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Encyclopedia > Falklands War
Falklands War
Location of the Falkland Islands
Map showing location of the Falkland Islands
Date 2 April 198214 June 1982
Location Falkland Islands, South Georgia and surrounding sea and airspace
Result Decisive British military victory (status quo ante bellum), collapse of the Argentine Military Junta led by dictator Leopoldo Galtieri
Belligerents
Flag of Argentina
Argentina
Flag of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Commanders
President Leopoldo Galtieri
Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo
Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo
Brigade-General Mario Menéndez
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse
Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward
Major-General Jeremy Moore
Casualties and losses
649 killed
1,068 wounded
11,313 taken prisoner
75 fixed-wing aircraft
25 helicopters
1 light cruiser
1 submarine
4 cargo vessels
2 patrol boats
1 spy trawler
258 killed[1]
777 wounded
115 taken prisoner
6 Sea Harriers
4 Harrier GR.3
24 helicopters
2 destroyers
2 frigates
1 LSL landing ship
1 LCU amphibious craft
1 containership
4 ships withdrawn[19]

The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur), also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the disputed Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The Falkland Islands consist of two large and many small islands in the South Atlantic Ocean east of Argentina, and their name and ownership have long been disputed. (See Sovereignty of the Falkland Islands for the background to the latter dispute.) Locator map for the Falkland Islands. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Spanish, National Reorganization Process, often simply Proceso) was the name given by its leaders to the dictatorial regime that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. ... Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli (July 15, 1926 - January 12, 2003) was an Argentinian general and the de facto President of Argentina from 22 December 1981 to 18 June 1982, during the last military dictatorship. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli (July 15, 1926 - January 12, 2003) was an Argentinian general and the de facto President of Argentina from 22 December 1981 to 18 June 1982, during the last military dictatorship. ... Ernesto Horacio Crespo (born 1932) is an Argentine retired Brigadier General and former Chief of Staff of the Argentine Air Force. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable John David Elliott Fieldhouse, Baron Fieldhouse, GCB, GBE (1928–17 February 1992) was a high ranking officer in the Royal Navy Primarily a submariner in the Royal Navy, later rising to the highest position in UK Armed Forces In 1982 in the rank... Sir John Forster Sandy Woodward GBE KCB (born May 1, 1932) is a British Admiral who joined the Royal Navy in 1946 at age thirteen. ... Jeremy Moore was born January 7th, 1982 in Willimantic, Connecticut. ... The Prefectura Naval Argentina (PNA; in English Argentine Naval Prefecture) is a military service of the Argentine Interior Ministry charged with protecting the countrys rivers and maritime territory. ... The Landing Ship Logistic (LSL) is a term used by the UK armed forces to describe the Round table class landing ship used for support of amphibious warfare missions. ... Landing Craft Utility (LCU) are used by amphibious forces to transport equipment and troops to the shore. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Governor Rex Hunt Major Mike Norman RM Major Ian Nott RM Major Phil Sommers FIDF Admiral Carlos Busser Lieutenant commander Guillermo Sánchez-Sabarots Lieutenant commander Pedro Giachino† Strength 46 marines 11 RN sailors 25 FIDFs troops 600 troops (some 60 actually clashed with... The Raid on Pebble Island took place on 14-15 May 1982[citation needed] during the Falklands War. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Captain Anthony Morton (HMS Yarmouth) Captain John Coward (HMS Brilliant) Captain Jorge A. Gopcevich-Canevari (ARA Monsunen) Strength 1 Type 22 frigate Frigate 1 Rothesay class Frigate 1 Armed coastal ship Casualties None Coastal ship beached (later taken in tow and rescued by ARA Forrest... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Captain Rod Boswell Captain Vercesi Strength 19 troops 13 troops Casualties 3 wounded 2 killed 6 wounded 5 captured The Battle of Top Malo House was fought on the 31st May 1982 during the Falklands War, between 1st section Argentine Special Forces from 602 Commando... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... The sovereignty of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas in Spanish) [1] has been the subject of dispute between the United Kingdom, Spain, France and Argentina (all controlling the Falkland Islands at some point), lasting more than two centuries. ...


The war was triggered by the occupation of South Georgia by Argentina on 19 March 1982 followed by the occupation of the Falklands, and ended when Argentina surrendered on 14 June 1982. War was not actually declared by either side. The initial invasion was considered by Argentina as the re-occupation of its own territory, and by Britain as an invasion of a British overseas territory, and the most recent invasion of British territory by a foreign power. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


In the period leading up to the war, Argentina was in the midst of a devastating economic crisis and large-scale civil unrest against the military junta that had been governing the country since 1976.[2] The Argentine military government, headed by General Leopoldo Galtieri, sought to maintain power by diverting public attention playing off long-standing feelings of the Argentines towards the islands,[3] although they never thought that the United Kingdom would respond militarily.[4] The ongoing tension between the two countries over the islands increased on 19 March when a group of hired Argentinian scrap metal merchants raised their flag at South Georgia, an act that would later be seen as the first offensive action in the war. The Argentine Military Junta, suspecting that the UK would reinforce its South Atlantic Forces,[5] ordered the invasion of the Falkland Islands to be brought forward to 2 April. Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. ... A crisis (plural: crises) is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ... Civil disorder is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ... Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli (July 15, 1926 - January 12, 2003) was an Argentinian general and the de facto President of Argentina from 22 December 1981 to 18 June 1982, during the last military dictatorship. ... The sovereignty of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas in Spanish) [1] has been the subject of dispute between the United Kingdom, Spain, France and Argentina (all controlling the Falkland Islands at some point), lasting more than two centuries. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | Waste ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... “Flag of Argentina” redirects here. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Governor Rex Hunt Major Mike Norman RM Major Ian Nott RM Major Phil Sommers FIDF Admiral Carlos Busser Lieutenant commander Guillermo Sánchez-Sabarots Lieutenant commander Pedro Giachino† Strength 46 marines 11 RN sailors 25 FIDFs troops 600 troops (some 60 actually clashed with... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Word of the invasion first reached Britain via amateur radio.[6] Britain was initially taken by surprise by the Argentine attack on the South Atlantic islands, despite repeated warnings by Royal Navy captain Nicholas Barker and others. Barker believed that the intention expressed in Defence Secretary John Nott's 1981 review to withdraw his ship HMS Endurance, Britain's only naval presence in the South Atlantic, sent a signal to the Argentinians that Britain was unwilling, and would soon be unable, to defend her territories and subjects in the Falklands.[7][8] Britain launched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Argentine Air Force, and retake the islands by amphibious assault. After combat resulting in 258 British and 649 Argentine deaths, the British eventually prevailed and the islands remained under British control. However, as of 2007 [9] and as it has since the 19th century, Argentina shows no sign of relinquishing its claim. Indeed, the claim remains in the Argentine constitution after its reformation in 1994.[10] Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Argentina The Constitution of Argentina is one of the primary sources of law in Argentina. ...


The political effects of the war were strong in both countries. A wave of patriotic sentiment swept through both: the Argentine loss prompted even larger protests against the military government, which hastened its downfall; in the United Kingdom, the government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was bolstered. It helped Thatcher's government to victory in the 1983 general election, which prior to the war was seen as by no means certain. The war has played an important role in the culture of both countries, and has been the subject of several books, films, and songs. The cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect on the British public than on that of Argentina, where the war is still a topic of discussion.[11] The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ...

Contents

Lead-up to the conflict

This article discusses the events leading to the 1982 Falklands War (Guerra de Malvinas in Spanish) between the United Kingdom and Argentina over possession of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). ...

War

See also: 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands

By mid-April, the Royal Air Force had set up an airbase at Wideawake on the mid-Atlantic island of Ascension, including a sizable force of Avro Vulcan B Mk 2 bombers, Handley Page Victor K Mk 2 refuelling aircraft, and McDonnell Douglas Phantom FGR Mk 2 fighters to protect them. Meanwhile the main British naval task force arrived at Ascension to prepare for war. A small force had already been sent south to re-capture South Georgia. Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Governor Rex Hunt Major Mike Norman RM Major Ian Nott RM Major Phil Sommers FIDF Admiral Carlos Busser Lieutenant commander Guillermo Sánchez-Sabarots Lieutenant commander Pedro Giachino† Strength 46 marines 11 RN sailors 25 FIDFs troops 600 troops (some 60 actually clashed with... RAF redirects here. ... Ascension Island Base is a British station on Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... The Avro Vulcan was a British delta wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... The Handley Page Victor was a British jet bomber aircraft produced by the Handley Page Aircraft Company. ... A tanker is an aircraft used for in-flight refuelling. ... The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ...


Encounters began in April; the British Task Force was shadowed by Boeing 707 aircraft of the Argentine Air Force during their travel to the south. One of these flights was intercepted outside the British self-imposed exclusion zone, by a Sea Harrier; the unarmed 707 was not attacked because diplomatic moves were still in progress and the UK had not yet decided to commit itself to war. The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE SYSTEMS Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ...


Recapture of South Georgia and the attack on the Santa Fe

The South Georgia force, Operation Paraquet, under the command of Major Guy Sheridan RM, consisted of Marines from 42 Commando, a troop of the Special Air Service (SAS) and Special Boat Squadron (SB Sqn) troops who were intended to land as reconnaissance forces for an invasion by the Royal Marines. All were embarked on RFA Tidespring. First to arrive was the Churchill-class submarine HMS Conqueror on 19 April, and the island was over-flown by a radar-mapping Handley Page Victor on 20 April. The first landings of SAS troops took place on 21 April, but — with the southern hemisphere autumn setting in — the weather was so bad that their landings and others made the next day were all withdrawn after two helicopters crashed in fog on Fortuna Glacier. The first Royal Navy ship to arrive was the type 42 destroyer HMS Glasgow. Paraquet was the code-word for the British military operation to recapture the Island of South Georgia from Argentine military control in April 1982. ... Official name Her Majestys Royal Marines Captain-General HRH The Duke of Edinburgh Nicknames Royals Motto Per Mare Per Terram Anniversaries 23 April 1918 - The Raid on Zeebrugge 28 April 1915 - Gallipoli 6 June 1944 - The Landings in Normandy 7 June 1761 - The Battle of Belle Isle 14 June... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys special forces unit. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... RFA Tidespring (A75) was a fast fleet tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. ... The three Churchill-class submarines were nuclear powered hunter-killer submarines which served with the Royal Navy from the 1970s until the early 1990s. ... HMS Conqueror was a Churchill-class nuclear-powered submarine that served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1990. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Handley Page Victor was a British jet bomber aircraft produced by the Handley Page Aircraft Company. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fortuna Glacier, on the island of South Georgia, is a tidewater glacier at the mouth of Cumberland Sound. ... Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... Eight ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Glasgow after the city in Scotland. ...


On 23 April, a submarine alert was sounded and operations were halted, with the Tidespring being withdrawn to deeper water to avoid interception. On 24 April, the British forces regrouped and headed in to attack the submarine. On 25 April the ARA Santa Fe was spotted by a Westland Wessex HAS Mk 3 helicopter from HMS Antrim, which attacked the Argentine submarine with depth charges. HMS Plymouth launched a Westland Wasp HAS.Mk.1 helicopter, and HMS Brilliant launched a Westland Lynx HAS Mk 2. The Lynx launched a torpedo, and strafed it with its pintle-mounted General Purpose Machine Gun; the Wessex also fired on the Santa Fe with its GPMG. The Wasp from HMS Plymouth as well as two other Wasps launched from HMS Endurance fired AS-12 ASM antiship missiles at the submarine, scoring hits. Santa Fe was damaged badly enough to prevent her from submerging. The crew abandoned the submarine at the jetty at King Edward Point on South Georgia. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The ARA Santa Fe was a submarine in the Argentine Navy from 1971 to 1982. ... Museum exhibit Westland Wessex The Westland Wessex is a turbine-powered version of the Sikorsky S-58 Choctaw, developed under license by Westland Aircraft, initially for the Royal Navy, but later for the RAF. The Wessex was built at Westlands factory at Yeovil in Somerset. ... HMS Antrim (D18) was a County-class destroyer of the Royal Navy launched on 19 October 1967. ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... HMS Plymouth was a Rothesay class frigate in the Royal Navy from 1959 to 1988. ... Westland Wasp The Westland Wasp was a general purpose helicopter, basically a derivative of the British Army Scout helicopter, with the requirement of being small enough to land on Royal Navy frigates. ... HMS Brilliant (F90) was a Type 22 frigate of the Royal Navy. ... The Westland Lynx is a helicopter designed by Westland and built at Westlands factory in Yeovil, first flying on 21 March 1971 as the Westland WG.13. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Warfare Strafing (adaptation of German strafen - to punish) is the practice of shooting a machine gun, from an airplane in flight, at objects or people on the ground. ... Used with light machine guns, the pintle is the mounting hardware that mates the machine gun to a tripod. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... HMS Endurance was a Royal Navy ice patrol vessel from 1967 to 1991. ... NORD AS-12 Type air-to-ground missile Nationality France Era cold war Launch platform Helicopter, aircraft Target History Builder Aerospatiale Date of design Production period -1982 Service duration Operators Variants Number built 8000 + Specifications Type Diameter Wing span 650 mm Length 1. ... An air-to-surface missile (also, air-to-ground missile, ASM or AGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft (bombers, attack aircraft, fighter aircraft or other kinds) and strike ground targets on land, at sea, or both. ... Image:RBS-15 missile launch. ... King Edward Point (54º17´S 036º30´W) is a low point projecting from the northern side of King Edward Cove toward the central part of the cove, on the western side of Cumberland East Bay, South Georgia. ...


With the Tidespring now far out to sea and the Argentine forces augmented by the submarine's crew, Major Sheridan decided to gather the 76 men he had and make a direct assault that day. After a short forced march by the British troops, the Argentine forces surrendered without resistance. The message sent from the naval force at South Georgia to London was, "Be pleased to inform Her Majesty that the White Ensign flies alongside the Union Jack in South Georgia. God Save the Queen." Prime Minister Thatcher broke the news to the media, telling them to "Just rejoice at that news!"[12] The White Ensign. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the commonly used name for the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


Black Buck raids

Main article: Operation Black Buck
An Avro Vulcan B.Mk.1A, an earlier version of the Vulcan than the Mk.2 used for the Black Buck raids
An Avro Vulcan B.Mk.1A, an earlier version of the Vulcan than the Mk.2 used for the Black Buck raids

The Operation Black Buck raids were a series of five attacks on the Islands by RAF Avro Vulcan bombers of 44 Squadron, staged from Wideawake airbase on Ascension Island, close to the equator. The aircraft carried either 21 1,000 lb bombs internally or four Shrike anti-radar missiles externally. The overall effect of the raids on the war is difficult to determine, as the raids consumed precious tanker resources[13]. The raids did minimal damage to the runway and damage to radars was quickly repaired. Post-war propaganda[14] states that the Vulcan raids influenced Argentina to withdraw Mirage IIIs from the Southern Argentina to the Buenos Aires Defence Zone. It has been suggested that the Black Buck raids were pressed home by the Royal Air Force[15]. The British armed forces had been cut in the late seventies, and the RAF may have desired a greater role in the conflict to prevent further cuts[16]. A single crater was produced on the runway, rendering it impossible for the airfield to be used by fast jets[17]. Argentine ground crew repaired the runway[18] within twenty-four hours[19] and produced fake craters to confound British damage assessment[20]. The runway was also available for MB-339 Aermacchi jets[21]. An Avro Vulcan, as used during Operation Black Buck During the Falklands War, Operations Black Buck 1 to Black Buck 6 were a series of six extremely long-range bombing attacks by Royal Air Force Vulcan bombers against Argentine positions in the Falkland Islands. ... Royal Air Force Vulcan, date unknown. ... Royal Air Force Vulcan, date unknown. ... The Avro Vulcan was a British delta wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. ... No. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... AGM-45 Shrike is an anti-radiation missile designed to home in on hostile antiaircraft radars. ... The Aermacchi MB-339 is an Italian military trainer and attack aircraft. ...


