Evacuation

The rapid North Vietnamese advances of March and early April led to increased concern in Saigon that the city, which had been fairly peaceful throughout the war and whose people had endured relatively little suffering, was soon to come under direct attack.[11] Many feared that once Communists took control of the city, a bloodbath of reprisals would take place. In 1968, PAVN and National Liberation Front (NLF) forces had occupied Hue for close to a month. After the Communists were repelled, American and ARVN forces had found mass graves. A study prepared for the U.S. mission in Vietnam indicated that the communists had targeted ARVN officers, Catholics, intellectuals and businessmen, and other suspected counterrevolutionaries.[12] More recently, eight Americans captured in Ban Me Thout had vanished and reports of beheadings and other executions were filtering through from Hue and Da Nang, mostly spurred on by government propaganda.[13] Most Americans and other Westerners wanted to evacuate the city before it fell, and many South Vietnamese wanted to leave as well. National Liberation Front is a common name for guerrilla organisations fighting to free their country from foreign rule, or at least claiming to be such an organisation. ... The Massacre at Hue is the name given to describe the summary executions and mass killings that occurred during the Viet Cong and North Vietnams capture, occupation and withdrawal from the city of Huế during the Tet Offensive, considered one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam...


As early as the end of March, some Americans were leaving the city. For instance, ten families departed on March 31.[14] Flights out of Saigon, lightly booked under ordinary circumstances, were full.[15] Throughout April the speed of the evacuation increased, as the Defense Attache's Office (DAO) began to fly out nonessential personnel. Many Americans attached to the DAO refused to leave without their Vietnamese friends and dependents, who included common-law wives and children. It was illegal for the DAO to move these people to American soil, and this initially slowed down the rate of departure, but eventually the DAO began illegally flying undocumented Vietnamese to Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines.[16] Clark Air Base is a former U.S. Air Force base on Luzon Island in the Philippines. ...


On 3 April, President Gerald R. Ford announced "Operation Babylift", which would evacuate about 2000 orphans from the country. One of the C-5A Galaxy planes involved in the operation crashed, killing 138 passengers and seriously reducing the morale of the American staff.[17] In addition to the 2000 orphans evacuated by Babylift, Operation New Life resulted in the evacuation of over 110,000 Vietnamese refugees. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Operation Babylift was the name given to the mass evacuation of [[children] from South Vietnam to the United States and other countries (including, for example, Australia, Canada) at the end of the Vietnam War (see also the Fall of Saigon), during April 1975. ... The United States Air Force C-5 Galaxy The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is one of the largest military aircraft in the world. ... Operation New Life (April 1975 – September 1975) was the U.S. military evacuation of about 110,000 Southeast Asian refugees displaced by the Vietnam War out of South Vietnam. ...


Administration plans for final evacuation

By this time the Ford administration had also begun planning a complete evacuation of the American presence. Planning was complicated by practical, legal, and strategic concerns. The administration was divided on how swift the evacuations should be. The Pentagon sought to evacuate as fast as possible, to avoid the risk of casualties or other accidents. The U.S Ambassador to South Vietnam, Graham Martin, was technically the field commander for any evacuation, since evacuations are in the purview of the State Department. Martin drew the ire of many in the Pentagon by wishing to keep the evacuation process as quiet and orderly as possible. His desire for this was to prevent total chaos and to deflect the real possibility of South Vietnamese turning against Americans, and to keep all-out bloodshed from occurring. This article is about the United States military building. ... Graham Martin succeeded Ellsworth Bunker as U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam in 1973. ...


Ford approved a plan between the extremes in which all but 1,250 Americans—few enough to be removed in a single day's helicopter airlift—would be evacuated quickly; the remaining 1,250 would leave only when the airport was threatened. In between, as many Vietnamese refugees as possible would be flown out.[18]


Meanwhile, Martin began (in his words) "playing fast and loose with exit visas"[citation needed] to allow any and all who wished to leave Saigon to depart by any means available in the early days. Without the Pentagon's knowledge, Martin and Deputy Chief of Mission Wolfgang Lehmann had already begun allowing thousands of South Vietnamese nationals to depart.


