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Encyclopedia > Fairy tale
Gustave Doré's illustration to the European fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood.
Gustave Doré's illustration to the European fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood.

A fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional story that may feature folkloric characters (such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, witches, giants, and talking animals) and enchantments, often involving a far-fetched sequence of events. In modern-day parlance, the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending)[1] or "fairy tale romance", though not all fairy tales end happily. Colloquially, a "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can also mean any far-fetched story. Look up fairy tale in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Dore_ridinghood. ... Image File history File links Dore_ridinghood. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... A depiction by Gustave Doré. Little Red Riding Hood is a famous fairytale about a young girls encounter with a wolf. ... Look up Story in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Goblin (disambiguation). ... Read psychedelic section for amazing info! on the experiments of real elves good for school projects This article is about the small mythical creature, for the 2003 film, see Elf (film). ... For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... WPA poster by Kenneth Whitley, 1939 The talking animal or speaking animal term, in general, refers to any form of animal which can speak human languages. ... To be enchanted is to be under the influence of an enchantment, usually thought to be caused by charms or incantations. ... Happy ending may refer to: Happy ending in fiction, when everything turns out well in the end Happy Ending (story), a science-fiction story by Henry Kuttner Happy Ending (song), a song by London-based singer Mika Happy Ending (Fredric Brown), a science-fiction story and title of a collection...


In cultures where demons and witches are perceived as real, and the teller and hearer of a tale see it as having historical actuality, fairy tales may merge into legendary narratives. However, unlike legends and epics, they usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and actual places, persons, and events; they take place "once upon a time" rather than in actual times.[2] For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Witch redirects here. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... Look up Once upon a time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The history of the fairy tale is particularly difficult to trace, because only the literary forms can survive. Still, folklorists have found these forms from every culture over many centuries. Thus the oral fairy tale may have existed for at least that long, although not perhaps recognized as a genre. The name "fairy tale" was first ascribed to them by Madame d'Aulnoy. Fairy tales, and works derived from fairy tales, are still written today. For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... Marie-Catherine le Jumelle de Barneville, Baronne dAulnoy (1650/1651–4 January 1705) was a French writer known for her fairy tales. ...


The older fairy tales were intended for an audience of adults as well as children, but they were associated with children as early as the writings of the précieuses; the Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales, and the link with children has only grown stronger with time. The literary style called préciosité (preciousness) arose from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses, the witty and educated intellectual ladies who frequented the salon of the marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the blue bedroom of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge... For other uses, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... Grimms Kinder- und Hausmärchen - Erster Theil (1812) Cover Art The world famous collection of German (and French) fairy tales Kinder- und Hausmärchen (KHM; English: Childrens and Household Tales), commonly known as Grimms Fairy Tales, was published by Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm and Wilhelm Karl Grimm...


Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways. Among the most notable are the Aarne-Thompson classification system , and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales. Antti Aarne (1867 - 1925) was a Finnish folklorist, who developed the initial version of what became the Aarne-Thompson classification system of classifying folktales, first published in 1910. ... Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Russian: ; 29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1895 — 22 August 1970) was a Russian structuralist scholar who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements. ...

Contents

Defining marks

Although the fairy tale is a clearly distinct genre, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[3] Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals.[4] Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as Aarne-Thompson 300-749—in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction—to gain a clear set of tales.[5] His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest, and furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works.[6] Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Russian: ; 29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1895 — 22 August 1970) was a Russian structuralist scholar who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Russian mythical heros See Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich, Alyosha Popovich, Svyatogor, Nightingale the Robber, Bogatyr, Bylina Spirits See Koschei, Baba Yaga, Leshiy, Domovoi Categories: Russia-related stubs ... Antti Amatus Aarne (1867 - 1925) was a Finnish folklorist, who developed the initial version of what became the Aarne-Thompson classification system of classifying folktales, first published in 1910. ... In literature, a plot is all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular artistic or emotional effect. ... This article is about the word, for other meanings see Quest (disambiguation) A quest is a journey towards a goal with great meaning and is used in mythology and literature as a plot device. ...

The Russian tale Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf features no fairies, but a talking wolf.
The Russian tale Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf features no fairies, but a talking wolf.