On 1 May operations against the Falklands opened with the "Black Buck 1" attack on the airfield at Stanley. The Vulcan had originally been designed for medium-range stand-off nuclear missions in Europe and did not have the range to fly to the Falklands, requiring several in-flight refuellings. The RAF's tanker planes were mostly converted Handley Page Victor bombers with similar range, so they too had to be refuelled in the air. Thus, a total of 11 tankers were required for only two Vulcans, a huge logistical effort, given that both the tankers and bombers had to use the same strip. The attack yielded only a single hit on the runway. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Handley Page Victor was a British jet bomber aircraft produced by the Handley Page Aircraft Company. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The raids, at almost 8,000 nautical miles (13 000 km) and 16 hours for the return journey, were the longest-ranged bombing raids in history at that time (surpassed in the Persian Gulf War of 1991 by USAF Boeing B-52G Stratofortresses flying from the continental United States but using forward-positioned tankers[22]). They are often credited with the strategic success of causing the Argentine Air Force to withdraw all their Mirage IIIEA aircraft to protect against the possibility of similar bombing raids on the Argentine mainland. However, according to the Argentine version, Group 8 Mirages were deployed to Comodoro Rivadavia and Rio Gallegos in April (before the raids) where they remained until June to protect against any Chilean threat and as reserve for the strike units. Their lack of aerial refuel capability and a smaller internal fuel capacity, as compared to the IAI Daggers, prevented them from being used effectively over the islands, as was shown by their only engagement of the war on 1 May, so they were relegated to mainland duties. Concerned about the possibility of Chilean strikes or SAS raids, the Argentines decided to disperse its aircraft in the areas surrounding their southern airfields so that, for example, several parts of the National Highway 3 were used for this purpose.[23] A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... “B-52” redirects here. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... Comodoro Rivadavia is a city in the Patagonian province of Chubut in southern Argentina, located on the Gulf of San Jorge, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, at the foot of the Cerro Chenque mountain. ... Río Gallegos is a city in Argentina and is the capital of Santa Cruz Province. ... The IAI Nesher is an Israeli-built military aircraft based on the French Mirage 5 Dassault had developed the Mirage 5 at the request of the Israelis. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ...


Only minutes after the RAF's Black Buck 1, nine Fleet Air Arm BAE Sea Harrier FRS Mk 1s from HMS Hermes followed up the raid by dropping BL755 cluster bombs on Stanley and the smaller grass airstrip at Goose Green. The Harriers destroyed one FMA IA 58 Pucará at Goose Green[24] and caused minor damage to Stanley airfield infrastructure. The remaining runways were fully operational throughout the rest of the conflict. Other Sea Harriers had taken off from the deck of HMS Invincible for combat air patrols, and although Brian Hanrahan, a BBC reporter attached to the task force, was forbidden to divulge the number of planes involved, he came up with the memorable phrase "I counted them all out and I counted them all back."[25][26] The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... This article is about a variant of the Harrier family of V/STOL aircraft. ... The second HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, the last of the postwar conventional aircraft carriers commissioned into the Royal Navy. ... BL755 is a cluster bomb. ... A US B-1 Lancer releasing its payload of cluster bombs Cluster Munitions or Cluster Bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions (bomblets). The most common types are intended to kill enemy personnel and destroy vehicles. ... Goose Green is a settlement on East Falkland in the Falkland Islands. ... The FMA IA 58 Pucará is a twin-engined counter-insurgency (COIN) aircraft made in Argentina, flown for the first time on August 20, 1969. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Invincible. ... Brian Hanrahan (born 22 March 1949, Middlesex) was the Diplomatic Editor for BBC News and a well known correspondent. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about journalistic reporters. ...


The Argentines nevertheless claimed that two Sea Harriers were downed that morning in the general area of Stanley: the Commander of the 10th Mechanized Infantry Brigade, Brigadier-General Oscar Jofre, gave the serial numbers of the two Sea Harriers as XZ 458 and XZ 491, claiming that the first fell to a 35 mm gun and the second to a Roland missile.[27] This claim has been dismissed by a number of English language sources[28][29] A Mirage III was shot down by friendly fire over Stanley. The jet was already damaged by a Sea-Harrier, and was destroyed while attempting to land in the air base.[30]


Of the five Black Buck raids, three were against Stanley Airfield, with the other two anti-radar missions using Shrike anti-radiation missiles. AGM-45 Shrike is an anti-radiation missile designed to home in on hostile antiaircraft radars. ... HARM on a US Navy F-18C Three ALARMs on an RAF Tornado GR4 An anti-radiation missile is a missile which is designed to detect and home in on the emissions of an enemy radar installation. ...


Escalation of the air war

Fleet Air Arm Sea Harrier FRS Mk 2 . This aircraft's predecessor, the FRS1, participated during the conflict.
Fleet Air Arm Sea Harrier FRS Mk 2 . This aircraft's predecessor, the FRS1, participated during the conflict.

The Falklands had only three airfields. The longest and only paved runway was at the capital, Stanley, and even it was too short to support fast jets. Therefore, the Argentines were forced to launch its major strikes from the mainland, severely hampering its efforts at forward staging, combat air patrols and close air support over the islands. The effective loiter time of incoming Argentine aircraft was low, and they were later compelled to overfly British forces in any attempt to attack the islands. Image File history File links Sea_Harrier_front_view. ... Image File history File links Sea_Harrier_front_view. ... The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... This article is about a variant of the Harrier family of V/STOL aircraft. ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ... Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of defensive mission for fighter aircraft, in which they guard a designated site, either a fixed site on land, ships at sea, or less commonly support aircraft such as aerial tankers. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ...


The first major Argentine strike force comprised 36 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawks, Israel Aircraft Industries Daggers, English Electric B Mk 62 Canberras and Dassault Mirage III escorts), and was sent on 1 May, in the belief that the British invasion was imminent or landings had already taken place. Only a section of Grupo 6 (flying IAI Dagger aircraft) found ships, which were firing at Argentine defences near the islands. The Daggers managed to attack the ships and return safely. This greatly boosted morale of the Argentine pilots, who now knew they could survive an attack against modern warships, protected by radar ground clutter from the Islands and by using a late pop-up profile. The A-4 Skyhawk was an attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. ... The Israel Aircraft Industries Nesher (Vulture in Hebrew) is the Israeli name of the Dassault Mirage 5 multi-role fighter aircraft. ... The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. ... The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The IAI Nesher is an Israeli-built military aircraft based on the French Mirage 5 Dassault had developed the Mirage 5 at the request of the Israelis. ...


Meanwhile, other Argentine aircraft were intercepted by Sea Harriers operating from HMS Invincible. A Dagger and a Canberra were shot down. See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE SYSTEMS Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Invincible. ...

Argentine Air Force Mirage IIIEA. Their lack of aerial refuelling capability prevented them from being used effectively over the islands in the air-air role.
Argentine Air Force Mirage IIIEA. Their lack of aerial refuelling capability prevented them from being used effectively over the islands in the air-air role.

Combat broke out between Sea Harrier FRS Mk 1 fighters of No. 801 Naval Air Squadron and Mirage III fighters of Grupo 8. Both sides refused to fight at the other's best altitude, until two Mirages finally descended to engage. One was shot down by an AIM-9L Sidewinder air-to-air missile (AAM), while the other escaped but without enough fuel to return to its mainland airfield. The plane made for Stanley, where it fell victim to friendly fire from the Argentine defenders. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... Sidewinder Missile The AIM_9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft. ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ...


As a result of this experience, Argentine Air Force staff decided to employ A-4 Skyhawks and Daggers only as strike units, the Canberras only during the night, and Mirage IIIs (without air refuelling capability or any capable AAM) as decoys to lure away the British Sea Harriers. The decoying would be later extended with the formation of the Escuadron Fenix, a squadron of civilian jets flying 24 hours-a-day simulating strike aircraft preparing to attack the fleet. On one of these flights, an Air Force Learjet was shot down, killing the squadron commander, Vice Commodore Rodolfo De La Colina, who was the highest-ranking Argentine officer to die in the War. The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... Coat of Arms of the Escuadrón Fénix Civilian Learjet like those employed by the unit The Phoenix Squadron (Spanish: Escuadrón Fénix) was a special unit of the Argentine Air Force formed during the 1982 Falklands/Malvinas War. ... Learjet is a manufacturer of business jets for civilian and military use. ...


During the course of the air war, 23 Argentine aircraft were shot down in air to air engagements to 0 losses on the British side. 17 further Argentine aircraft were successfully destroyed by the British Task Groups missile and gun air defences.[citation needed]


Stanley was used as an Argentine strongpoint throughout the conflict. Despite the Black Buck and Harrier raids on Stanley airfield (no fast jets were stationed there for air defence) and overnight shelling by detached ships, it was never out of action entirely. Stanley was defended by a mixture of Surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems such as the Franco-German Roland) and Swiss-built 35 mm twin anti-aircraft cannons. Lockheed Hercules transport night flights brought supplies, weapons, vehicles, and fuel, and airlifted out the wounded up until the end of the conflict. The few RN Sea Harriers were considered too valuable by day to risk in night-time blockade operations, and their Blue Fox radar was not an effective look-down over land radar.[31] The only Argentine Hercules shot down by the British was lost on 1 June when TC-63 was intercepted by a Sea Harrier in daylight[32][33] when it was searching for the British fleet north-east of the islands after the Argentine Navy retired its last SP-2H Neptune due to airframe attrition. Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... The Roland is a Franco-German mobile short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lockheed P-2 Neptune (until 1963 the P2V Neptune) was a naval patrol bomber and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft for the United States Navy between 1947 and 1978, replacing the PV-1 Ventura and PV-2 Harpoon and being replaced in turn with the P-3 Orion. ...


Sinking of Belgrano

The Sun's "Gotcha" headline

Two separate British naval task forces (surface vessels and submarines) and the Argentine fleet were operating in the neighbourhood of the Falklands, and soon came into conflict. The first naval loss was the World War II vintage Argentine light cruiser ARA General Belgrano — formerly the USS Phoenix, a survivor of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. The nuclear-powered submarine HMS Conqueror, captained by Commander Christopher Wreford-Brown, sank Belgrano on 2 May with two (of three fired) Mk 8 Mod 4 torpedoes of interwar-vintage design;[34] these were chosen as they carried a larger warhead and contact fuses and there were worries surrounding the reliability of the newer Tigerfish torpedoes. Three hundred and twenty-three members of Belgrano's crew died in the incident. Over 700 men were rescued from the open ocean despite cold seas and stormy weather. Losses from Belgrano totalled just over half of Argentine deaths in the Falklands conflict, and the Belgrano remains the only ship ever sunk by a nuclear submarine in combat, and only the second warship sunk by a submarine since the end of the Second World War (the first being the Khukri, an Indian frigate sunk during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971). A copy of The Sun from the 1982 sinking of the ARA General Belgrano — one of the most famous headlines ever. ... A copy of The Sun from the 1982 sinking of the ARA General Belgrano — one of the most famous headlines ever. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... For the Argentine politician and military leader, see Manuel Belgrano. ... USS Phoenix (CL-46), a Brooklyn-class light cruiser, was the 3rd Phoenix of the United States Navy. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... HMS Conqueror was a Churchill-class nuclear-powered submarine that served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1990. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The list of torpedoes includes all torpedoes operated in the past or present, listed alphabetically. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... The Interwar period was the time between World War I and World War II, ergo the 1920s and 1930s. ... Tigerfish torpedo The Mk 24 Tigerfish torpedo is a heavy Acoustic homing torpedo used by the Royal Navy for several years. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... INS Khukri was an old Type 14 ASW (Anti-submarine Warfare) frigate in the Indian Navy. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ...


In a separate incident later that night, British forces engaged an Argentine patrol gunboat, the ARA Alferez Sobral. At the time, the Alferez Sobral was searching for the crew of the Argentine Air Force English Electric Canberra light bomber shot down on 1 May. Two Sea Lynxes fired four Sea Skua missiles against her. Badly damaged and with eight crew dead, the Sobral managed to return to Puerto Deseado two days later, but the Canberra's crew were never found. The USS Salish (ATA-187) (previously ATR-114) was a Sotoyomo class rescue tug US Navy ship, her hull was laid down on 29 August 1944. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Westland Lynx is a helicopter designed by Westland and built at Westlands factory in Yeovil, first flying on 21 March 1971 as the Westland WG.13. ... Sea Skua Type air-to-surface Nationality United Kingdom Era 1980-Present Launch platform Helicopted launched Target shipping History Builder British Aerospace Dynamics (now MBDA) Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK, Brazil, Germany, Malaysia Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type anti-shipping Diameter 0. ... Puerto Deseado, originally called Port Desire, is a fishing port in Patagonia in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina on the estuary of the Río Deseado, located at 47°22′S 63°49′W. It was named Port Desire by the privateer Thomas Cavendish in 1586 after the name...


Initial reports conflated the two incidents, contributing to confusion about the number of casualties and the identity of the vessel that sank. The Rupert Murdoch-owned British tabloid newspaper The Sun greeted the initial reports of the attack with the headline "GOTCHA". This first edition was published before news was known that the Belgrano had actually sunk (reporting instead, erroneously, that the gunboat had sunk) and carried no reports of actual Argentine deaths. The headline was replaced in later editions by the slightly more tempered "Did 1,200 Argies drown?". Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ...


The loss of ARA General Belgrano hardened the stance of the Argentine government and also became a cause célèbre for anti-war campaigners (such as Labour MP Tam Dalyell), who declared that the ship had been sailing away from the Falklands at the time. The vessel was outside the exclusion zone, and sailing away from the area of conflict. However, during war, under international law, the heading of a belligerent naval vessel has no bearing on its status. In addition, the captain of the Belgrano, Hector Bonzo, has testified that the attack was legitimate.[35][36] In later years it has been claimed that the information on the position of the ARA General Belgrano came from a Soviet spy satellite which was tapped by the Norwegian intelligence service station at Fauske, Norway, and then handed over to the British. However, Conqueror had been shadowing the Belgrano for some days, so this extra information would have been unnecessary.[37] Look up cause célèbre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir Thomas Dalyell of the Binns, 11th Baronet (born 9 August 1932), more commonly known as Tam Dalyell (pronounced ), is a Scottish politician and was a Labour member of the House of Commons from 1962 to 2005. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A belligerent is an individual, group, country or other entity which acts in an aggressive or hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Lacrosse radar spy satellite under construction A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Norway has mandatory military service for males (6-12 months of training) and voluntary service for females. ... County District Salten Municipality NO-1841 Administrative centre Fauske Mayor (2005) Kjell Eilertsen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 82 1,210 km² 1,109 km² 0. ...