American evacuation planning was set against other administration policies. Ford still hoped to gain additional military aid for South Vietnam. Throughout April, he attempted to get Congress behind a proposed appropriation of $722 million, which might allow for the reconstitution of some of the South Vietnamese forces that had been destroyed. Kissinger was opposed to a full-scale evacuation as long as the aid option remained on the table, because the removal of American forces would signal a loss of faith in Thieu and severely weaken him.[19]


There was also concern in the administration over whether the use of military forces to support and carry out the evacuation was permitted under the newly-passed War Powers Act. Eventually White House lawyers determined that the use of American forces to rescue citizens in an emergency was unlikely to run afoul of the law, but the legality of using military assets to withdraw refugees was unknown.[20] The evacuation of Saigon also had to compete for resources with the imminent evacuation of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, which fell on 17 April. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with War Powers Resolution. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Refugees

While American citizens were generally assured of a simple way to leave the country just by showing up to an evacuation point, South Vietnamese who wanted to leave Saigon before it fell often resorted to independent arrangements. The under-the-table payments required to gain a passport and exit visa jumped sixfold, and the price of seagoing vessels tripled.[21] Those who owned property in the city were often forced to sell it at a substantial loss or abandon it altogether; the asking price of one particularly impressive house was cut 75 percent within a two-week period.[22] American visas were of enormous value, and Vietnamese seeking American sponsors posted advertisements in newspapers. One such ad read: "Seeking adoptive parents. Poor diligent students:" followed by names, birthdates, and identity card numbers.[23]


Political movements and attempts at a negotiated solution

As the North Vietnamese chipped away more and more of South Vietnam, internal opposition to President Thieu continued to accumulate. For instance, in early April, the Senate unanimously voted through a call for new leadership, and some top military commanders were pressing for a coup. In response to this pressure, Thieu made some changes to his cabinet, and Prime Minister Tran Thien Khiem resigned.[24] This did little to reduce the opposition to Thieu. On 8 April a South Vietnamese pilot bombed the presidential palace and then flew to a PAVN-controlled airstrip; Thieu was not hurt.[25] Tran Thien Khiem was a prominent ARVN general during the Vietnam War. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Many in the American mission—Martin in particular—along with some key figures in Washington believed that negotiations with the Communists were possible, especially if Saigon could stabilize the military situation. Ambassador Martin's hope was that North Vietnam's leaders would be willing to allow a "phased withdrawal" whereby a gradual departure might be achieved in order to allow helpful locals and all Americans to leave (along with full military withdrawal) over a period of months.


Opinions were divided on whether any government headed by Thieu could effect such a political solution.[26] The Provisional Revolutionary Government's foreign minister had on 2 April indicated that the PRG might negotiate with a Saigon government that did not include Thieu. Thus, even among Thieu's supporters, pressure was growing for his ouster.[27] The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (Vietnamese language|Vietnamese: Chính Phủ Cách Mạng Lâm Thời Cộng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam), often abbreviated to PRG, was a underground government formed on June 8, 1969 in opposition to... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


President Thieu resigned on 21 April. His remarks were particularly hard on the Americans, first for forcing South Vietnam to accede to the Paris Peace Accords, second for failing to support South Vietnam afterwards, and all the while asking South Vietnam "to do an impossible thing, like filling up the oceans with stones."[28] The presidency was turned over to Vice President Tran Van Huong. The Communist line, broadcast by Radio Hanoi, was that the new regime was merely "another puppet regime."[29] is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ... President Trần Văn Hương Trần Văn Hương (1902–1982) was a South Vietnamese politician. ...


Last days

All times given are Saigon time.

On 27 April, Saigon was hit by three NVA rockets – the first in more than 40 months.[30] is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Operation Frequent Wind

See also: Operation Frequent Wind
A Marine provides security as helicopters land at the DAO compound.
A Marine provides security as helicopters land at the DAO compound.