One universally agreed-on factor is that the nature of a tale does not depend on whether fairies appear in it. Obviously, many people, including Angela Carter in her introduction to the Virago Book of Fairy Tales, have noted that a great many of so-called fairy tales do not feature fairies at all.[7] This is partly because of the history of the English term "fairy tale" which derives from the French phrase conte de fées, and was first used in the collection of Madame D'Aulnoy in 1697.[8] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1300x1755, 784 KB) ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- Sources: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1300x1755, 784 KB) ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- Sources: http://www. ... Ivan Tsarevich catching the Firebirds feather, by Ivan Bilibin Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki. ... Angela Carter (May 7, 1940 – February 16, 1992) was an English novelist and journalist, known for her post-feminist magical realist and science fiction works. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


As Stith Thompson and Carter herself point out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves.[9] However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale, especially when the animal is clearly a mask on a human face, as in fables.[10] Stith Thompson (1885-1976) was one of the worlds leading authorities on folklore. ... Magic Circle by John William Waterhouse Magic in fiction is the endowing of fictional characters or objects with magical powers. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ...


In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[11] However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.[10] Other tales that include no magic but are often classified as fairy tales include What Is the Fastest Thing in the World? and Catskin. On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Look up fairy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... The Heart of a Monkey is a Swahili fairy tale collected by Edward Steere in Swahili Tales. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... Rumpelstiltskin from The Blue Fairy Book, by Henry J. Ford Andrew Langs Fairy Books or Andrew Langs Coloured Fairy Books are a twelve-book series of fairy tale collections. ... What Is the Fastest Thing in the World? is a Greek fairy tale collected by Georgios A. Megas in Folktales of Greece. ... Catskin is a fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs. ...


Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen to refer to the genre, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes. It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses."[12] The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[13] Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.[14]. Folkloristics is the formal academic study of folklore such as fairy tales and folk mythology in oral or non-literary traditions. ... In literature, a motif is a recurring element or theme that has symbolic significance in the story. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... The youngest son is a stock character in fairy tales, where he features as the hero. ... This article is about the mythological creature. ... Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation). ... “Stepmom” redirects here. ... The false hero is a stock character in fairy tales. ... In fairy tales, a fairy godmother is a fairy or person with magical powers who acts as a mentor or parent to someone. ... A talking wolf helps Prince Ivan in Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf In fairy tales, a donor is a character in fairy tales that tests the hero (and sometimes other characters as well) and provides magical assistances to the hero while he succeeds. ... WPA poster by Kenneth Whitley, 1939 The talking animal or speaking animal term, in general, refers to any form of animal which can speak human languages. ... Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ...


History of the genre

Originally, stories we would now call fairy tales were merely a kind of tale, not marked out as a separate genre. The German term "Märchen" means, literally, "tale" rather than any specific type. The genre itself was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, who began to define a genre of tales, and became stabilized through the works of many writers, becoming an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm.[15] In this evolution, the name was coined when the précieuses took up writing literary stories; Madame d'Aulnoy invented the term contes de fée, or fairy tale.[16] Renaissance literature refers to European literature that began in Italy and spread throughout Europe during the seventeenth century. ... For other uses, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... The literary style called préciosité (preciousness) arose from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses, the witty and educated intellectual ladies who frequented the salon of the marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the blue bedroom of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge...


Prior to the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[17] Indeed, Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism. Although fantasy, particularly in the sub-genre fairytale fantasy, draws heavily on fairy tale motifs,[18] the genres are now regarded as distinct. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today as simply... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... A constructed world or conworld is a fictional world, often created for a novel, video game, or role-playing game, but sometimes for its own sake. ... Fairytale fantasy is a diverse subgenre of fantasy fiction, starting perhaps with Charles Perrault and other writers who took up the folktales of their time and developed them into literary forms. ...