The sinking occurred 14 hours after President of Peru Belaúnde proposed a comprehensive peace plan and called for regional unity. Diplomatic efforts to that point had failed completely. There was no hope that additional diplomacy would lead anywhere. After the sinking Argentina rejected the plan but the UK indicated its acceptance on 5 May. The news was subsequently dominated by military action and it is not well known that the British continued to offer ceasefire terms until 1 June.[38] Established in the Constitution of 1993, the President of the Republic is the Chief of the State and represents the republic in official international matters. ... Fernando Belaúnde Terry (October 7, 1912 – June 4, 2002) was President of Peru for two terms (1963–1968 and 1980–1985). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Regardless of controversies over the sinking, it had a crucial strategic effect: the elimination of the Argentine naval threat. After her loss, the entire Argentine fleet returned to port and did not leave again for the duration of hostilities. The two escorting destroyers and the battle group centred on the aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo both withdrew from the area, ending the direct threat to the British fleet that their pincer movement had represented. USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The ARA Veinticinco de Mayo (V-2) was an aircraft carrier in the Armada Republica Argentina from 1969 to 1999. ... A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ...


British historian Sir Lawrence Freedman stated in the second volume of his Official History of the Falklands that intelligence about the Belgrano did not reach senior British commanders and politicians until the order to sink her was passed.[39] Commander Christopher Wreford-Brown, commanding officer of HMS Conqueror, informed the Admiralty four hours before his attack that the Argentine cruiser had changed course, but this information was not passed to the Ministry of Defence or Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward (commander of the RN task force). However, as Admiral Woodward later stated, the Belgrano's course and speed at the time she was sunk were irrelevant, because they can change within seconds - from a strategic point of view, only her position and capabilities mattered. For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Sir Lawrence D. Freedman is Professor of War Studies at Kings College London, a post he has held since 1982. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ...


Sinking of HMS Sheffield

French-built Super Etendard of the Argentine Navy.
French-built Super Etendard of the Argentine Navy.

Two days after the sinking of Belgrano, on 2 May, the British lost the Type 42 destroyer HMS Sheffield to fire following an Exocet missile strike. The Argentine Navy had only 5 of these air-launched AM.39 Exocet anti-ship missiles[40] when the war began. They had plenty of surface-launched MM.38 Exocets but they were unsuited for aircraft operation. Sheffield had been ordered forward with two other Type 42s in order to provide a long-range radar and medium-high altitude missile picket far from the British carriers. After the ships were detected by an Argentine Navy P-2 Neptune patrol aircraft, two Dassault Super Étendards (serial no. 202 and 203) were launched from their base at Río Grande, each armed with a single Exocet AM.39 missile. Refuelled by an KC-130H Hercules after launch, they went in at low altitude, popped up for a radar check at 50 miles (80 km) and released the missiles from 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 km) away. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Dassault Super Etendard is a French carrier-borne strike fighter in service with the French and Argentine Navy. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Sheffield (D80) was the second Royal Navy ship to bear the name Sheffield, after the city of Sheffield in Yorkshire. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Lockheed P-2 Neptune (until 1963 the P2V Neptune) was a naval patrol bomber and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft for the United States Navy between 1947 and 1978, replacing the PV-1 Ventura and PV-2 Harpoon and being replaced in turn with the P-3 Orion. ... The Dassault Super Étendard is a French carrier-borne strike fighter in service with the French and Argentine Navy. ... Rio Grande in Tierra del Fuego Río Grande is a town in Argentina, on the northern part of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ...


Glasgow, Sheffield’s sister ship and the northernmost of the three-destroyer picket, detected the two Étendards on their first pop-up, and warned the fleet-wide anti-air warfare coordinator in Hermes. Hermes dismissed the report as one of the many false alarms already that morning. Glasgow continued to monitor that bearing and detected the second pop-up, and this time the tell-tale Exocet seeker radar via the ship's ESM equipment. Again Hermes ruled the detection as spurious, but Glasgow continued to broadcast handbrake, the codeword for Exocet radar detected. Eight ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Glasgow after the city in Scotland. ... French ship Monge, specialised in SIGINT In telecommunication, the term electronic warfare support measures (ESM) is the division of electronic warfare involving actions taken under direct control of an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. ...


The first missile missed HMS Yarmouth, due to the deployment of chaff in response to the warning, whilst Glasgow repeatedly tried, without success, to engage the other with Sea Dart missiles. Still Hermes ruled that this was a false alarm. HMS Yarmouth (F101) was this first Modified Type 12 (Rothesay) class frigate to enter service with the Royal Navy. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre... Type surface-to-air, surface-to-surface Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform ship Target aircraft or ship History Builder British Aerospace Date of design Production period Service duration 1973 Operators UK (Royal Navy), Argentina Variants ? Number built 2,000+ Specifications Type Diameter 0. ...


Sheffield was unable to detect directly the seeker radar as, in a case of bad timing, the SCOT satellite communications terminal was in use which deafened the onboard electronic warfare support measures (ESM) equipment and was incompatible with the radar fitted to the Type 42. It is not known why she did not respond to Glasgow's warnings, but no chaff was fired and a shipwide warning of attack went out only seconds before impact when a watchkeeper (Lieutenant Commander Peter Walpole) identified rocket trails visually. French ship Monge, specialised in SIGINT In telecommunication, the term electronic warfare support measures (ESM) is the division of electronic warfare involving actions taken under direct control of an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. ...


Sheffield was struck amidships, with devastating effect. Whether the warhead actually exploded is debated, but raging fires started to spread, ultimately killing 20 crew members and severely injuring 24 others. The other missile splashed into the sea half a mile off her port beam.[41] Whilst alongside rendering assistance, Yarmouth repeatedly broke off to fire anti-submarine weaponry in response to Sonar reports of torpedoes in the water (later believed to have been a misdiagnosis of the outboard motor of the small inflatables helping with firefighting), as well as visual reports of torpedoes (in actual fact the Sheffield was ridding herself of torpedoes to prevent explosion). Port is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person facing towards the bow (the front of the vessel). ... The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ...


Sheffield was abandoned several hours later, gutted and deformed by the fires that continued to burn for six more days. She finally sank outside the Maritime Exclusion Zone on 10 May, whilst under tow from Yarmouth, becoming an official war grave. In one sense Sheffield served her purpose as a part of the missile picket line — she took the missile instead of the aircraft carriers. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A war grave is a place where war dead are buried. ...


The tempo of operations increased throughout the second half of May as United Nations attempts to mediate a peace were rejected by the British, who felt that any delay would make a campaign impractical in the South Atlantic storms. The destruction of Sheffield had a profound impact on the British public, bringing home the fact that the "Falklands Crisis", as the BBC News put it, was now an actual 'shooting war'.


SAS operations

Given the threat to the British fleet posed by the Etendard / Exocet combination, plans were made to use Special Air Service troops to attack the home base of the five Etendards at Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego. The aim was to destroy the missiles and the aircraft that carried them, and to kill the pilots in their quarters. Two plans were drafted and underwent preliminary rehearsal: a landing by approximately fifty-five SAS in two C-130 Hercules aircraft directly on the runway at Rio Grande; and infiltration of twenty-four SAS by inflatable boats brought within a few miles of the coast by submarine. Neither plan was implemented; the earlier airborne assault plan attracted considerable hostility from some members of the SAS, who considered the proposed raid a suicide mission.[42] Ironically, the Rio Grande area would be defended by four full-strength battalions of Marine Infantry of the Argentine Marine Corps of the Argentine Navy, some of whose officers were trained in the UK by SB Sqn years earlier.[43] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (971 × 565 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (971 × 565 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... The FMA IA 58 Pucará is a twin-engined counter-insurgency (COIN) aircraft made in Argentina, flown for the first time on August 20, 1969. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Rio Grande in Tierra del Fuego Río Grande is a town in Argentina, on the northern part of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys special forces unit. ...


After the war, Argentine marine commanders admitted that they were waiting for some kind of landing by SAS forces but never expected a Hercules to land directly on their runways, although they would have pursued British forces even into Chilean territory if they were attacked.[44]


An SAS reconnaissance team was dispatched to carry out preparations for a seaborne infiltration. A Westland Sea King helicopter carrying the assigned team took off from HMS Invincible on the night of 17 May, but bad weather forced it to land 50 miles (80 km) from its target, and the mission was aborted.[45] The pilot flew to Chile and dropped off the SAS team, before setting fire to his helicopter and surrendering to the Chilean authorities. The discovery of the burnt-out helicopter attracted considerable international attention at the time. For the original Viking use of the name, see Sea-King. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 14 May the SAS carried out the raid on Pebble Island at the Falklands, where the Argentine Navy had taken over a grass airfield for FMA IA 58 Pucará light ground attack aircraft and T-34 Mentors. The raid destroyed the aircraft there. May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Raid on Pebble Island took place on 14-15 May 1982[citation needed] during the Falklands War. ... The FMA IA 58 Pucará is a twin-engined counter-insurgency (COIN) aircraft made in Argentina, flown for the first time on August 20, 1969. ... A Beechcraft T-34B Mentor The Beechcraft T-34 Mentor is a military trainer aircraft derived from the Beechcraft Bonanza. ...


Landing at San Carlos — Bomb Alley

San Carlos landing sites
San Carlos landing sites
Context of landings in the Falklands
Context of landings in the Falklands

During the night on 21 May the British Amphibious Task Group under the command of Commodore Michael Clapp (Commodore, Amphibious Warfare - COMAW), landed on beaches around San Carlos Water, on the northwestern coast of East Falkland facing onto Falkland Sound. The bay, known as Bomb Alley by British forces, was the scene of repeated air attacks by low-flying Argentine jets.[46][47] This map shows the initial landings by the British 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines around San Carlos Water during the Falklands War on the night of 1982 May 21. ... This map shows the initial landings by the British 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines around San Carlos Water during the Falklands War on the night of 1982 May 21. ... This shows the context of San Carlos landings within the Falkland Islands. ... This shows the context of San Carlos landings within the Falkland Islands. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... San Carlos Water or San Carlos Water is a bay/fjord on the west coast of East Falkland, facing onto the Falkland Sound. ... East Falkland (beige) shown within Falkland Islands East Falkland, the largest of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic, has an area of 6,605 square kilometres. ... The Falkland Sound is a sea strait in the Falkland Islands. ...


The 4,000 men of 3 Commando Brigade were put ashore as follows: 2nd battalion of the Parachute Regiment (2 Para) from the RORO ferry Norland and 40 Commando (Royal Marines) from the amphibious ship HMS Fearless were landed at San Carlos (Blue Beach), 3 Para from the amphibious ship HMS Intrepid were landed at Port San Carlos (Green Beach) and 45 Commando from RFA Stromness were landed at Ajax Bay (Red Beach). Notably the waves of 8 LCUs and 8 LCVPs were led by Major Ewen Southby-Tailyour who had commanded the Falklands detachment only a year previously. 42 Commando on the liner SS Canberra was a tactical reserve. Units from the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers etc. and tanks were also put ashore with the landing craft, the Round table class LSL and mexefloat barges. Rapier missile launchers were carried as underslung loads of Sea Kings for rapid deployment. 3 Commando Brigade is the main manoeuvre force of the British Royal Marines. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... Skaugran Oslo Loading a Ro Ro passenger car ferry The Cetus Leader A Canadian RORO Ferry A PCC ships starboard side showing side ramp. ... The Norland was a P&O roll on roll off ferry operating between Kingston upon Hull in Yorkshire, England and Zeebrugge, Belgium. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... HMS Fearless (L10) was a landing platform dock of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Intrepid (L11) was a Landing Platform Dock (LPD) of the Royal Navy built at John Brown & Co. ... Port San Carlos is located on the northern bank of the San Carlos Estuary on the Western coast of East Falkland (also known as Soledad), in the Falkland Islands. ... RFA Stromness (A344) was a fleet stores ship of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. ... Ajax Bay is a settlement on East Falkland, in the Falkland Islands, It is on the north west coast, on the shore of San Carlos Water, a few miles from Port San Carlos. ... Landing Craft Utility (LCU) are used by amphibious forces to transport equipment and troops to the shore. ... The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ... Major Ewen Southby-Tailyour OBE RN is an author, sailor, ex-soldier who served for 32 years in the Royal Marines retiring with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel specialising in (and often commanding) amphibious vessels from all the NATO countries. ... Canberras official stamp SS Canberra was a liner and cruise ship in the P&O fleet from 1961 to 1997. ... Tactical Recognition Flash of the Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, generally known as the Royal Artillery (RA), is, despite its name, a corps of the British Army. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The Round Table class landing ship logistics, also known as the Sir class, these vessels are designed for the amphibious warfare mission, in support of the major amphibious ships. ... The Landing Ship Logistic (LSL) is a term used by the UK armed forces to describe the Round table class landing ship used for support of amphibious warfare missions. ... Type SAM Surface-to-air missile Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform vehicle Target aircraft History Builder British Aerospace now MBDA (UK) Ltd Date of design Production period Service duration Operators United Kingdom, Indonesia, Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, Switzerland, Singapore, Australia Variants Mk1 (Hittile), Mk2B (Missile) Number built ? Specifications Type... For the original Viking use of the name, see Sea-King. ...


By dawn the next day they had established a secure beachhead from which to conduct offensive operations. From there Brigadier Thompson's plan was to capture Darwin and Goose Green before turning towards Port Stanley. Now, with the British troops on the ground, the Argentine Air Force began the night bombing campaign against them using Canberra bomber planes until the last day of the war (14 June). Major General Julian H. A. Thompson, CB, OBE, is a military historian and former Royal Marines officer who as a brigadier headed 3 Commando Brigade during the Falklands war. ... Darwin is a settlement on East Falkland, lying on Choisel Sound, on the east side of the islands central isthmus. ... Goose Green is a settlement on East Falkland in the Falkland Islands. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At sea, the paucity of the British ships' anti-aircraft defences was demonstrated in the sinking of HMS Ardent on 21 May, HMS Antelope on 21 May, and MV Atlantic Conveyor (struck by 2 AM39 Exocets) on 25 May along with a vital cargo of helicopters, runway-building equipment and tents. The loss of all but one of the Chinook helicopters being carried by the Atlantic Conveyor was a severe blow from a logistics perspective. Also lost on this day was HMS Coventry, a sister to HMS Sheffield, whilst in company with HMS Broadsword after being ordered to act as decoy to draw away Argentinian aircraft from other ships at San Carlos Bay.[48] HMS Argonaut and HMS Brilliant were badly damaged. However, many British ships escaped terminal damage because of the Argentine pilots' bombing tactics. HMS Ardent (F184) was a Royal Navy type 21 frigate. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Antelope (F170) was a Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy that participated in the Falklands War. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Conveyor laden with Sea Harriers off the coast of Ascension Island. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... The Royal Air Force is the second largest operator of the Boeing CH-47 Chinook of the 16 nations which use the type. ... HMS Coventry (D118) was a Type 42 (Sheffield Class) destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by Cammell Laird and Company, Limited, at Birkenhead on 29 January 1973, launched on 21 June 1974 and commissioned on 20 October 1978. ... HMS Sheffield (D80) was the second Royal Navy ship to bear the name Sheffield, after the city of Sheffield in Yorkshire. ... HMS Broadsword (F88) was the lead ship and first Batch 1 unit of the Type 22 frigates of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Argonaut (F56) was a Leander-class frigate of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Brilliant (F90) was a Type 22 frigate of the Royal Navy. ...