Before daybreak on 29 April, Tan Son Nhut airport was hit by rockets and heavy artillery. In the initial shelling, a C-130 taxing to pick up evacuees and flown by an aircrew stationed at Clark Airbase, Philippines was struck. The crew evacuated the burning aircraft on the taxiway and departed the airfield on another C-130 that had previously landed. The continuing rocket fire and debris on the runways caused General Homer D. Smith, the U.S. defense attaché in Saigon, to advise Ambassador Martin that the runways were unfit for use and that the emergency evacuation of Saigon would need to be completed by helicopter.[31] USAF CH-53 helicopters on the deck of Midway during Operation Frequent Wind, April 1975 Operation Frequent Wind was the emergency evacuation of Americans by helicopter from Saigon, South Vietnam in April 1975 during the last days of the Vietnam War. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hồ Chí Minh International Airport (also called Tân SÆ¡n Nhất International Airport) is Vietnams largest international airport. ...


Originally, Ambassador Martin had fully intended to effect the evacuation by use of fixed-wing aircraft from the base. This plan was altered at a critical time when a South Vietnamese pilot decided to defect, and jettisoned his ordinance along the only runways still in use (which had not yet been destroyed by shelling).


Under pressure from Kissinger, Martin forced Marine guards to take him to the air base in the midst of continued shelling, so he might personally ascertain the situation. After seeing that fixed-wing departures were not an option (a mammoth decision Martin did not want to make without firsthand responsibility in case the helicopter lift failed), Martin gave the green light for the helicopter flights to the embassy to begin in earnest.


Reports came in from the outskirts of the city that the North Vietnamese were moving.[32] At 10:48 a.m., Martin relayed to Kissinger his desire to activate "the FREQUENT WIND" evacuation plan; Kissinger gave the order three minutes later. The American radio station began regular play of Irving Berlin's "White Christmas," the signal for American personnel to move immediately to the evacuation points.[33] Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... White Christmas is an Irving Berlin song whose lyrics reminisce about White Christmases. ...


Under this plan, CH-53 and CH-46 helicopters were used to evacuate Americans and friendly Vietnamese to ships, including the Seventh Fleet, in the South China Sea.[34] The main evacuation point was the DAO compound at Tan Son Nhut; buses moved through the city picking up passengers and driving them out to the airport, with the first buses arriving at Tan Son Nhut shortly after noon. The first CH-53 landed at the DAO compound in the afternoon, and by the evening, 395 Americans and more than 4,000 Vietnamese had been evacuated. By 23:00 the U.S. Marines who were providing security were withdrawing and arranging the demolition of the DAO office, American equipment, files, and cash. The Sikorsky S-65 is a heavy transport helicopter originally developed for use by the United States Marine Corps, who designated it the CH_53 Sea Stallion. ... The CH-46D Sea Knight helicopter is a medium lift assault helicopter, used by the United States Navy for shipboard delivery of cargo and personnel. ... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military formation based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. ...


The original evacuation plans had not called for a large-scale helicopter operation at the U.S. embassy. Helicopters and buses were to shuttle people from the embassy to the DAO compound. However, in the course of the evacuation it turned out that a few thousand people were stranded at the embassy, including many Vietnamese. Additional Vietnamese civilians gathered outside the embassy and scaled the walls, hoping to claim refugee status. Thunderstorms increased the difficulty of helicopter operations. Nevertheless, the evacuation from the embassy continued more or less unbroken throughout the evening and night.

Vietnamese refugees arriving on a U.S. Navy vessel.
Vietnamese refugees arriving on a U.S. Navy vessel.

At 03:45 on the morning of 30 April, the refugee evacuation was halted. Ambassador Martin had been ordering that South Vietnamese be flown out with Americans up to that point. Kissinger and Ford, livid with Martin's regard for the lives of the Vietnamese being equal to those of the Americans, quickly ordered Martin to evacuate only Americans from that point forward. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reluctantly, Martin announced that only Americans were to be flown out, due to worries that the North Vietnamese would soon take the city and the Ford administration's desire to announce the completion of the American evacuation.[35] Ambassador Martin was ordered by President Ford to board the evacuation helicopter.


The call sign of that helicopter was "Lady Ace 09", and the pilot carried direct orders from President Ford for Ambassador Martin to be on board. The pilot, Gerry Berry, had the orders written in grease-pencil on his kneepads. Ambassador Martin's wife, Dorothy, had already been evacuated by previous flights, and left behind her personal suitcase so a South Vietnamese woman might be able to squeeze on board with her.