Folk and literary

A picture of Mother Goose by Gustave Doré: reading written (literary) fairy tales
A picture of Mother Goose by Gustave Doré: reading written (literary) fairy tales

The fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale. Many writers have written in the form of the fairy tale. These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen.[8] The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone, show considerable reworking from the oral form.[19] The Brothers Grimm were among the first to try to preserve the features of oral tales. Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form.[20] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1012, 318 KB) Illustration de ma mère lOye, par Gustave Doré File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charles Perrault ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1012, 318 KB) Illustration de ma mère lOye, par Gustave Doré File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charles Perrault ... For other uses, see Mother Goose (disambiguation). ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, in Sanskrit: पञ्चतन्त्र, Five Principles) or KalÄ«leh o Demneh (in Persian: ) or Anvār-e SoheylÄ« [4][5][6] (in Persian: , The Lights of Canopus) or Kalilag and Damnag[7] (in Syriac) or KalÄ«lah wa Dimnah[8] (in Arabic: كليلة Ùˆ دمنة, Kalilah... Giambattista Basile (1566 or 1575–February 23, 1632) was an Italian poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. ...


Literary fairy tales and oral fairy tales freely exchanged plots, motifs, and elements with each other and with the tales of foreign lands.[21] Many 18th century folklorists attempted to recover the "pure" folktale, uncontaminated by literary versions. Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years prior to the literary forms, there is no pure folktale. And each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody. [22] This makes it impossible to trace forms of transmission of a fairy tale. Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments.[23]


History

Ivan Bilibin's illustration of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilissa the Beautiful.
Ivan Bilibin's illustration of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilissa the Beautiful.

The oral tradition of the fairy tale came long before the written page. Tales were told or enacted dramatically, rather than written down, and handed down from generation to generation. Because of this, the history of their development is necessarily obscure.[24] The oldest known written fairy tales stem from ancient Egypt, c. 1300 BC,[25] and fairy tales appear, now and again, in written literature throughout literate cultures, as in The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100–200 AD),[26] or the Panchatantra (India 200–300 AD),[26] but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time. The stylistic evidence indicates that these, and many later collections, reworked folk tales into literary forms.[27] What they do show is that the fairy tale has ancient roots, older than the Arabian Nights collection of magical tales (c. 1500 AD),[26] such as the Vikram and the Vampire, and Bel and the Dragon. Besides such collections and individual tales, in China, Taoist philosophers such as Liezi and Zhuangzi recounted fairy tales in their philosophical works.[28] In the broader definition of the genre, the first Western famous fairy tales are those of the Greek Aesop (6th century BC). Image File history File links Ivan Bilibin (1876-1942). ... Image File history File links Ivan Bilibin (1876-1942). ... Ivan Ya. ... Ivan Bilibins illustration of the red rider from Vasilissa the Beautiful. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, which according to St. ... Psyche was one of three sisters, princesses in a Grecian kingdom. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, in Sanskrit: पञ्चतन्त्र, Five Principles) or KalÄ«leh o Demneh (in Persian: ) or Anvār-e SoheylÄ« [4][5][6] (in Persian: , The Lights of Canopus) or Kalilag and Damnag[7] (in Syriac) or KalÄ«lah wa Dimnah[8] (in Arabic: كليلة Ùˆ دمنة, Kalilah... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Baital Pachisi or Vetala Panchvimshati (Twenty five tales of Baital) or Vikram and The Vampire is a collection of tales and legends from India. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, English, King James, Bel The tale of Bel and the Dragon is from chapter 14 of the Book of Daniel. ... Taoism (or Daoism) refers to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... The Liezi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lieh Tzu; literally [Book of] Master Lie) is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a circa 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE. // The first two references to... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ...