Historical photo of an Argentine Air Force A-4C Skyhawk flying to the islands. Notice the 1000 lb bomb

In order to avoid the highest concentration of British air defences, Argentine pilots released ordnance from very low altitude so that their bomb fuses did not have time to arm before impact. The low release of the retarded bombs (some of which had been sold to the Argentines by the British years earlier) meant that many never exploded, as there was insufficient time in the air for them to arm themselves. Simple free-fall bombs will, at low altitude, impact almost directly below the dropping aircraft, so that there is a minimum safe altitude for release. The pilots would have been aware of this, but due to the high concentration levels required in order to avoid the anti-aircraft defences of SAMs and AAA, as well as any British Sea Harriers, many failed to climb to the necessary release point. The problem was solved by the improvised fitting of retarding devices, allowing low-level bombing attacks as employed on 8 June. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... The A-4 Skyhawk was an attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. ... A general-purpose bomb is an air-dropped bomb intended as a compromise between blast damage, penetration, and fragmentation in explosive effect. ... A general-purpose bomb is an air-dropped bomb intended as a compromise between blast damage, penetration, and fragmentation in explosive effect. ... A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE SYSTEMS Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... A U.S. developed B-61 gravity bomb. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In his autobiographical account of the Falklands War,[49] Admiral Woodward blames the BBC World Service for these changes to the bombs. The World Service reported the lack of detonations after receiving a briefing on the matter from an MOD official. He describes the BBC as being more concerned with being "fearless seekers after truth" than with the lives of British servicemen. Colonel H. Jones levelled similar accusations against the BBC after they disclosed the impending British attack on Goose Green by 2 Para. Jones had threatened to lead the prosecution of senior BBC officials for treason but was unable to do so since he was himself killed in action around Goose Green. Thirteen bombs[50] hit British ships without detonating. Lord Craig, the former Marshal of the Royal Air Force, is said to have remarked: "Six better fuses and we would have lost"[51] although Ardent and Antelope were both lost despite the failure of bombs to explode. The fuses were functioning correctly, and the bombs were simply released from too low an altitude.[52][53] The Argentines lost nearly twenty aircraft in the attacks. The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert Jones VC OBE (May 14, 1940 – May 28, 1982), better known as H. Jones, was a posthumous British recipient of the Victoria Cross. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... Marshal of the Royal Air Force David Craig, Baron Craig of Radley GCB OBE (born 17 September 1929) is a retired Royal Air Force officer and member of the House of Lords. ... Marshal of the RAF sleeve/shoulder insignia Marshal of the Royal Air Force was the highest rank in the Royal Air Force. ...


Battle of Goose Green

Main article: Battle of Goose Green

From early on 27 May until 28 May, 2 Para, (approximately 500 men) with Artillery support from 8 (Alma) Cdo Bty RA, approached and attacked Darwin and Goose Green, which was held by the Argentine 12th Inf Regt. After a tough struggle which lasted all night and into the next day, 17 British and 55 Argentine soldiers had been killed, and 1,050 Argentine troops (including around 350 Argentine Air Force non-combatant personnel of the Condor airfield [54]) taken prisoner. The BBC announced the taking of Goose Green on the BBC World Service before it had actually happened. It was during this attack that Lieutenant Colonel H. Jones, the commanding officer of 2 Para was killed. He was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Darwin is a settlement on East Falkland, lying on Choisel Sound, on the east side of the islands central isthmus. ... Goose Green is a settlement on East Falkland in the Falkland Islands. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert Jones VC OBE (May 14, 1940 – May 28, 1982), better known as H. Jones, was a posthumous British recipient of the Victoria Cross. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...

East Falkland showing San Carlos bridgehead, Teal Inlet, Mt Kent and Mt Challenger
East Falkland showing San Carlos bridgehead, Teal Inlet, Mt Kent and Mt Challenger

With the sizeable Argentine force at Goose Green out of the way, British forces were now able to break out of the San Carlos bridgehead. On 27 May, men of 45 Cdo and 3 Para started walking across East Falkland towards the coastal settlement of Teal Inlet. Falkland east island showing Teal Inlet and mountains near Stanley Created by User:Wikibob using User:Ahoerstemeiers map Image:Falkland island detail. ... Falkland east island showing Teal Inlet and mountains near Stanley Created by User:Wikibob using User:Ahoerstemeiers map Image:Falkland island detail. ... San Carlos is a settlement in northwestern East Falkland, lying south of Port San Carlos on San Carlos Water. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... East Falkland (beige) shown within Falkland Islands East Falkland, the largest of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic, has an area of 6,605 square kilometres. ... Teal Inlet and northern East Falkland Teal Inlet is a settlement on East Falkland, in the Falkland Islands, on the south shore of Salvador Water. ...


Special forces on Mount Kent

Meanwhile, 42 Commando prepared to move by helicopter to Mount Kent. Unknown to senior British officers, the Argentine generals were determined to tie down the British troops in the Mount Kent area, and on 27 May and 28 May they sent transport aircraft loaded with Blowpipe surface-to-air missiles and commandos (602nd Commando Company and 601st National Gendarmerie Special Forces Squadron) to Stanley. This operation was known as Operation AUTOIMPUESTA (Self-Determination-Initiative). For the next week, the Special Air Service (SAS) and Mountain and Arctic Warfare Cadre of 3 Commando Brigade waged intense patrol battles with patrols of the volunteers' 602nd Commando Company under Major Aldo Rico, normally 2IC of the 22nd Mountain Infantry Regiment. Throughout 30 May, Royal Air Force Harriers were active over Mount Kent. One of them — Harrier XZ 963 flown by Squadron-Leader Jerry Pook — in responding to a call for help from D Squadron, attacked Mount Kent's eastern lower slopes, and that led to its loss through small-arms fire. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Mountain Leader Training Cadre is a training element of the Royal Marines providing expertise in Mountain Warfare, cold weather survival and operations, and cliff assault. ... 3 Commando Brigade is the main manoeuvre force of the British Royal Marines. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Argentine Navy used their last AM39 Exocet missile attempting to attack HMS Invincible on the 30th of May. There are claims the missile struck,[55][56] however the British have denied this, some citing that HMS Avenger shot it down.[57][58] For other ships of the same name, see HMS Invincible. ... HMS Avenger (F185) was a Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy. ...


On the 31 May, the Royal Marines Mountain and Arctic Warfare Cadre (M&AWC) defeated Argentine Special Forces at the Battle of Top Malo House. A 13-strong Argentine Army Commando detachment (Captain Jose Vercesi's 1st Assault Section, 602nd Commando Company) found itself trapped in a small shepherd's house at Top Malo. The Argentine commandos fired from windows and doorways and then took refuge in a stream bed 200 metres (700 ft) from the burning house. Completely surrounded, they fought 19 M&AWC marines under Captain Rod Boswell for forty-five minutes until, with their ammunition almost exhausted, they elected to surrender. Three Cadre members were badly wounded. On the Argentine side there were two dead including Lieutenant Ernesto Espinoza and Sergeant Mateo Sbert (who were decorated for their bravery). Only five Argentines were left unscathed. As the British mopped up Top Malo House, down from Malo Hill came Lieutenant Fraser Haddow's M&AWC patrol, brandishing a large Union Flag. One wounded Argentine soldier, Lieutenant Horacio Losito, commented that their escape route would have taken them through Haddow's position. is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mountain Leader Training Cadre is a training element of the Royal Marines providing expertise in Mountain Warfare, cold weather survival and operations, and cliff assault. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Captain Rod Boswell Captain Vercesi Strength 19 troops 13 troops Casualties 3 wounded 2 killed 6 wounded 5 captured The Battle of Top Malo House was fought on the 31st May 1982 during the Falklands War, between 1st section Argentine Special Forces from 602 Commando... Union Jack redirects here. ...


Major Mario Castagneto's 601st Commandos tried to move forward on Kawasaki motorbikes and commandeered Land Rovers to rescue 602nd Commando Company on Estancia Mountain. Spotted by 42 Commando of the Royal Marines, they were engaged with 81 mm mortars and forced to withdraw to Two Sisters mountain. Captain Eduardo Villarruel on Estancia Mountain realised his position had become untenable and after conferring with fellow officers ordered a withdrawal.[59] The Land Rover Series I, II, and III are off-road vehicles produced by the British manufacturer Land Rover. ...


The Argentine operation also saw the extensive use of helicopter support to position and extract patrols; the Argentine Army 601st Combat Aviation Battalion also suffered casualties. At about 11.00 a.m. on 30 May, an Aerospatiale SA-330 Puma helicopter was brought down by a shoulder-launched Stinger surface-to-air missile (SAM) fired by the SAS in the vicinity of Mount Kent in which six National Gendarmerie Special Forces were killed and eight more wounded in the crash. is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Aerospatiale Puma is a medium-sized twin-engined transport/utility helicopter originally manufactured by Aerospatiale of France. ... Two soldiers preparing to fire a shoulder-mounted Stinger missile launcher Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive infrared homing/seek surface-to-air missile, shoulder-fired by a single operator and designed to attack aircraft at a range of up to 15... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Argentine National Gendarmerie (Gendarmería Nacional Argentina; GNA) is the gendarmerie and corps of border guards of Argentina. ...


As Brigadier Julian Thompson commented, "It was fortunate that I had ignored the views expressed by Northwood that reconnaissance of Mount Kent before insertion of 42 Commando was superfluous. Had D Squadron not been there, the Argentine Special Forces would have caught the Commando before deplaning and, in the darkness and confusion on a strange landing zone, inflicted heavy casualties on men and helicopters."[60]


Bluff Cove and Fitzroy

The abandoned hulk of RFA Sir Tristram in Fitzroy
The abandoned hulk of RFA Sir Tristram in Fitzroy

By June 1, with the arrival of a further 5,000 British troops of the 5th Infantry Brigade, the new British divisional commander, Major General Jeremy Moore RM, had sufficient force to start planning an offensive against Stanley.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4313x2296, 811 KB){PD} RFA Sir Tristram at Fitzroy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4313x2296, 811 KB){PD} RFA Sir Tristram at Fitzroy. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeremy Moore was born January 7th, 1982 in Willimantic, Connecticut. ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ...


During this build-up, the Argentine air assaults on the British naval forces continued, killing 56. 32 of the dead were from the Welsh Guards on RFA Sir Galahad and RFA Sir Tristram on June 8. According to Surgeon-Commander Rick Jolly of the Falklands Field Hospital, more than 150 men suffered burns and injuries of some kind in the attack, including, famously, Simon Weston.[61] The Welsh Guards is an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division. ... Sir Galahad (L3005) was the name of a LSL (landing ship logistical) belonging to the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, part of the British fleet. ... RFA Sir Tristram (L3505) is a Landing Ship Logistics of the Round Table class. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Simon Weston OBE (born August 8, 1961) is a former British Army soldier who became well known throughout the United Kingdom after suffering severe burn injuries during the Falklands War. ...


The Guards were sent to support a dashing advance along the southern approach to Stanley. On 2 June, a small advance party of 2 Para moved to Swan Inlet house in a number of Army Westland Scout helicopters. Telephoning ahead to Fitzroy, they discovered the area clear of Argentines and (exceeding their authority) commandeered the one remaining RAF Chinook helicopter to frantically ferry another contingent of 2 Para ahead to Fitzroy (a settlement on Port Pleasant) and Bluff Cove (a settlement confusingly, and perhaps ultimately fatally, on Port Fitzroy). is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Westland Scout was a general purpose military light helicopter developed by Westland Aircraft Limited. ... The Royal Air Force is the second largest operator of the Boeing CH-47 Chinook of the 16 nations which use the type. ... RFA Sir Tristram at Fitzroy, June 1982 Fitzroy is a settlement in Lafonia on East Falkland. ... Sea inlet of East Falkland. ...


This un-coordinated advance caused planning nightmares for the commanders of the combined operation, as they now found themselves with a 30 mile (48 km) string of indefensible positions on their southern flank. Support could not be sent by air as the single remaining Chinook was already heavily oversubscribed. The soldiers could march, but their equipment and heavy supplies would need to be ferried by sea. Plans were drawn up for half the Welsh Guards to march light on the night of 2 June, whilst the Scots Guards and the second half of the Welsh Guards were to be ferried from San Carlos Water in the Landing Ship Logistics (LSL) Sir Tristram and the landing platform dock (LPD) Intrepid on the night of 5 June. Intrepid was planned to stay one day and unload itself and as much of Sir Tristram as possible, leaving the next evening for the relative safety of San Carlos. Escorts would be provided for this day, after which Sir Tristram would be left to unload using an inflatable platform known as a Mexeflote for as long as it took to finish. is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... San Carlos Water or San Carlos Water is a bay/fjord on the west coast of East Falkland, facing onto the Falkland Sound. ... The Landing Ship Logistic (LSL) is a term used by the UK armed forces to describe the Round table class landing ship used for support of amphibious warfare missions. ... The dock of HMS Albion An amphibious transport dock (also called Landing Platform Dock or LPD) is a warship that embarks, transports, and lands elements of a landing force for expeditionary warfare missions. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Political pressure from above to not risk the LPD forced Commodore Clapp to alter this plan. Two lower-value LSLs would be sent, but without suitable beaches on which to land, Intrepid's landing craft would need to accompany them to unload. A complicated operation across several nights with Intrepid and her sister ship Fearless sailing half-way to dispatch their craft was devised. The attempted overland march by half the Welsh Guards failed, possibly as they refused to march light and attempted to carry their equipment. They returned to San Carlos and were landed directly at Bluff Cove when Fearless dispatched her landing craft. Sir Tristram sailed on the night of June 6 and was joined by Sir Galahad at dawn on June 7. Anchored 1,200 feet (370 m) apart in Port Pleasant, the landing ships were near Fitzroy, the designated landing point. The landing craft should have been able to unload the ships to that point relatively quickly, but confusion over the ordered disembarcation point (the first half of the Guards going direct to Bluff Cove) resulted in the senior Welsh Guards infantry officer aboard insisting his troops be ferried the far longer distance directly to Port Fitzroy/Bluff Cove. The intention was for the infantrymen to march via the recently repaired Bluff Cove bridge (destroyed by retreating Argentine combat engineers) to their destination, a journey of around seven miles (11 km). Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ... HMS Fearless (L10) was a landing platform dock of the Royal Navy. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combat engineers place satchel charges and detonating cord, preparatory to blowing up a railway bridge during the Korean War, 30 July 1950 Combat engineering is the practice of using the knowledge, tools and techniques of engineering in combat. ...


The longer journey time of the landing craft taking the troops directly to Bluff Cove and the squabbling over how the landing was to be performed caused enormous delay in unloading. This had disastrous consequences. Without escorts, having not yet established their air defence, and still almost fully laden, the two LSLs in Port Pleasant were sitting targets for two waves of Argentine A-4 Skyhawks. The A-4 Skyhawk was an attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. ...


The disaster at Port Pleasant (although often known as Bluff Cove) would provide the world with some of the most sobering images of the war as TV news video footage showed Navy helicopters hovering in thick smoke to winch survivors from the burning landing ships. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The Fall of Stanley

Notable battles:

On the night of 11 June after several days of painstaking reconnaissance and logistic build-up, British forces launched a brigade-sized night attack against the heavily defended ring of high ground surrounding Stanley. Units of 3 Commando Brigade, supported by naval gunfire from several Royal Navy ships, simultaneously assaulted in the Battle of Mount Harriet, Battle of Two Sisters, and Battle of Mount Longdon. Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ...