Model of US embassy in Saigon. The rooftop staircase that can be seen in the model is on permanent display at the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Model of US embassy in Saigon. The rooftop staircase that can be seen in the model is on permanent display at the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

"Lady Ace 09" from HMM-165 and piloted by Berry, took off around 05:00 - had Martin refused to leave, the Marines had a reserve order to arrest him and carry him away to ensure his safety.[36] The embassy evacuation had flown out 978 Americans and about 1,100 Vietnamese. The Marines who had been securing the embassy followed at dawn, with the last aircraft leaving at 07:53. A few hundred Vietnamese were left behind in the embassy compound,[37] with an additional crowd gathered outside the walls. The Gerald R. Ford Museum is located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... Grand Rapids redirects here. ... Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165 (HMM-165) is a United States Marine Corps helicopter squadron consisting of CH-46E Sea Knight transport helicopters. ...


The Americans and the refugees they flew out were generally allowed to leave without molestation from either the North or South Vietnamese. Pilots of helicopters heading to Tan Son Nhut were aware that PAVN anti-aircraft guns were tracking them, but they refrained from firing. The Hanoi leadership, reckoning that completion of the evacuation would lessen the risk of American intervention, had instructed Dung not to target the airlift itself.[38] Meanwhile, members of the police in Saigon had been promised evacuation in exchange for protecting the American evacuation buses and control of the crowds in the city during the evacuation.[39]


Although this was the end of the American military operation, Vietnamese continued to leave the country by boat and, where possible, by aircraft. South Vietnamese pilots who had access to helicopters flew them offshore to the American fleet, where they were able to land; those who left South Vietnam this way include at least General Nguyen Cao Ky. Most of the South Vietnamese helicopters were dumped into the ocean to make room on the decks for more aircraft.[40] South Vietnamese fighters and other small planes also landed on American carriers.[41] Nguyá»…n Cao Kỳ   (born 1930) is a Vietnamese politician, who served as Prime Minister of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1967, and then as Vice President until his retirement from politics in 1971. ...


Ambassador Martin was flown out to the USS Blue Ridge, where he pleaded for helicopters to return to the embassy compound to pick up the few hundred remaining hopefuls waiting to be evacuated. Although his pleas were overruled by President Ford, Martin was able to convince the Seventh Fleet to remain on station for several days so any locals who could make their way to sea via boat or aircraft may be rescued by the waiting Americans. The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan. ...


Decades later, when the U.S. reestablished diplomatic relations with Vietnam, the old U.S. Embassy property was returned to the U.S. The historic stair case that led to the rooftop helicopter was salvaged and is on permanent display at the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The Gerald R. Ford Museum is located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... Grand Rapids redirects here. ...


Capitulation of South Vietnam

An PAVN tank crashes through the gates of the Independence Palace.
An PAVN tank crashes through the gates of the Independence Palace.

At 06:00 on 29 April, General Dung was ordered by the Politburo to "strike with the greatest determination straight into the enemy's final lair."[42] Image File history File links Saigon_T-54. ... Image File history File links Saigon_T-54. ... Reunification Palace Reunification Palace (Vietnamese: Dinh Thống Nhất) formerly known as Independence Palace (Dinh Độc Lập) or Norodom Palace, is a historic landmark in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After one day of bombardment and general offensive, the North Vietnamese were ready to make their final push into the city. In the early hours of 30 April, Dung received orders from the Politburo to attack. He then ordered his field commanders to advance directly to key facilities and strategic points in the city.[43] The first PAVN unit to enter the city was the 324th Division.[44] Duong Van Minh, who had been president of South Vietnam for only three days, at 10:24 announced a surrender and asked South Vietnamese forces "to cease hostilities in calm and to stay where they are," while inviting the Provisional Revolutionary Government to engage in "a ceremony of orderly transfer of power so as to avoid any unnecessary bloodshed in the population."[45] is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dương Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ...


However, the North Vietnamese were uninterested in a handover and simply took the city, arresting Minh. The gates of the Independence Palace were destroyed by PAVN tanks as they entered, and the NLF flag was raised over the Palace at 11:30. At 15:30, Minh broadcast over the radio, stating "I declare the Saigon government...completely dissolved at all levels."[citation needed] The dissolution of the South Vietnamese government effectively ended the Vietnam War. Reunification Palace Reunification Palace (Vietnamese: Dinh Thống Nhất) formerly known as Independence Palace (Dinh Độc Lập) or Norodom Palace, is a historic landmark in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. ...