Allusions to fairy tales appear plentifully in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, and the plays of William Shakespeare.[29] King Lear can be considered a literary variant of fairy tales such as Water and Salt and Cap O' Rushes.[30] The tale itself resurfaced in Western literature in the 16th and 17th centuries, with The Facetious Nights of Straparola by Giovanni Francesco Straparola (Italy, 1550 and 1553),[26] which contains many fairy tales in its inset tales, and the Neapolitan tales of Giambattista Basile (Naples, 1634–6),[26] which are all fairy tales.[31] Carlo Gozzi made use of many fairy tale motifs among his Commedia dell'Arte scenarios,[32] including among them one based on The Love For Three Oranges (1761).[33] Simultaneously, Pu Songling, in China, included many fairy tales in his collection, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (published posthumously, 1766).[28] The fairy tale itself became popular among the précieuses of upper-class France (1690–1710),[26] and among the tales told in that time were the ones of La Fontaine and the Contes of Charles Perrault (1697), who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella.[34] Although Straparola's, Basile's and Perrault's collections contain the oldest known forms of various fairy tales, on the stylistic evidence, all the writers rewrote the tales for literary effect.[35] Chaucer redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590, and later in six books in 1596. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ... Water and Salt is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in his Italian Popular Tales. ... Cap O Rushes is an English fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in English Fairy Tales. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Giovanni Francesco (or Gianfrancesco) Straparola (c. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Giambattista Basile (1566 or 1575–February 23, 1632) was an Italian poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. ... Carlo, Count Gozzi (13 December 1720 – April 4, 1806), was an Italian dramatist. ... Commedia redirects here. ... The Love for Three Oranges or The Three Citrons is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in the Pentamerone. ... Pu Songling (Chinese: 蒲松齡; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pu Sung-ling) (5 June 1640 - 25 February 1715) was an ethnic Mongol Chinese writer. ... Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio or Liaozhai Zhiyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio or Strange Tales of Liaozhai) is a collection of nearly five hundred mostly supernatural tales written by Pu Songling during the early Qing Dynasty. ... The literary style called préciosité (preciousness) arose from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses, the witty and educated intellectual ladies who frequented the salon of the marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the blue bedroom of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge... Jean de La Fontaine. ... This article is about the French author. ... Sir Edward Burne-Jones painted The Sleeping Beauty. ... For other uses, see Cinderella (disambiguation). ...

Făt-Frumos (lit. "Handsome youth") killing the Zmeu, on the book cover of Petre Ispirescu's Legends or Romanian fairytales. The good vs. evil battle is often personified by these two fairy tale characters of the Romanian folklore.

The first collectors to attempt to preserve not only the plot and characters of the tale, but also the style in which they were preserved, were the Brothers Grimm, collecting German fairy tales; ironically enough, this meant although their first edition (1812 & 1815)[26] remains a treasure for folklorists, they rewrote the tales in later editions to make them more acceptable, which ensured their sales and the later popularity of their work.[36] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1056 × 1601 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1056 × 1601 pixel, file size: 3. ... The letter F is the sixth (6th) letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The Zmeu (plural: zmei, feminin: zmeoaică/zmeoaice) is a fantastic creature of Romanian folklore and Romanian mythology. ... Petre Ispirescu Petre Ispirescu (January 1830–21 November 1887) was a Romanian printer and publicist. ... Făt-Frumos (lit. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ...


Such literary forms did not merely draw from the folktale, but also influenced folktales in turn. The Brothers Grimm rejected several tales for their collection, though told orally to them by Germans, because the tales derived from Perrault, and they concluded they were thereby French and not German tales; an oral version of Bluebeard was thus rejected, and the tale of Briar Rose, clearly related to Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, was included only because Jacob Grimm convinced his brother that the figure of Brynhild proved that the sleeping princess was authentically German folklore.[37] For other uses, see Bluebeard (disambiguation). ... Sir Edward Burne-Jones painted The Sleeping Beauty. ... In Norse mythology, Brünnehilde was a shieldmaiden and a Valkyrie. ...

"Tấm Cám" Silk painting by Yên Hòa: the Vietnamese fairy tale The Story of Tam and Cam.

This consideration of whether to keep Sleeping Beauty reflected a belief common among folklorists of the 19th century: that the folk tradition preserved fairy tales in forms from pre-history except when "contaminated" by such literary forms, leading people to tell inauthentic tales.[38] The rural, illiterate, and uneducated peasants, if suitably isolated, were the folk and would tell pure folk tales.[39] Sometimes they regarded fairy tales as a form of fossil, the remnants of a once-perfect tale.[40] However, further research has concluded that fairy tales never had a fixed form, and regardless of literary influence, the tellers constantly altered them for their own purposes.[41] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (562x779, 82 KB) Silk painting. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (562x779, 82 KB) Silk painting. ... Tấm Cám Silk painting by Yên Hòa The Story of Tam and Cam is a Vietnamese fairy tale collected by L. T. Bach-Lan in Vietnamese Legends. ...