During this battle, 13 were killed when HMS Glamorgan, straying too close to shore while returning from the gun line, was struck by an improvised trailer-based Exocet MM38 launcher taken from ARA Seguí destroyer by Argentine Navy technicians.[62] On this day, Sgt Ian McKay of 4 Platoon, B Company, 3 Para died in a grenade attack on an Argentine bunker which was to earn him a posthumous Victoria Cross. After a night of fierce fighting, all objectives were secured. HMS Glamorgan (D19) was a County-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... Ian John McKay (7 May 1953 – 12 June 1982) was a posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...


The night of 13 June saw the start of the second phase of attacks, in which the momentum of the initial assault was maintained. 2 Para captured Wireless Ridge at the Battle of Wireless Ridge, and the 2nd battalion, Scots Guards captured Mount Tumbledown at the Battle of Mount Tumbledown. is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Lt. ... Scots Guard at the Tower of London The Scots Guards are a regiment of the British Army. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


With the last natural defence line at Mount Tumbledown breached, the Argentine town defences of Stanley began to falter. In the morning gloom, one company commander got lost and his junior officers became despondent. Private Santiago Carrizo of the 3rd Regiment described how a platoon commander ordered them to take up positions in the houses and "if a Kelper resists, shoot him", but the entire company did nothing of the kind.[63] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ... Kelp The Falkland Islanders, most of whom are of English or Scottish descent are called kelpers because the islands are surrounded by large seaweeds called kelp. ...

Argentine prisoners of war in Port Stanley
Argentine prisoners of war in Port Stanley

The commander of the Argentine garrison in Stanley, Brigade General Mario Menéndez, surrendered to Major General Jeremy Moore. 9,800 Argentine troops were made prisoners of war and some 4,167 were repatriated to Argentina on the ocean liner Canberra alone. From the air Port Stanley, also known as Stanley (briefly renamed Puerto Argentino during the Argentine occupation in the Falklands War), is the capital and only town in the Falkland Islands, located on the isle of East Falkland. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Canberras official stamp SS Canberra was a liner and cruise ship in the P&O fleet from 1961 to 1997. ...


On 20 June the British retook the South Sandwich Islands, (which involved accepting the surrender of the Southern Thule Garrison at the Corbeta Uruguay base) and declared hostilities to be over. Corbeta Uruguay was established in 1976, but the Argentine base was only contested through diplomatic channels by the UK until 1982. is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... Part of the British Crown Dependency of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Orthographic projection centred on the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands Southern Thule is a collection of the three southernmost islands in the South Sandwich Islands: Bellingshausen, Cook, and Thule (Morrell). ... ca. ...


The war lasted 74 days, with 255 British and 649 Argentine soldiers, sailors, and airmen, and three civilian Falklanders killed.


Analysis

Casualties

'Monumento a los Caídos en Malvinas' (Monument for the fallen on the Falkland Islands) in Plaza San Martín, Buenos Aires
'Monumento a los Caídos en Malvinas' (Monument for the fallen on the Falkland Islands) in Plaza San Martín, Buenos Aires[64]

In total 907 were killed during the 74 days of the conflict: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Plaza San Martín (Saint Martin Square) is a park located in the Retiro neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. ...

Of the 86 Royal Navy personnel, 22 were lost in HMS Ardent, 19 + 1 lost in HMS Sheffield, 18 + 1 lost in HMS Coventry and 13 lost in HMS Glamorgan. 14 naval cooks were among the dead, the largest number from any one branch in the Royal Navy. The Argentine Army (Ejército Argentino, EA) is the land armed force branch of the Argentine military and the senior military service of the country. ... The term Conscript may refer to people enlisted in the armed forces through conscription. ... The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... For the Argentine politician and military leader, see Manuel Belgrano. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina or FAA) is the national aviation branch of the armed forces of Argentina. ... The Argentine National Gendarmerie (Spanish: Gendarmería Nacional Argentina, also abbreviated to GNA) is the gendarmerie of Argentina. ... The Prefectura Naval Argentina (PNA; in English Argentine Naval Prefecture) is a military service of the Argentine Interior Ministry charged with protecting the countrys rivers and maritime territory. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Marine. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... RAF redirects here. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... HMS Ardent (F184) was a Royal Navy type 21 frigate. ... HMS Sheffield (D80) was the second Royal Navy ship to bear the name Sheffield, after the city of Sheffield in Yorkshire. ... HMS Coventry (D118) was a Type 42 (Sheffield Class) destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by Cammell Laird and Company, Limited, at Birkenhead on 29 January 1973, launched on 21 June 1974 and commissioned on 20 October 1978. ... HMS Glamorgan (D19) was a County-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. ...


33 of the British Army's dead came from the Welsh Guards, 21 from the 3rd Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, 18 from the 2nd Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, 19 from the Special Air Service (SAS), 3 from Royal Signals and 8 from each of the Scots Guards and Royal Engineers. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Welsh Guards is an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Royal Corps of Signals (sometimes referred to incorrectly as the Royal Signal Corps and often known simply as the Royal Signals or R Sigs) is one of the arms (combat support corps) of the British Army. ... The Scots Guards are a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division, and have a long and proud history stretching back hundreds of years. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ...

San Carlos Memorial and Cemetery, Falkland islands
San Carlos Memorial and Cemetery, Falkland islands

As well as memorials on the islands, there is a memorial to the British war dead in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral, London. [77] As for the Argentine war dead, there is a memorial at Plaza San Martín in Buenos Aires, [78], another one in Rosario and a third one in Ushuaia. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,360 × 2,240 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,360 × 2,240 pixels, file size: 1. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Plaza San Martín (Saint Martin Square) is a park located in the Retiro neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 973 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Part of a monument to the Argentine fallen soldiers of the Falklands War, in Rosario, Argentina, in the National Flag Memorial Park, near the coast... Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 621 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ushuaia, Argentina - a monument to Falklands War victims from Ushuaia with an anouncement of return File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... Ushuaia (pronounced ) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego, and claims to be the worlds southernmost city (see discussion below). ...


There were also 1,188 Argentine and 777 British casualties in addition to the war dead; some of these service personnel were later to die of their injuries. Further information about the field hospitals and hospital ships is at Ajax Bay, List of hospitals and hospital ships of the Royal Navy, HMS Hydra and Argentine Navy's ARA Almirante Irizar. Ajax Bay is a settlement on East Falkland, in the Falkland Islands, It is on the north west coast, on the shore of San Carlos Water, a few miles from Port San Carlos. ... This is a list of hospitals and hospital ships of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Hydra (Pennant Number A144) was a Royal Navy deep ocean hydrographic survey vessel, the third of the original three of the Hecla class. ... The ARA Almirante Irízar is a large icebreaker in service with the Argentine Navy. ...


There are still 125 uncleared minefields on the Falkland Islands and according to forcesmemorial.org.uk via Falklands25's "Official Commemorative Publication" 30 British servicemen have died on the islands since the end of the hostilities.

See also Argentine and British ground forces in the Falklands War

This is a list of the ground forces from the United Kingdom that took part in the Falklands War. ...

Political

Although some have been cleared, a substantial number of minefields still exist in the islands, such as this one at Port William on East Falkland
Although some have been cleared, a substantial number of minefields still exist in the islands, such as this one at Port William on East Falkland

The Argentine loss of the war led to ever-larger protests against the military regime and is credited with giving the final push to drive out the military government that had overthrown Isabel Perón in 1976 and participated in the crimes of the Dirty War. Galtieri was forced to resign and elections were held on 30 October 1983 and a new president, Raúl Alfonsín, the Radical Civic Union (UCR) party candidate, took office on 10 December 1983, defeating Italo Luder, the candidate for the Justicialist Party (Peronist movement). East Falkland (beige) shown within Falkland Islands East Falkland, the largest of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic, has an area of 6,605 square kilometres. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dirty War. ... President Perón giving a speech María Estela Martínez de Perón (born on February 4, 1931, in La Rioja, Argentina) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón would become the third wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and serve as President of Argentina in... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (born 13 March 1927) is an Argentine politician, who was the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 9 July 1989. ... The Radical Civic Union (in Spanish, Unión Cívica Radical, UCR) is a political party in Argentina. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The Justicialist Party (Spanish: Partido Justicialista, PJ) is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component of the Peronist movement. ... Peronism is an Argentine political ideology based on the ideas and programs associated with former president Juan Perón. ...


For the UK, the war cost 255 men, six ships (ten others suffered varying degrees of battle damage), 34 aircraft and £2.778 billion,[79] but the campaign was considered a great victory for the United Kingdom. The war provided a substantial boost to the popularity of Margaret Thatcher and undoubtedly played a role in ensuring her re-election in 1983. Several members of her government resigned however, including the Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington, the last time that a UK government minister resigned openly in response to a failure of his department (in not anticipating the war). Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... Lord Carrington wearing his robes as a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter, in procession to St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle for the annual service of the Order of the Garter. ...


Criticism was leveled at Ted Rowlands, a former junior foreign minister in the preceding government, who disclosed in Parliament in April 1982 that the British had broken the Argentine diplomatic codes. Because the same code machines were used by the Argentine military, this disclosure immediately served to deny British access to valuable intelligence. This, and other responses to parliamentary questions, and leaks of information to the BBC has been alleged by historian Hugh Bicheno to be a deliberate attempt to undermine the Thatcher government on the part of a variety of individuals who had a vested interest in its fall.[80] Edward Ted Rowlands, Baron Rowlands is a politician in Wales. ... Hugh Bicheno is a living British-American military historian most famous for his revisionist interpretations of the origins of the American Revolution, which are extensively explored in his acclaimed publication Rebels and Redcoats: The American Revolutionary War. ...


The United States international image was damaged because of the perception in Latin America[81] that it had broken the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR) by providing the UK with all kinds of military supplies.[82] The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty or by the Spanish-language acronym TIAR) was an agreement made in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many American countries that states among its articles that an attack against one would be considered an attack against...


Some Latin Americans also perceived Chile to have broken the TIAR[citation needed] because it provided some support for UK troops.[83] But, from Chile's point of view, the situation was seen in a differently: The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty, the Rio Pact, or by the Spanish-language acronym TIAR from Tratado Interamericano de Asistencia Recíproca) was an agreement ratified on 1947 in Rio de Janeiro[1] among many American countries. ...

  1. Chile was considered officially an enemy by Argentina[84],
  2. In 1978 Argentine forces had started (and few hours later aborted) the Operation Sovereignty[85] involving invasion of the islands south of the Beagle Channel and the possible invasion of continental Chile.
  3. The Beagle conflict was still smouldering, Argentina had refused to accept the Pope's arbitration proposal of 1980, and 6 weeks before the Falklands War Argentina provoked the (ARA Gurruchaga) incident with Chile at Deceit Island[86]. Moreover, one of the reasons given for the absence of the Argentine Navy and higher numbers of professional soldiers during the Falklands War was to keep them in reserve in case they were needed against Chile
  4. In his speech of 2 April, Galtieri called Operation Rosario the beginning of the recovery of Argentine sovereignty over the southern territories in general.[87]

Hence the argument given by Chile for its abstention in the TIAR was the refusal of Argentina to follow resolution 502 of the United Nations. The real cause may be that the erratic Argentine foreign policy (support[88] for USA policy in Central America and looking for support in the Non-Aligned Movement, the planning and starting of a war of aggression against Chile[85] while looking for Chilean support at the TIAR, desire to become a first world country and breaking the cereals embargo against the Soviet Union after the Afghanistan occupation, etc) could bring[89] this new impulse of Argentine nationalism again (as in 1978) to the frontiers of Chile, recognized by the arbitration award in 1977 (both countries submitted this question to binding arbitration under the auspices of the British Crown, but this was then unilaterally repudiated by Argentina). Such issues may also lie behind the improvement of the relations between Chile and UK, which has been seriously damaged by the Sheila Cassidy affair, the use of British made planes during the coup d'état in 1973, and the violations of human rights by the Pinochet regime. Whatever the truth on these matters, in September 2001 the President of Mexico Vicente Fox cited the Falklands War as proof of the failure of the TIAR. Some islands located south of Tierra del Fuego The Beagle Conflict (Spanish: Conflicto del Beagle) was a border dispute between Argentina and Chile over the possession of the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and sea located south of Tierra del Fuego which took both countries to the brink of war... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Governor Rex Hunt Major Mike Norman RM Major Ian Nott RM Major Phil Sommers FIDF Admiral Carlos Busser Lieutenant commander Guillermo Sánchez-Sabarots Lieutenant commander Pedro Giachino† Strength 46 marines 11 RN sailors 25 FIDFs troops 600 troops (some 60 actually clashed with... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... Sheila Cassidy (born 1937) is a British doctor, known for her work in the hospice movement, as a writer and as someone who, by publicising her own ill treatment, drew attention to human rights abuses in Chile in the 1970s. ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ...


Ultimately, the successful conclusion of the war gave a noticeable fillip to British patriotic feeling, with the mobilisation of national identity encapsulated in the so-called "Falklands Factor." Since the failure of the 1956 Suez campaign, the end of Empire and the economic decline of the 1970s which culminated in the Winter of Discontent, Britain had been beset by uncertainty and anxiety about its international role, status and capability. With the war successfully concluded, Thatcher was returned to power with an increased Parliamentary majority and felt empowered to press ahead with the painful economic readjustments of Thatcherism. A second major effect was a reaffirmation of the special relationship between the US and UK. Both Reagan and Weinberger (his Secretary of Defence) received honorary knighthoods for their help in the campaign, but the more obvious result was the common alignment of Britain and the USA in a more confrontational foreign policy against the Soviet bloc, sometimes known as the Second Cold War. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Winter of Discontent is a nickname given to the British winter of 1978–79, during which there were widespread strikes by Trade unions demanding larger pay rises for their members. ... Margaret Thatcher Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Cold War (1979-1985) discusses the period within the Cold War between the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader in 1985. ...


Mobilisation of national identity in Argentina, called the "Malvinas Spirit," has now developed in a constant recovery of the relevant aspects of the Falklands-Malvinas War that boost national self-image.[90]


In 2007 the British government expressed regrets over the deaths on both sides in the war.[91] Margaret Thatcher was quoted as saying "in the struggle against evil... we can all today draw hope and strength" from the Falklands victory,[92] while former Argentinian President Nestor Kirchner claimed while in office that the UK won a colonial victory and vowed that the islands would one day return to Argentine sovereignty. He augmented this however, with an affirmation that the use of force could never again be used in an attempt to bring this about.[93] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950) is the current President of Argentina. ...


Military

British propaganda leaflet intended for Argentine soldiers dropped during the Falkland Islands War. Titled "Islands of the Condemned," it warns Argentine naval ships and aircraft not to enter the Falkland Islands exclusion zone.
British propaganda leaflet intended for Argentine soldiers dropped during the Falkland Islands War. Titled "Islands of the Condemned," it warns Argentine naval ships and aircraft not to enter the Falkland Islands exclusion zone.

Militarily, the Falklands conflict remains the major air-naval combat operation between modern forces since the end of the Second World War. In his Price of Admiralty, military historian Sir John Keegan noted that the brief conflict showed the irremediable vulnerability of surface ships to anti-ship missiles, and, most importantly, to submarines. Thus, despite the seemingly limited consequences of the war, it, in fact, confirmed the dominance of the submarine in naval warfare. This is especially so, Keegan argues, because submarines are far less vulnerable than aircraft to counterattack, being able to approach and destroy their targets with almost complete impunity. However, Keegan's conclusions must remain conjectural since no other naval conflict of consequence has occurred since 1982[94]. Image File history File links 1982FI00201. ... Image File history File links 1982FI00201. ...