Aftermath

Turnover of Saigon

The Communists renamed the city after Ho Chi Minh, former President of North Vietnam, although this name was not frequently used outside of official business.[46] Order was slowly restored, although the by-then-deserted U.S. embassy was looted, along with many other businesses. Communications between the outside world and Saigon were cut. The Communist party machinery in South Vietnam was weakened, owing in part to the Phoenix program, so the North Vietnamese army was responsible for maintaining order and General Tran Van Tra, Dung's administrative deputy, was placed in charge of the city.[47] The new authorities held a victory rally on 7 May.[48] The Phoenix Program (Vietnamese: Kế Hoạch Phụng Hoàng, a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) or Operation Phoenix was a military, intelligence, and internal security coordination program designed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Vietnam War. ... Tran Van Tra (1918 – 20 April 1996) was the military leader of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam; a member of the Central Committee of the Lao Dong Party; a lieutenant general in the army of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam); chairman, Military Affairs Committee... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to the Hanoi government, more than 200,000 South Vietnamese government officials, military officers, and soldiers were sent to "reeducation camps", where torture, disease and malnutrition were widespread.[49] Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official name given to the prison camps operated by the government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War. ...


One objective of the Communist government was to reduce the population of Saigon, which had become swollen with an influx of people during the war and was now overcrowded with high unemployment. "Reeducation classes" for former soldiers in the South Vietnamese armed forces indicated that in order to regain full standing in society they would need to move from the city and take up farming. Handouts of rice to the poor, while forthcoming, were tied to pledges to leave Saigon for the countryside. According to the Vietnamese government, within two years of the capture of the city one million people had left Saigon, and the state had a target of 500,000 further departures.[50]


30 April is a public holiday in Vietnam, known as Reunification Day (though the reunification of the nation actually occurred on 2 July 1976) or Liberation Day (Ngày Giải Phóng). is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reunification Day or Liberation Day (Ngày Giải Phóng) is a public holiday in Vietnam that marks the anniversary of North Vietnamese troops capturing Saigon (later renamed Ho Chi Minh City) on 30 April 1975. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Evaluation of the evacuation

Whether the evacuation had been successful was questioned following the end of the war. Operation Frequent Wind was generally assessed as an impressive achievement — Van Tien Dung conceded this in his memoirs, and the New York Times described it as being carried out with "efficiency and bravery"[51] But the airlift was also criticized for being too slow and hesitant and that it was inadequate in removing Vietnamese connected with the American presence. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Ambassador Martin shouldered much of the blame, and did so without feeling the need to explain his motives to the media. Martin's actions had either allowed thousands of South Vietnamese to escape who otherwise would have been trapped, or doomed thousands of others who could not escape. The evacuations might have caused a rash of panic resulting in loss of American lives, or they might not. Meanwhile, from the onset of the evacuation, President Ford and Henry Kissinger were only concerned about the evacuation of crucial American personnel.


However, many in the United States Congress (with no first-hand knowledge of the massive operation) blamed Martin for proceeding too slowly. This was in direct contradiction to the realities of the situation, since Martin had been the one who had allowed many to leave the country days before the final evacuation with little or no official reason. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


The U.S. State Department estimated that the Vietnamese employees of the American Embassy in Vietnam, past and present, and their families totaled 90,000 people. In his testimony to Congress, Martin asserted that 22,294 such people were evacuated by the end of April.[52] Of the tens of thousands of former South Vietnamese employees of the State Department, CIA, U.S military, and countless armed forces officers and personnel at risk of communist reprisal in the northern two-thirds of the country abandoned to the communists, nothing is known.