The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence. Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev (first published in 1866),[26] the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe ( first published in 1845),[26] the Romanian Petre Ispirescu (first published in 1874), the English Joseph Jacobs (first published in 1890),[26] and Jeremiah Curtin, an American who collected Irish tales (first published in 1890).[42] Ethnographers collected fairy tales over the world, finding similar tales in Africa, the Americas, and Australia; Andrew Lang was able to draw on not only the written tales of Europe and Asia, but those collected by ethnographers, to fill his "coloured" fairy books series.[43] They also encouraged other collectors of fairy tales, as when Yei Theodora Ozaki created a collection, Japanese Fairy Tales (1908), after encouragement from Lang.[44] Simultaneously, writers such as Hans Christian Andersen and George MacDonald continued the tradition of literary fairy tales. Andersen's work sometimes drew on old folktales, but more often deployed fairytale motifs and plots in new tales.[45] MacDonald incorporated fairytale motifs both in new literary fairy tales, such as The Light Princess, and in works of the genre that would become fantasy, as in The Princess and the Goblin or Lilith.[46] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Afanasyev (Russian: Александр Николаевич Афанасьев) (11 July 1826 — 23 October 1871) was a Russian folklorist best known for his pioneering study and publication of Russian folktales. ... Peter Christian Asbjørnsen (1812-1885) was a Norwegian writer who together with Jørgen Moe compiled and edited an authoritative collection of Norwegian folk tales. ... Jørgen Moe (1813-1882) was, through his collaboration with Peter Christian Asbjørnsen, responsible for collecting and editing Norwegian folk tales, Norske Folkeeventyr. ... Petre Ispirescu Petre Ispirescu (January 1830–21 November 1887) was a Romanian printer and publicist. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Joseph Jacobs (29 August 1854 - 30 January 1916) was a literary and Jewish historian. ... Jeremiah Curtin with Henryk Sienkiewicz, the author of Quo Vadis Jeremiah Curtin (September 6, 1835 - December 14, 1906, Vermont) was an American linguist and folklorist. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... Rumpelstiltskin from The Blue Fairy Book, by Henry J. Ford Andrew Langs Fairy Books are a twelve-book series of fairy tale collections. ... Yei Theodora Ozaki was an early 20th century translator of Japanese short stories and fairy tales. ... For other uses, see Hans Christian Andersen (disambiguation). ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... The Light Princess is a fairy tale by George MacDonald. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... The Princess and the Goblin is a childrens fantasy novel by George MacDonald. ... This article is about the demon Lilith. ...


Cross-cultural transmission

Two theories of origins have attempted to explain the common elements in fairy tales found spread over continents. One is that a single point of origin generated any given tale, which then spread over the centuries; the other is that such fairy tales stem from common human experience and therefore can appear separately in many different origins.[47]


Fairy tales with very similar plots, characters, and motifs are found spread across many different cultures. Many researchers hold this to be caused by the spread of such tales, as people repeat tales they have heard in foreign lands, although the oral nature makes it impossible to trace the route except by inference.[48] Folklorists have attempted to determine the origin by internal evidence, which can not always be clear; Joseph Jacobs, comparing the Scottish tale The Ridere of Riddles with the version collected by the Brothers Grimm, The Riddle, noted that in The Ridere of Riddles one hero ends up polygamously married, which might point to an ancient custom, but in The Riddle, the simpler riddle might argue greater antiquity.[49] Joseph Jacobs (29 August 1854 - 30 January 1916) was a literary and Jewish historian. ... The Ridere of Riddles is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in Popular Tales of the West Highlands, listing as his informant John Mackenzie, a fisherman near Inverary. ... The Riddle (German: Das Rätsel) is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 22. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ...


Folklorists of the "Finnish" (or historical-geographical) school attempted to place fairy tales to their origin, with inconclusive results.[50] Sometimes influence, especially within a limited area and time, is clearer, as when considering the influence of Perrault's tales on those collected by the Brothers Grimm. Little Briar-Rose appears to stem from Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, as the Grimms' tale appears to be the only independent German variant.[51] Similarly, the close agreement between the opening of Grimms' version of Little Red Riding Hood and Perrault's tale points to an influence—although Grimms' version adds a different ending (perhaps derived from The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids).[52] Sir Edward Burne-Jones painted The Sleeping Beauty. ... A depiction by Gustave Doré. Little Red Riding Hood is a famous fairytale about a young girls encounter with a wolf. ... The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 5. ...