Neither side achieved total air supremacy; nonetheless, air power proved to be of critical importance during the conflict, due to the isolated, rough landscape of the Falklands in which the mobility of land forces was restricted. Air strikes were staged against ground, sea and air targets on both sides, and often with clear results. All of the UK losses at sea were caused by aircraft or missile strikes (by both the Argentine Air Force and Naval Aviation). The French Exocet missile proved its lethality in air-to-surface operations, leading to retrofitting of most major ships with Close-in weapon systems (CIWS). The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... An air-to-surface missile (also, air-to-ground missile, ASM or AGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft (bombers, attack aircraft, fighter aircraft or other kinds) and strike ground targets on land, at sea, or both. ... Phalanx CIWS A Close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a naval shipboard weapon system for detecting and destroying incoming anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft at short range (the threat(s) having penetrated the ships available outer defences). ...


The air war in the Falklands vindicated the UK decision to maintain at least the STOVL aircraft carriers after the retirement of HMS Ark Royal. The domination of air power in major naval engagements was demonstrated, along with the usefulness of carriers and it proved the small but manoeuvrable Sea Harrier as a true fighter. Sea Harriers shot down 21 aircraft with no air-to-air losses themselves, although six Sea Harriers were lost to ground fire and accidents. This is a list of units, aircraft and casualties of the Argentinian and British air forces in the Falklands War. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... HMS Ark Royal (R09) was an Audacious-class aircraft carrier of the British Royal Navy and, when she was decommissioned in 1978, was the Royal Navys last remaining conventional catapult and arrested-landing supercarrier. ... Historical photo of the FAA A-4C Skyhawk of the IV Air Brigade refueling in flight from a KC-130H Hercules on May 9, 1982. ...


It should be noted that the disparity in figures, with the Argentine fighters failing to shoot down a single Sea Harrier, can be explained by several factors. The Argentine planes were operating at the limit of their range (average 450 miles) with no fuel available for dogfighting; the air combat training of the British pilots was indisputably superior; limited fighter control was provided by British warships in San Carlos Water, the then almost unparalleled Blue Fox radar, and the extreme manoeuvrability of the Sea Harrier. These factors were also enhanced with the use by the British of the latest AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles while the Argentine strike planes had no air-to-air missiles for self defence; 2 of their 21 confirmed kills were made against unarmed planes. The only theoretical advantage of the Argentine jets would be their greater speed. However, Argentine pilots could not benefit from this unless they risked running out of fuel, as was seen in the first air combat of the war when a Mirage IIIEA was forced to attempt a landing at Stanley. San Carlos Water or San Carlos Water is a bay/fjord on the west coast of East Falkland, facing onto the Falkland Sound. ... The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ...


The logistic capability of the UK armed forces was stretched to the absolute limit in order to mount an amphibious operation so far from a home-base, onto mountainous islands with few roads. After the war, much work was done to improve both the logistic and amphibious capability of the Royal Navy. Task force commander Rear Admiral Sir Sandy Woodward refers to the conflict as "a lot closer run than many would care to believe", reflecting the naval and military belief that few people understood — or understand — the extent to which the logistical dimension made the war a difficult operation for the UK.[95] The ships of the task force could only remain on station for a limited time in the worsening southern hemisphere winter. With such a high proportion of the Royal Navy's surface fleet actively engaged, or lost in combat, there were few units available for northbound traffic. At the core of the fleet, Invincible could possibly have been replaced by the hastily-prepared Illustrious, but there was no replacement available for Hermes, the larger of the two British carriers. Woodward's strategy, therefore, required the land war to be won before Hermes, in particular, succumbed to the harsh environment. This, as Woodward said, was "a damned close run thing".


The usefulness of special forces units was reaffirmed. British special forces destroyed many Argentine aircraft (notably in the SAS raid on Pebble Island) and carried out highly informative intelligence gathering operations. The Raid on Pebble Island took place on 14-15 May 1982[citation needed] during the Falklands War. ...


Contrary to popular understanding, the Argentine special forces also patrolled hard, in appalling climatic conditions, against a professional enemy and showed that they could sometimes get the upper hand. [96]


The usefulness of helicopters in combat, logistic, and casevac operations was confirmed. CASEVAC is a shorthand word that means casualty evacuation. This can apply to injured soldiers or civilians, and is used to denote the emergency evacuation of injured people from a war zone. ...


Nylon was shown to be a poor choice for fabric in uniforms, as it is more flammable than cotton and also melts with heat. Burning nylon adheres to the skin, causing avoidable casualties. For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ...


The importance of Airborne Early Warning (AEW) was shown. The Royal Navy had effectively no over-the-horizon radar capability. This was to be hastily rectified after the war as Sea King helicopters were fitted with retractable radomes containing a variant of the Nimrod ASW aircraft's Searchwater radar. These first travelled south after the war on the brand new HMS Illustrious, sister ship to Invincible. United States Air Force E-3 Sentry An Airborne Early Warning (AEW) system is a radar system carried by an aircraft which is designed to detect other aircraft. ... The Nimrod is a maritime patrol aircraft developed in the United Kingdom. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... A portion of the search water project was managed by Peter Webb - Thales - Crawley. ... The fifth HMS Illustrious (R06) is an Invincible-class light aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, affectionately known as Lusty to her crew. ... Six ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Invincible. ...


Impact on the Royal Navy

Strained by two oil crises, the United Kingdom's government desired to cut defence spending in line with the rest of Europe. Many former British possessions in Africa and Asia had gained independence from the UK by the 1980's. Due to this decolonisation, successive Labour governments investigated closing British overseas bases and reducing the UK's armed forces on the belief that capabilities such as a blue water navy were no longer required. Thatcher's Defence Secretary John Nott produced a white paper in 1981 proposing major cuts for the navy in the next ten years (The army and the RAF had already been tailormade for NATO.)[97] Oil crisis may refer to: 1973 oil crisis 1979 energy crisis 1990 spike in the price of oil Oil price increases of 2004 and 2005 Hubbert peak theory Energy crisis This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... Ships from seven countries sailing together during the RIMPAC exercise in 2006. ... Sir John William Frederic Nott (born 1 February 1932 in Bideford, Devon) is a former a British Conservative Party politician prominent in the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ...


Denis Healey, the Defence Secretary in 1966, once said that aircraft carriers were required only for operations regarding 'landing or withdrawal of troops against sophisticated opposition outside range of land-based air cover'. When the last conventional carrier in the Royal Navy, HMS Ark Royal, was decommissioned in 1978, the pro-carrier lobby succeeded in acquiring light carriers (euphemistically christened 'through deck cruisers') equipped with VTOL Sea Harriers as well as helicopters, justified by the fact that one of their primary roles was anti-submarine warfare.[98]. John Nott's defence review concluded that anti-submarine defence was performed cheaper by fewer destroyers and frigates. HMS Hermes was therefore to be scrapped and HMS Invincible sold to Australia. Under the review, the Royal Navy was focussed primarily on anti-submarine warfare under the auspices of NATO. Any out-of-area amphibious operations were considered unlikely. The entire Royal Marines was in jeopardy of being disbanded and the sale of HMS Intrepid and HMS Fearless was mooted.[99] Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, CH, MBE, PC (born 30 August 1917), is a British Labour politician. ... HMS Ark Royal (R09) was an Audacious-class aircraft carrier of the British Royal Navy and, when she was decommissioned in 1978, was the Royal Navys last remaining conventional catapult and arrested-landing supercarrier. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... This article is about a variant of the Harrier family of V/STOL aircraft. ... The second HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, the last of the postwar conventional aircraft carriers commissioned into the Royal Navy. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Invincible. ... HMS Intrepid (L11) was a Landing Platform Dock (LPD) of the Royal Navy built at John Brown & Co. ... HMS Fearless (L10) was a landing platform dock of the Royal Navy. ...


In 1980 low funding caused many ships to be in harbours for months, due to lack of spare parts and fuel. The largest cut in Royal Navy's conventional forces led to the resignation of the Navy Minister Keith Speed in 1981. Sea battles, mass convoys, amphibious landings and coastal bombardments were considered obsolete in the second half of the 20th Century[100]. The head of the admiralty, First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Henry Leach was still fighting the cuts in the Ministry of Defence together with the Chief of Defence Staff, who by chance, was also a naval officer - Admiral Lord Lewin. Sir Herbert Keith Speed RD DL (11 March 1934 at 05:15 GMT at Evesham) is a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. ... Sir Jonathon Band, the current First Sea Lord The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service. ... Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Leach (born 1923) is a former First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy Sir Henry Leach was First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff between 1979 and 1982. ... The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the senior member of the Canadian Forces and reports directly to the Minister of National Defence. ... The Right Honourable Terence Thornton Lewin, Baron Lewin, KG, GCB, LVO, DSC (1920-1999) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy. ...


At the onset of the crisis, First Sea Lord Sir Henry Leach was summoned to brief the Prime Minister. He claimed that Britain was able to recapture the islands, and that it should be done. "Since here was a clear, imminent threat to British overseas territory that could only be reached by sea, what the hell was the point in having a Navy if it was not used for this sort of thing?"[101].


After the war, the sale of HMS Invincible to Australia was cancelled, with Hermes offered instead, and the operational status of all three support carriers was maintained. The proposed cutback in the surface fleet was abandoned and replacements for many of the lost ships and helicopters plus more Sea Harriers were ordered. [102] The amphibious assault ships HMS Intrepid and HMS Fearless were not decommissioned until 1999 and 2002 respectively, being replaced by HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark. The Royal Navy confirmed its commitment to a carrier force with the order of two Queen Elizabeth class carriers in 2007. HMS Intrepid (L11) was a Landing Platform Dock (LPD) of the Royal Navy built at John Brown & Co. ... HMS Fearless (L10) was a landing platform dock of the Royal Navy. ... The ninth and current HMS Albion (2001-present) is a state of the art Landing Platform Dock (LPD) ship of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Bulwark is a state of the art Albion-class landing platform dock, the UKs newest class of amphibious assault warship and built in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, England, UK. For numerous reasons, delays caused the delivery date to be put back, with the ship entering service in December... The Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers (formerly CVF)[4] are a new generation of aircraft carrier being developed for the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ...


Weapon export controls

The Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) failed to anticipate a conflict between Argentina and the UK when approving weapon exports to Argentina. CoCom is an acrynom for Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls. ...


Medical

See also: Physical trauma#Time

During the operations, several wounded British soldiers had to spend hours in the cold before receiving medical aid—yet no British soldier died who was evacuated to a medical aid station, a fact confirmed by Dr Rick Jolly, the Chief Medical Officer. Many recovered better than medical opinion of the time considered possible, and subsequent theories have suggested that this was due to the extreme cold. Britain also had medical staff familiar with high velocity gunshot wounds, due to their experiences in the Northern Ireland conflict with the IRA. In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... The Troubles is a generic and euphemistic term used to describe a period of sporadic communal violence involving paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the late 1990s ending with the Good Friday Agreement on April 10... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern...


The trials of one British patient, Robert Lawrence, MC, were chronicled in a book co-authored by him entitled When The Fighting is Over which was later adapted into a television film. Lawrence was shot at close range by an FN rifle and lost a large percentage of brain matter, but recovered to a degree not thought possible.[103] After the war he became an outspoken critic of the British Army's treatment of Falklands veterans. He remains partially paralysed in the left side of his body. Robert Lawrence MC is a former British Army officer who fought and was severely wounded in the Falklands War. ...


Public Relations

Argentina

Pre-war:La Prensa speculated in a step-by-step plan beginning with cutting off supplies to the Islands, ending in direct actions late 1982, if the UN talks were fruitless.


War: Selected war correspondents were regularly flown to Port Stanley in military aircraft to report on the war. Back in Buenos Aires newspapers and magazines faithfully reported on the heroic actions of the largely conscript army and its successes.


Officers from the intelligence services were attached to the newspapers and 'leaked' information, which verified the official communiqués from the government. The glossy magazines Gente and Siete Días swelled to sixty pages with colour photographs and eyewitness reports of the Argentine commandos' guerrilla war on South Georgia 6 May and an already dead Pucará pilot's attack on HMS Hermes.[104] is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Malvinas course united the Argentines in a patriotic atmosphere, preserving the junta of critics[105]—even the Madres de Plaza de Mayo were exposed to death threats from ordinary people. The white shawl of the Mothers, painted on the floor in Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


HMS Invincible was repeatedly sunk in the Argentine press,[106] and on 30 April 1982 the Argentine magazine Tal Cual showed UK's PM Thatcher with an eyepatch and the text: Pirate, witch and assassin. Guilty![107] is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Three British reporters sent to Argentina to cover the war from the 'other side' were thrown in jail for its duration.[108]


United Kingdom

17 newspaper reporters, 2 photographers, 2 radio reporters and 3 television reporters with 5 technicians sailed with the Task Force to the war. The Newspaper Publishers' Association selected them from among 160 applicants, excluding foreign media. Due to the hasty departure, not all of them were "the right stuff": two journalists on HMS Invincible were interested in nothing but Queen Elizabeth's son Prince Andrew.[109] HRH The Duke of York His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor, formerly Windsor), styled HRH The Duke of York (born February 19, 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II...


Merchant vessels had the civilian INMARSAT uplink, which enabled written telex as well as voice report transmissions via satellite. On Canberra there was a facsimile machine which was used to upload 202 pictures from the South Atlantic over the course of the war. The Royal Navy leased bandwidth on the US 'Defence Satellite Communications System' satellites for worldwide communications. Television demands a bandwidth 1,000 times greater than telephone, but the MoD was unsuccessful in convincing the US to allocate more bandwidth. Perhaps the enquiry was half-hearted; since the Vietnam War television pictures of casualties and traumatised soldiers were recognised as having negative propaganda value. Videotapes were shipped to Ascension Island, where a broadband satellite uplink was available, resulting in TV coverage being delayed by three weeks.[110] Inmarsat is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... Insert non-formatted text here For the machine that sends, receives, and produces facsimiles, see fax. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The press was very dependent on the Royal Navy, and was censored on site. Many reporters in the UK knew more about the war than those with the Task Force.[111] For other uses, see Censor. ...


The Royal Navy expected Fleet Street to conduct a World War Two style positive news campaign[112] but the majority of the British media, especially the BBC, reported the war in a neutral fashion.[113] Reporters referred to "the British troops" and "the Argentinian troops" instead of "our lads" and the dehumanised "Argies".[114] The two main tabloid papers, namely The Daily Mirror and The Sun presented opposing viewpoints. The Daily Mirror was decidedly anti-war, whilst The Sun became notorious for its jingoistic and xenophobic headlines including the 20 April headline "Stick It Up Your Junta!"[115] and was condemned for the "Gotcha" headline following the sinking of the ARA General Belgrano.[116][117][118] Fleet Street in 2005 Fleet Street is a famous street in London, England, named after the River Fleet. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... For the Argentine politician and military leader, see Manuel Belgrano. ...