References

  • Associated Press. "Minh Surrenders, Vietcong In Saigon", The New York Times, April 30, 1975. (accessed January 25, 2007)
  • Brown, Weldon. The Last Chopper: The Denouement of the American Role in Vietnam, 1963-1975. Kennikat Press, 1976.
  • Butterfield, Fox. "Many Americans Quit Vietnam; U.S. Denies Evacuation Orders", The New York Times, April 2, 1975. p. 1.
  • Dawson, Alan. 55 Days: The Fall of South Vietnam. Prentice-Hall, 1977.
  • Dunham, George R. and Quinlan, David A. U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Bitter End, 1973-1975. History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1990.
  • Isaacs, Arnold. Without Honor: Defeat in Vietnam and Cambodia. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.
  • Kissinger, Henry. Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America's Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War. Simon & Schuster, 2003. ISBN 0-7432-1532-X
  • Pike, Douglas. The Viet-Cong Strategy of Terror. 1970. (accessed January 18, 2007)
  • Smith, Homer D. The Final Forty-Five Days in Vietnam. May 22, 1975. (accessed January 16, 2007)
  • Snepp, Frank. Decent Interval: An Insider's Account of Saigon's Indecent End Told by the CIA's Chief Strategy Analyst in Vietnam. Random House, 1977. ISBN 0-394-40743-1
  • Tanner, Stephen. Epic Retreats: From 1776 to the Evacuation of Saigon. Sarpedon, 2000. ISBN 1-885119-57-7. See especially p. 273 and on.
  • Todd, Olivier. Cruel April: The Fall of Saigon. W.W. Norton & Company, 1990. (originally published in 1987 in French)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War. Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Van Tien Dung. Our Great Spring Victory: An Account of the Liberation of South Vietnam. Monthly Review Press, 1977.
  • Weinraub, Bernard. "Attack on Saigon Feared; Danang Refugee Sealift is Halted by Rocket Fire", The New York Times, April 1, 1975. p. 1.
  • "The Americans Depart", The New York Times, April 30, 1975. p. 40.

is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Frank Warren Snepp (born 3 May 1943, Kinston, North Carolina) is a journalist and former chief analyst of North Vietnamese strategy for the CIA in Saigon during the Vietnam War. ... Văn Tiến Dũng (May 2, 1917 – March 17, 2002) was Chief of the General Staff for the Peoples Army of Vietnam from 1953 to 1978 and Minister of Defense of Vietnam from December, 1980 to 1986. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b North Vietnam Invades 1975
  2. ^ Dunham and Quinlan, 202.
  3. ^ Todd, 433.
  4. ^ Tanner, 303.
  5. ^ Dawson, xiii.
  6. ^ Snepp, 280.
  7. ^ Todd, 248.
  8. ^ Todd, 249.
  9. ^ Dawson, xv.
  10. ^ Dawson, xv.
  11. ^ Weinraub.
  12. ^ Pike.
  13. ^ Tanner, 312.
  14. ^ Dawson, xiv.
  15. ^ Butterfield.
  16. ^ Snepp, 312.
  17. ^ Dunham and Quinlan, 157; Snepp, 304
  18. ^ Kissinger, 540-1.
  19. ^ Snepp, 330.
  20. ^ Snepp, 303.
  21. ^ Snepp, 352.
  22. ^ Brown, 318.
  23. ^ Todd, 311.
  24. ^ Snepp, 287
  25. ^ Snepp, 316.
  26. ^ Snepp, 289.
  27. ^ Snepp, 319
  28. ^ Todd, 296.
  29. ^ Todd, 298.
  30. ^ Dawson, xv.
  31. ^ Smith.
  32. ^ Tanner, 313.
  33. ^ Todd, 353.
  34. ^ Accounts of Operation Frequent Wind can be found in Spencer (s.v. "FREQUENT WIND, Operation"), Todd (346-387), and Isaacs.
  35. ^ Todd, 366.
  36. ^ Todd, 367.
  37. ^ Isaacs gives the number of Vietnamese left waiting as 420.
  38. ^ Snepp, 478.
  39. ^ Tanner, 314.
  40. ^ Tanner, 314.
  41. ^ Todd, 370.
  42. ^ Todd, 347.
  43. ^ Snepp, 551.
  44. ^ Snepp, 568.
  45. ^ Associated Press, "Minh Surrenders, Vietcong In Saigon".
  46. ^ Dawson, 351.
  47. ^ Snepp, 568.
  48. ^ Dawson, xvi.
  49. ^ Snepp, 569.
  50. ^ Dawson, 351.
  51. ^ New York Times, "The Americans Depart".
  52. ^ Snepp, 565.

External links

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ...

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