Fairy tales also tend to take on the color of their location, through the choice of motifs, the style in which they are told, and the depiction of character and local color.[53]


Association with children

Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children.[54] Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults, but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale came to be associated with children's literature. Childrens books redirects here. ...

Cutlery for children. Detail showing fairy-tale scenes: Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, Hansel and Gretel.
Cutlery for children. Detail showing fairy-tale scenes: Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, Hansel and Gretel.

The précieuses, including Madame d'Aulnoy, intended their works for adults, but regarded their source as the tales that servants, or other women of lower class, would tell to children.[55] Indeed, a novel of that time, depicting a countess's suitor offering to tell such a tale, has the countess exclaim that she loves fairy tales as if she were still a child.[56] Among the late précieuses, Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont redacted a version of Beauty and the Beast for children, and it is her tale that is best known today.[57] The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children.[58] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1104, 342 KB) Cutlery for children. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1104, 342 KB) Cutlery for children. ... This article is about the Snow White character. ... A depiction by Gustave Doré. Little Red Riding Hood is a famous fairytale about a young girls encounter with a wolf. ... Artwork by Arthur Rackham, 1909. ... The literary style called préciosité (preciousness) arose from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses, the witty and educated intellectual ladies who frequented the salon of the marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the blue bedroom of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge... Marie-Catherine le Jumelle de Barneville, Baronne dAulnoy (1650/1651–4 January 1705) was a French writer known for her fairy tales. ... Jeanne Marie Le Prince de Beaumont (born Rouen, France in 1711; died Chavanod, Savoie, in 1780) was a French novelist. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ...


In the modern era, fairy tales were altered so that they could be read to children. The Brothers Grimm concentrated mostly on eliminating sexual references;[59] Rapunzel, in the first edition, revealed the prince's visits by asking why her clothing had grown tight, thus letting the witch deduce that she was pregnant, but in subsequent editions carelessly revealed that it was easier to pull up the prince than the witch.[60] On the other hand, in many respects, violence – particularly when punishing villains – was increased.[61] Other, later, revisions cut out violence; J. R. R. Tolkien noted that The Juniper Tree often had its cannibalistic stew cut out in a version intended for children.[62] The moralizing strain in the Victorian era altered the classical tales to teach lessons, as when George Cruikshank rewrote Cinderella in 1854 to contain temperance themes. His acquaintance Charles Dickens, protested "In an utilitarian age, of all other times, it is a matter of grave importance that fairy tales should be respected."[63] For other uses, see Rapunzel (disambiguation). ... The Juniper Tree is a fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Portrait of George Cruikshank Wood engraving published in Harpers Weekly newspaper March 16, 1878 A Young George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (September 27, 1792—February 1, 1878) was an English caricaturist and book illustrator. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... Dickens redirects here. ...


Psychoanalysts such as Bruno Bettelheim, who regarded the cruelty of older fairy tales as indicative of psychological conflicts, strongly criticized this expurgation, on the grounds that it weakened their usefulness to both children and adults as ways of symbolically resolving issues.[64] Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 - March 13, 1990) was an Austrian-born American writer and child psychologist. ...


The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues. Walt Disney's influential Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was largely (although certainly not solely) intended for the children's market.[65] The anime Magical Princess Minky Momo draws on the fairy tale Momotarō.[66] For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 animated feature, the first produced by Walt Disney. ... Animé redirects here. ... Magical Princess Minky Momo is a series of anime OVAs This anime/manga-related article is a stub. ... Bisque doll of Momotarō Momotarō (桃太郎) is a hero from Japanese folklore. ...


Contemporary tales

Literary

John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy tales
John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy tales