Pope John Paul II visits

In May 1982, Pope John Paul II carried out a long-scheduled visit to the United Kingdom. In view of the crisis it was decided that this should be balanced[119] with an unscheduled trip to Argentina in June.[120] It is contended that his presence and words spiritually prepared Argentines for a possible defeat, contrary to the propaganda issued by the Junta.[121] He would return to Argentina in 1987 after democratisation. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Allegations of nuclear deployment

It has been reported that two years after the war, Labour MPs demanded an inquiry[122] into reports that a Resolution class submarine armed with the Polaris SLBMs had deployed to Ascension Island during the operation, ostensibly to prepare for a nuclear strike. The Ministry of Defence is reported to have denied the allegations, and Freedman's Official History does the same.[123] During the 1950s and early 1960s, Great Britains only nuclear deterrent was through the RAFs V-bombers. ... Polaris A-3 on launch pad in Cape Canaveral The Polaris missile was a submarine-launched, two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed ballistic missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed for the United States Navy. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... Sir Lawrence D. Freedman is Professor of War Studies at Kings College London, a post he has held since 1982. ...


In 1982, British warships were routinely armed with the WE.177, a tactical nuclear weapon with a variable yield of either 10 kilotons or 0.5 kiloton, which could be used to attack land targets, or as a Nuclear Depth Bomb in an antisubmarine role. The Official History describes the contorted logistical arrangements that led to the removal of the nuclear depth bombs from the frigates, following political alarm in Whitehall. Eventually at least some of the depth bombs were brought back to the UK by an RFA vessel. In December 2003, Argentine President Néstor Kirchner demanded an apology from the British Government for this "regrettable and monstrous" act.[124] An inert bomb originally used for training, shown here on its trolley in a museum WE.177 was the last British air-launched nuclear bomb. ... American scientists examine a mockup of a W48 155-millimeter nuclear shell, a very small tactical nuclear weapon. ... Variable yield, or Dial-a-yield, an option available on most modern nuclear bombs, allows the operator to specify a bombs yield, or explosive power, allowing a single design to be used in different situations. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... A Nuclear Depth Bomb (NDB) is the nuclear equivalent of the conventional depth charge and is used in Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) for attacking submerged submarines. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... Néstor Kirchner, full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ...


MI6 activity

In his 2002 memoirs Sir John Nott made the following disclosure: Sir John William Frederic Nott (born 1 February 1932 in Bideford, Devon) is a former a British Conservative Party politician prominent in the late 1970s and early 1980s. ...

I authorised our agents to pose as bona fide purchasers of equipment on the international market, ensuring that we outbid the Argentines, and other agents identified Exocet missiles in markets and rendered them inoperable.[125]

Norwegian intelligence

According to a Norwegian TV documentary, during the war the Norwegian signals intelligence facility situated at Fauske in the northern province of Nordland regularly intercepted Soviet satellite intelligence data, which was forwarded to the Northwood Headquarters. Said “a high ranking British military source”: The NRK1 Logo, in line with NRKs TV channels logos. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... County District Salten Municipality NO-1841 Administrative centre Fauske Mayor (2005) Kjell Eilertsen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 82 1,210 km² 1,109 km² 0. ... // For other uses, see Nordland (disambiguation). ... CCCP redirects here. ... Tri-service badge of the British Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. ...

When the war broke out, we ourselves almost didn’t have any intelligence information from this area. It was here we got help from the Norwegians, who gave us a stream of information about the Argentine warships’ positions. The information came to us all the time and straight to our war headquarters at Northwood. The information was continuously updated and told us exactly where the Argentine ships were.[37]

Falklands veterans' afflictions

The South Atlantic Medal, a British military decoration for veterans of the war.
The South Atlantic Medal, a British military decoration for veterans of the war.

The British Ministry of Defence was accused several times of a systematic failure to prepare service personnel for the horrors of war and to provide adequate care for them afterwards. Image File history File links South_Atlantic_Medal. ... Image File history File links South_Atlantic_Medal. ... The South Atlantic Medal was awarded for service in the Falklands War 1982, either on the Falklands Islands, one of the surrounding islands, for example South Georgia, or afloat. ...


There are allegations that the Ministry of Defence has tried to ignore the issue of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which left many sufferers emotionally scarred and unable to work, immersed in social dislocation, alcoholism, and depression. Veterans have suffered prolonged personality disorders, flashbacks, and anxiety sometimes reaching pathological levels. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ...


It was revealed that more veterans have committed suicide since the Falklands War ended than the number of servicemen killed in action[126] The South Atlantic Medal Association (SAMA82), which represents and helps Falklands veterans, believes that some 264 veterans had taken their own lives by 2002, a number exceeding the 255 who died in active service, although no estimate is available for the expected number of suicides that would have occurred anyway.


A similar situation afflicts the veterans on the Argentine side, many of whom have similarly suffered from psychiatric disorders, drug and alcohol abuse, and social turmoil.[127] The current Argentine suicide toll is 454, according to an Argentine film (Iluminados por el fuego by Tristán Bauer, 2006) about the suicide of a Falklands veteran.


Cultural impact

There were wide-ranging influences on popular culture in both the UK and Argentina, from the immediate postwar period to the present. The words yomp and Exocet entered the British vernacular as a result of the war. The Falklands War also provided material for theatre, film and TV drama and influenced the output of musicians including (among others) New Order, Gang of Four, Joe Jackson, Crass, Dire Straits, New Model Army, The Levellers, Steve Dahl, Latin Quarter, the Super Furry Animals, and Elvis Costello, whose song "Shipbuilding", sung by Robert Wyatt, reached the British top 40. The cultural impact of the Falklands War spanned several media in both Britain and Argentina. ... Yomp is Royal Marines slang describing a long distance march carrying full kit. ... This article is about the alternative rock/electronic band New Order. ... Gang of Four is an English post-punk group from Leeds. ... Joe Jackson (born David Ian Jackson, 11 August 1954, Burton upon Trent, Staffordshire) is an English musician and singer-songwriter probably best-known for the 1979 hit song Is She Really Going Out With Him?, which still gets extensive FM radio airplay; for his 1982 hit, Steppin Out; and for... For information about the anarchist writer, see Chris Crass Crass was an English anarchist punk rock band, formed in 1977[1][2] and based around Dial House, an open house community near Epping, Essex. ... This article is about the band. ... New Model Army are an English rock band. ... The Levellers are a popular English band that plays Folk-rock or Indie rock influenced by Punk and traditional English music. ... Steve Dahl (born November 20, 1954) has been an American radio personality for over thirty years. ... Latin Quarter were a British band of the 1980s and 1990s. ... Super Furry Animals (also known as SFA, the Furries and the Super Furries) are a Welsh rock band, with leanings towards psychedelic rock and electronic experimentation. ... Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick McManus August 25, 1954) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. ... Shipbuilding is a song written by singer/songwriter Elvis Costello and producer Clive Langer. ... Robert Wyatt (born Robert Wyatt-Ellidge, 28 January 1945, in Bristol) is an English musician, and a former member of the influential Canterbury scene band Soft Machine. ...


Pink Floyd's 1983 album, The Final Cut, deals with Roger Waters' feelings regarding the Falklands War, among other war-related topics. Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... The Final Cut may mean: The Final Cut, an album by Pink Floyd The Final Cut, an industrial music group The Final Cut, the third part of the House of Cards trilogy about the rise and fall of a Machiavellian prime minister The Final Cut, a 2004 movie See also... George Roger Waters (born 6 September 1943) is an English rock musician; singer, bassist, guitarist, songwriter, and composer. ...


The 2006 Movie This Is England deals with the effects of the war on the Skinhead culture in England. For the song by The Clash, see This Is England (song) This Is England is a 2007 film written and directed by Shane Meadows, director of other films such as A Room for Romeo Brass and Once Upon a Time in the Midlands. ...


Some enmity has remained between the nationals of the two countries, mostly displayed in tense football matches between the two countries (See: Argentina and England football rivalry). In the 2002 FIFA World Cup, players notoriously refused to swap shirts at the end of the match.[128] The Argentina and England football rivalry is a highly competitive sports rivalry that exists between the national football teams of the two countries, as well as their respective sets of fans. ... 2002 World Cup redirects here. ...


Name

This war is also occasionally written as The Falklands/Malvinas War,[129][130][131] recognising the international split over the Islands' name. Other constructs such as Falklands Conflict and Falklands Crisis have also been used. The term Malvinas War has also been used by some minor socialist groups.[132][133]


Notes

  1. ^ Casualties of the Falklands War MOD website, retrieved 11 January 2006
  2. ^ Argentina - the horrors of a dictatorial past live on - Radio Netherlands Worldwide - English
  3. ^ http://www.me.gov.ar/curriform/publica/sirlin_conv_dictadura.pdf Argentine Government
  4. ^ "Que tenía que ver con despertar el orgullo nacional y con otra cosa. La junta —Galtieri me lo dijo— nunca creyó que los británicos darían pelea. Él creía que Occidente se había corrompido. Que los británicos no tenían Dios, que Estados Unidos se había corrompido… Nunca lo pude convencer de que ellos no sólo iban a pelear, que además iban a ganar." ("This was neither about national pride nor anything else.The junta —Galtieri told me— never believed the British would respond. He thought the Western World was corrupt. That the British people had no God, that the US was corrupt… I could never convince him that the British would not only fight back but also win [the war].") La Nación / Islas Malvinas Online. Haig: "Malvinas fue mi Waterloo". Retrieved on September 21, 2006. (Spanish)
  5. ^ En Buenos Aires, la Junta comenzó a estudiar la posibilidad de ocupar las Islas Malvinas y Georgias antes de que los británicos pudieran reforzarlas
  6. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | How BBC man scooped invasion news
  7. ^ Obituary: Captain Nicholas Barker | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET.com
  8. ^ high cost of cuts, The | Spectator, The | Find Articles at BNET.com
  9. ^ Argentina for Falklands Sovereignty Prensa Latina Latin America New Agency accessed 21 June 2008
  10. ^ Constitución Nacional La Nación Argentina ratifica su legítima e imprescriptible soberanía sobre las Islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur y los espacios marítimos e insulares correspondientes, por ser parte integrante del territorio nacional
  11. ^ Cómo evitar que Londres convierta a las Malvinas en un Estado independiente
  12. ^ 1982: Marines land in South Georgia. BBC. Retrieved on 20 June, 2005.
  13. ^ "..to get twenty-one bombs to Port Stanley is going to take about one million, one hundred thousand pounds of fuel - equalled[sic] about 137,000 gallons. That was enough fuel to fly 260 Sea Harrier bombing missions over Port Stanley. Which in turn meant just over 1300 bombs. Interesting stuff!" page 186 in Sharkey Ward: Sea Harrier over the Falklands, 1992, Cassell Military Paperbacks, ISBN 0-304-35542-9
  14. ^ "Propaganda was, of course, used later to try to justify these missions: 'The Mirage IIIs were redrawn from Southern Argentina to Buenos Aires to add to the defences there following the Vulcan raids on the islands.' Apparently the logic behind this statement was that if the Vulcan could hit Port Stanley, the[sic] Buenos Aires was well within range as well and was vulnerable to similar attacks. I never went along with that baloney. A lone Vulcan or two running in to attack Buenos Aires without fighter support would have been shot to hell in quick time."-"Mirage IIIs were in evidence near the islands on several occasions during the conflict, either escorting the Neptune reconnaissance missions or on 'interference' flights that attempted to draw CAP attention away from air-to-ground attacks."-"Suffice it to say that you didn't need more than one or two Mirage IIIs to intercept a Vulcan attack on Buenos Aires"-"It would have taken much more than a lone Vulcan raid to upset Buenos Aires" pages 247-48 in Sea Harrier over the Falklands
  15. ^ Sir Lawrence Freedman: Official History of the Falklands Campaign, 2005
  16. ^ A.C.G.Welburn: The Application of False Principles and the Misapplication of Valid Principles page 25 in 'Australian Defence Force Journal No. 124 May/June 1997'
  17. ^ Max Hastings, Simon Jenkins: The Battle for the Falklands (1983) ISBN 0393301982, p144
  18. ^ Edward Fursdon: Falklands Aftermath, "The Argentinians had temporarily backfilled the five large craters, enabling them to continue to fly in C-130 Hercules transports" - the other craters were from Harrier raids; note that C-130 Hercules aircraft are designed to land on very rough semi-prepared airstrips.
  19. ^ "And what was achieved? A crater in the runway that was filled in within twenty-four hours, and possibly a 30 mm gun radar knocked out." Sea Harrier over the Falklands
  20. ^ "The photographs showed another bomb crater on Port Stanley airfield runway. This had been created by the Argentine Air Force unit who had begun to simulate bomb craters using bulldozers to build piles of mud which could be removed at night allowing aircraft to land." 16th May 1982 in http://www.navynews.co.uk/falklands/day_may.asp
  21. ^ Max Hastings:"The Battle for the Falklands" on page 203 in the San Carlos chapter (21st May):"Meanwhile, a single Aeromacchi[sic] - almost certainly the first Fleet Air Arm[sic] (Argentine COAN) reconnaissance aircraft flying from Port Stanley - attacked the...."
  22. ^ Paul Rogers (2000). Losing Control: Global Security in the Twenty-first Century. Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-1909-2. 
  23. ^ Commodore Ruben Oscar Moro La Guerra Inaudita, 2000 ISBN 987-96007-3-8
  24. ^ Argentine Aircraft Lost - Falklands War 1982
  25. ^ Gordon Smith, Battle Atlas of the Falklands War 1982 by Land, Sea and Air, lulu.com, 2006, URL retrieved 21 February 2007
  26. ^ Correspondent profile - bbc.co.uk, undated, retrieved on 21 February 2007
  27. ^ the claim is made in his book La Defensa de Puerto Argentino - The Argentine Fight For The Falklands, Martin Middlebrook, pp.94-95
  28. ^ ...all blatant lies, designed to cover up the Argentine set backs of the day - The Argentine Fight For The Falklands, Martin Middlebrook, pp.94-95
  29. ^ the Argentine claim that two Sea Harrier were shot down ... was patently fictitious - Falklands Air War, Chris Hobson and Andrew Noble
  30. ^ Rodriguez Mottino, Horacio: La Artillería Argentina en Malvinas. Ed. Clío, 1985. Page 170
  31. ^ Sharkey Ward (2003). Sea Harrier Over The Falklands. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-35542-9. 
  32. ^ Fuerza Aérea Argentina
  33. ^ ASN Aircraft accident description Lockheed C-130H Hercules TC-63 - Pebble Island
  34. ^ http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTBR_PostWWII.htm
  35. ^ Independent Online Edition - UK Politics News - Independent.co.uk
  36. ^ Intelligence: 'Belgrano' ordered to attack British ships on day before sinking, secret report reveals
  37. ^ a b http://www.nrk.no/programmer/tv/brennpunkt/1861285.html Article about the Fauske II station (in Norwegian)
  38. ^ [1] 1982 Falklands War Timeline, A Chronology of Events in the Falklands War
  39. ^ Thatcher in dark on Belgrano sinking
  40. ^ Argentine Aircraft in the Falklands
  41. ^ [2] Turn to page 6
  42. ^ telegraph.co.uk SAS 'suicide mission' to wipe out Exocets
  43. ^ Middlebrook, The Argentine Fight for the Falklnds p. 75
  44. ^ La Infantería de Marina de la Armada Argentina en el Conflicto del Atlántico Sur, ISBN 987-433-641-2
  45. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/newspaper/0,,170-1670775,00.html
  46. ^ Bomb Alley — Falklands Island 1982.
  47. ^ Charles ends Falklands tour on sombre note, BBC News.
  48. ^ Captain Hart Dyke, Commanding Officer of HMS Coventry[3]
  49. ^ Sandy Woodward (2003). One Hundred Days: The Memoirs of the Falklands Battle Group Commander. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-0071-3467-3. 
  50. ^ Battle Atlas of the Falklands War 1982 — British ships lost & damaged.
  51. ^ Scotsman.
  52. ^ Royal Navy.
  53. ^ Sandy Woodward (2003). One Hundred Days: The Memoirs of the Falklands Battle Group Commander. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-0071-3467-3. 
  54. ^ Commodore Ruben Oscar Moro La Guerra Inaudita, 2000 ISBN 987-96007-3-8
  55. ^ [4] "The attack against the HMS Invincible"
  56. ^ [5]30th of May 1982
  57. ^ [6] operationcorporate.com
  58. ^ [7] Sunday May 30th
  59. ^ [8] David Aldea, The Argentine Commandos on Mount Kent
  60. ^ Julian Thompson, No Picnic, p. 93, Casssell & Co, 2001
  61. ^ Rick Jolly, The Red & Green Life Machine, page 124
  62. ^ An interview with CL (R) Ing. Julio Pérez, chief designer of Exocet trailer-based launcher (Spanish) ]
  63. ^ Max Hastings & Simon Jenkins, The Battle For The Falklands, p. 307
  64. ^ Buenos Aires War Memorial is at coordinates 34°35′37″S 58°22′29″W / -34.59373, -58.374782 (Buenos Aires War Memorial)
  65. ^ list
  66. ^ list
  67. ^ list
  68. ^ list
  69. ^ Falkland Islands - A history of the 1982 conflict
  70. ^ According to [9] 260. The extras are: Paul T. Mills from HMS Coventry, died from complications from a skull fracture from the air attack, died 29 March 1983 and Brian Biddick from HMHS Uganda who died after an emergency operation on the voyage to the Falklands 12 May 1982
  71. ^ list
  72. ^ list
  73. ^ a b c d [10]
  74. ^ Para
  75. ^ SAS
  76. ^ rest of army
  77. ^ Welcome to St Paul's Cathedral - Lady Thatcher marks Falklands anniversary at St Paul’s
  78. ^ [11]
  79. ^ Lawrence Freedman: "The campaign itself, Operation Corporate, is now estimated to have cost about £1.5 billion. The cost of replacing lost equipment is put at £1,278 million. The largest single item in this figure is £641 million for four new Type 22 frigates...to replace Sir Galahad is put at £69 million, and new aircraft account for another £116 million." - Britain & the Falklands War, 1988
  80. ^ Hugh Bicheno. Razor's Edge: The Unofficial History of the Falklands War. ISBN. 
  81. ^ The Brazilian foreign policy and the hemispheric security. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  82. ^ [12] Caspar Weinberger who was the Defence Secretary at the time ... His staunch support later earned him a British Knighthood. He provided the United Kingdom with all the equipment she required during the war. Ranging from submarine detectors to the latest missiles. All this was done very discreetly.
  83. ^ "'Hice todo lo posible para que Argentina perdiera'", Rio Negro SA, 2005-09-01. Retrieved on 2007-05-22. (Spanish) 
  84. ^ The Informe Rattenbach, a Argentine official investigation over the war, confirms that. See §§ 718 inciso a) in Informe Rattenbach
  85. ^ a b Indeed they invaded Chile as informed by Clarín de Buenos Aires 20 december 1998
  86. ^ See Newspaper "Convicción", Buenos Aires, 24 February 1982,pages 12 and 13. (Cited in Historia general de las Relaciones Exteriores Argentinas, note 57.)
  87. ^ Kalevi Jaakko Holsti, The State, War, and the State of War Cambridge Studies in International Relations, 1996, 271 pages, ISBN 052157790X. See also here On page 160: Displaying the mentality of the Argentine military regime in the 1970s, as another example, there was "Plan Rosario" according to which Argentina would attack the Falkland Islands and then turn to settle the Beagle Channel problem by force. The sequence, according to the plan, could also be reversed.
  88. ^ Diario "Clarin" de Buenos Aires Los secretos de la guerra sucia continental de la dictadura 24 march 2006
  89. ^ "'En su lógica'", Rio Negro SA, 2005-09-01. Retrieved on 2005-09-05. (Spanish) 
  90. ^ Nora Femenia (1996). National Identity in Times of Crises: the scripts of the Falklands-Malvinas War. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN 1-56072-196-0. 
  91. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | UK 'regret' over Falklands dead
  92. ^ BBC NEWS | Politics | Thatcher rallying call to troops
  93. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Americas | Argentina vows Falklands return
  94. ^ Keegan, Sir John, The Price of Admiralty: the Evolution of Naval Warfare Penguin (Non-Classics), 1990, ISBN-10 0140096507, pages 324-325
  95. ^ Falklands victory 'a close run thing'
  96. ^ (Jon Cooksey, 3 PARA MOUNT LONGDON, page 44)
  97. ^ chapter 1: Forgotten Islands in Max Hastings:Battle for the Falklands. 1983
  98. ^ [13] Invincible Class Aircraft Carriers
  99. ^ chapter 5: Task Force in Max Hastings:Battle for the Falklands:"In the previous decade, the very existence of the marines had come into question." and "both the assault ships Fearless and Intrepid were at that time threatened with sale to foreign powers"
  100. ^ chapter 1: Forgotten Islands in Max Hastings:Battle for the Falklands
  101. ^ Falklands 25 - Official Commemorative Publication, 2007, Newsdesk Communications LTD, ISBN 1-905435-44-4
  102. '^ chapter 7: Conclusion in Antony Preston:Sea Combat of the Falklands - the Lessons That Must Be Learned' ISBN 0-00-218046-4
  103. ^ Lawrence, Robert and John Lawrence, When the Fighting Is Over: A Personal Story of the Battle for Tumbledown Mountain and Its Aftermath.
  104. ^ Jimmy Burns: The land that lost its heroes, 1987, Bloomsbury Publishing, ISBN 0-7475-0002-9
  105. ^ Even opposers of the military government supported Galtieri; Ernesto Sábato: "Don't be mistaken, Europe; it is not a dictatorship that is fighting for the Malvinas, it is the whole Nation."
  106. ^ Robert Harris: GOTCHA!, the Media, the Government and the Falklands Crisis, 1983, Faber & Faber, ISBN 0-571-13052-6
  107. ^ http://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/results.asp?image=10438336&wwwflag=2&imagepos=12 <Pirata, Bruja y asesina. ¡Culpable!>
  108. ^ I went as a reporter but ended up a prisoner of war, The Observer Sunday April 1, 2007
  109. ^ "two journalists on Invincible were interested in no issue other than what Prince Andrew, a helicopter pilot as well as the Queen's son, was up to" - Sir Lawrence Freedman: Official History of the Falklands Campaign, 2005
  110. ^ Sir Lawrence Freedman: Official History of the Falklands Campaign, 2005
  111. ^ Sir Lawrence Freedman: Official History of the Falklands Campaign, 2005
  112. ^ "You must have been told you couldn't report bad news ...You were expected to do a 1940 propaganda job." in Robert Harris: GOTCHA!, the Media, the Government and the Falklands Crisis, 1983, Faber & Faber, ISBN 0-571-13052-6
  113. ^ Hastings, Max, The Battle for the Falklands, 1983
  114. ^ Channel 4 - When Britain Went to War
  115. ^ Robert Harris: GOTCHA!, the Media, the Government and the Falklands Crisis,1983, Faber & Faber, ISBN 0-571-13052-6
  116. ^ [14] A new Britain, a new kind of newspaper, the Guardian, Monday February 25, 2002 (retrieved on 7 September 2007)
  117. ^ [15] Forty years of The Sun (retrieved on 7 September 2007)
  118. ^ [16] British Library Website on the "Gotcha" headline (retrieved on 7 September 2007)
  119. ^ [17] The twenty-fifth anniversary of the visit of Pope John Paul II to Great Britain
  120. ^ Reuters, June 1982, Archbishop Says Pope's Visit To Argentina Is Nonpolitical
  121. ^ [18] TONY BRENTON, BRITISH AMBASSADOR INTERVIEW TO GAZETA 14.06.2007
  122. ^ Margaret Thatcher Threatened to Use Nukes During Falkland Islands War News Max, November 21, 2005
  123. ^ Falklands: “The Sphinx and the curious case of the Iron Lady’s H-bomb” (memoirs of Mitterrand’s psychoanalyst), The Sunday Times, November 2005
  124. ^ Argentina demands UK nuke apology, CNN News, December 7, 2003
  125. ^ telegraph.co.uk How France helped us win Falklands war
  126. ^ Falklands Veterans suicide toll BBC News, retrieved 12 January 2007
  127. ^ Argentina's veterans die of shame | Features | The First Post
  128. ^ Argentina 0 England 1 - 2002 World Cup First Round Match Report
  129. ^ The Falklands/Malvinas War
  130. ^ Warrior Nation - Images of War in British Popular Culture 1850-2000
  131. ^ Justice and the Genesis of War
  132. ^ The Malvinas War Revisited
  133. ^ World Socialist Web Site

A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... La Nación is an Argentine daily newspaper. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Lawrence D. Freedman is Professor of War Studies at Kings College London, a post he has held since 1982. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... Sir Max Hastings (born December 28, 1945) is a British journalist, editor, historian and author. ... Sir Simon Jenkins (born June 10, 1943) is a British newspaper columnist currently associated with The Guardian after fifteen years with News International titles. ... Sir Lawrence D. Freedman is Professor of War Studies at Kings College London, a post he has held since 1982. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernesto Sabato (born 1911 ) is an Argentine writer (of Italian and ethnic Arbëresh/Albanian descent). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Falklands War
  • Barnett, Anthony. IRON BRITANNIA Why Parliament waged its Falklands war. Allison & Busby, 1982. ISBN 0-85031-493-3
  • Dalyell, Tam, MP. One Man's Falklands. Cecil Woolf, 1982. ISBN 0-900821-65-5.
  • Dalyell, Tam, MP. Thatcher's Torpedo. Cecil Woolf, 1983. ISBN 0-900821-66-3.
  • Femenia, Nora National Identity in Times of Crises: the scripts of the Falklands-Malvinas War. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 1996. ISBN 1-56072-196-0.
  • Franks et al. Falkland Islands Review, Report of a Committee of Privy Counsellors. HMSO, January 1983. Cmnd. 8787.
  • Freedman, Sir Lawrence. Official History of the Falklands Campaign: Vols 1 & 2. Frank Cass, 2005. ISBN 0-7146-5206-7 and ISBN 0-7146-5207-5.
  • Gavshon, Arthur and Rice, Desmond. The Sinking of the Belgrano. Secker & Warburg, 1984. ISBN 0-436-41332-9.
  • Harris, Robert. GOTCHA! The Media, the Government and the Falklands Crisis. Faber and Faber, 1983. ISBN 0-571-13052-6.
  • Kon, Daniel. Los Chicos de la Guerra, The Argentine conscripts' own moving accounts of their Falklands War (English translation). New English Library 1983. ISBN 0-450-05611-2.
  • McManners, Hugh, Forgotten Voices of the Falklands, Ebury Press, 2007, ISBN 9780091908805
  • Middlebrook, Martin. The Argentine Fight for the Falklands. Pen & Sword Military Classics, 2003. ISBN 0-85052-978-6
  • Norton-Taylor, Richard. The Ponting Affair. Cecil Woolf, 1985. ISBN 0-900821-73-6.
  • Ponting, Clive. The Right to Know: The Inside Story of the Belgrano Affair. Sphere Books, 1985. ISBN 0-7221-6944-2
  • Sunday Times Insight Team. The Falklands War. Sphere Books, 1982. ISBN 0-7221-8282-1.
  • Tinker, Lieut. David, R.N. A Message from the Falklands, The Life and Gallant Death of David Tinker, Lieut. R.N. from his Letters and Poems. Penguin, 1982. ISBN 0-14-006778-7.
  • Thornton, Richard C. 'The Falklands Sting. Brassey's, 1998. ISBN 1-57488-155-8.
  • Underwood, Geoffrey. Our Falklands War, The Men of the Task Force Tell Their Story. Maritime Books, 1983. ISBN 0-907771-08-4.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Sir Lawrence D. Freedman is Professor of War Studies at Kings College London, a post he has held since 1982. ... In March 1982, Argentina surprised the world by invading the Falkland Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Falklands War

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Some islands located south of Tierra del Fuego The Beagle Conflict (Spanish: Conflicto del Beagle) was a border dispute between Argentina and Chile over the possession of the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and sea located south of Tierra del Fuego which took both countries to the brink of war... Historical photo of the FAA A-4C Skyhawk of the IV Air Brigade refueling in flight from a KC-130H Hercules on May 9, 1982. ... Operation Algeciras was a failed plan conceived by the Argentinian military to covertly sabotage a British Royal Navy warship in Gibraltar during the Falklands War. ... Official logo of Montoneros The Movimiento Peronista Montonero was an Argentinian radical leftist nationalist-catholic guerrilla group, active during the 1970s. ...

External links

  • (Spanish) Comisión de Análisis y Evaluación de las responsabilidades en el conflicto del Atlántico Sur (Rattenbach Report). Report of the Argentina Armed Forces about the War.
  • (Spanish) ex-7th Argentine Infantry Regiment veterans
  • of Anglo-Argentine conscript Michael Savage of the 7th Infantry Regiment's C Company
  • (Spanish) Escuadron Fenix
  • Falkland Islands History Roll of Honour
  • (English)/(Spanish) Falklands/Malvinas Forum
  • Falklands Roundtable — Ronald Reagan Oral History Project, Scripps Library
  • Falklands War Articles
  • Falklands War Documents
  • Falklands War Timeline
  • Falklandswar.org.uk
  • The Guardian: Julian Barnes
  • (German) Film Iluminados por el fuego regarding Argentine veterans suicide
  • Malvinas War Memorial (Buenos Aires)
  • MoD - 20-year anniversary
  • MoD 25th Anniversary
  • 25th anniversary commemorations
  • [http://www.sama82.org South Atlantic Medal Association (1982) (SAMA82)
  • Naval-History.Net - "Battle Atlas of the Falklands War 1982"
  • How our enemy made us better - History Today; September 1, 2006; Lorenz, Federico Guillermo (Argentine perspective)
  • London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 49134, pages 12831–12861, 8 October 1982. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. Victoria Cross and other decorations
  • (Spanish) An interview with CL (R) Ing. Julio Pérez, chief designer of Exocet truck-based launcher
  • Falklands 25: Operation Corporate in British Comics
  • Roll of Honour - British Dead Database- Falklands 1982


  Results from FactBites:
 
Falklands War (605 words)
War between Argentina and Britain over disputed sovereignty of the Falkland Islands initiated when Argentina invaded and occupied the islands on 2 April 1982.
In the Falklands War, British troops establish a bridgehead at Port San Carlos and Argentine planes sink HMS Ardent with the loss of 22 members of the crew.
Falklands War: Surrender of Argentinian troops by General Menendez to the British Task Force in Port Stanley following the Argentine invasion of the British-owned Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
The Falklands War: A Moral Balance Sheet (7056 words)
The Falklands war was remarkable for the adherence of both parties to the laws of war and to general just war understandings.
In relation to the Falkland War it may be claimed that Britain was guilty of 'a certain degree' of provocation in its dealings with Argentina in the period leading up to the outbreak of war and that this factor detracts from its claim of just cause.
Britain had a just cause for war (response to aggression) but its moral position was compromised by the extent to which it unwittingly drew Argentina towards the initiation of conflict and by the inevitable disproportion between the value of the interests being defended and the cost of that defence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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