In contemporary literature, many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons, such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairytale provides.[67] Some authors seek to recreate a sense of the fantastic in a contemporary discourse.[68] Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues;[69] this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story, as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin, with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter.[70] Sometimes, especially in children's literature, fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect, such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka. A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, and the characters are aware of their role in the story.[71] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1356x1267, 3365 KB) Namn: Name: Konstnär / Artist: John Bauer Källa: Illustration av Walter Stenströms Pojken och trollen eller Äventyret i Bland tomtar och troll, 1915 Source: Illustration of Walter Stenströms The boy and the trolls or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1356x1267, 3365 KB) Namn: Name: Konstnär / Artist: John Bauer Källa: Illustration av Walter Stenströms Pojken och trollen eller Äventyret i Bland tomtar och troll, 1915 Source: Illustration of Walter Stenströms The boy and the trolls or... Tyr and Fenrir, by John Bauer (1911) The Changeling, by John Bauer (1913) Trolls with an abducted princess, by John Bauer (1915) John Bauer (1882–1918) was a Swedish illustrator best known for Bland Tomtar och Troll (Among Elves and Trolls), an annual Christmas book for children published in Sweden. ... Contemporary literature is literature, in any form or medium, produced in the present day (post-1960 is an approximate cutoff point). ... For other uses, see Human condition (disambiguation). ... Robin McKinley (born November 16, 1952 as Jennifer Carolyn Robin Turrell McKinley) is a fantasy author especially known for her Newbery Medal-winning novel The Hero and the Crown. ... Illustration by Gustave Doré Donkeyskin is a French fairy tale told by Charles Perrault. ... Deerskin is a dark fantasy novel by Robin McKinley. ... The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales is a childrens book by Jon Scieszka. ... Jon Scieszka (SHEH-ska) (born September 8, 1954 in Flint, Michigan, USA) is an American author of childrens literature, best known for his collaborations with illustrator Lane Smith. ...


Other authors may have specific motives, such as multicultural or feminist reevaluations of predominantly Eurocentric masculine-dominated fairy tales, implying critique of older narratives.[72] The figure of the damsel in distress has been particularly attacked by many feminist critics. Examples of narrative reversal rejecting this figure include The Paperbag Princess by Robert Munsch, a picture book aimed at children in which a princess rescues a prince, and Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber, which retells a number of fairy tales from a female point of view. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... A poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... Robert Norman Munsch, C.M. (born June 11, 1945) is a U.S.-born Canadian childrens author. ... Angela Carter (May 7, 1940 – February 16, 1992) was an English novelist and journalist, known for her post-feminist magical realist and science fiction works. ...


One interesting use of the genre occurred in a military technology journal named Defense AT&L, which published an article in the form of a fairytale titled Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal/Noise Ratios. Written by Maj. Dan Ward (USAF), the story uses a fairy named Garble to represent breakdowns in communication between operators and technology developers.[73] Ward's article was heavily influenced by George MacDonald. USAF redirects here. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ...


Other notable figures who have employed fairy tales include Oscar Wilde, A. S. Byatt, Jane Yolen, Terri Windling, Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, Margaret Atwood, Kate Bernheimer, Espido Freire, Tanith Lee, James Thurber, Robin McKinley, Kelly Link, Donna Jo Napoli, Cameron Dokey, Robert Bly, Gail Carson Levine, Jasper Fforde and many others. Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... For A. Byatt, the director of French documentary films, see Andy Byatt. ... Jane Yolens Wizards Hall Jane Yolen (born February 11, 1939 in New York City) is an American author and editor of almost 300 books. ... Terri Windling is an influential fantasy editor, artist, essayist, and author of the novel The Wood Wife (1996), winner of the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for best novel. ... Donald Barthelme (April 7, 1931 - July 23, 1989) was an American author of short fiction and novels. ... Robert Coover (born February 4, 1932) is an American author and professor in the Literary Arts program at Brown University. ... Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... Laura Espido Freire was born in Bilbao, Spain on July 16, 1974. ... Tanith Lee Tanith Lee (born September 19, 1947) is a British writer of science fiction, horror and fantasy. ... For the political scientist, see James A. Thurber. ... Robin McKinley (born November 16, 1952 as Jennifer Carolyn Robin Turrell McKinley) is a fantasy author especially known for her Newbery Medal-winning novel The Hero and the Crown. ... Kelly Link is an American author of short stories born in 1969 (judging by this 2001 article). ... Donna Jo Napoli is an author of childrens and young adult books, as well as a prominent linguist with work in syntax, phonetics, phonology, morphology, historical and comparative linguistics, Romance studies, structure of Japanese, structure of American Sign Language, poetics, writing for ESL students, and mathematical and linguistic analysis... Cameron Dokey is an American author. ... Robert Bly (born December 23, 1926 in Madison, Minnesota) is a poet, author, and leader of the Mythopoetic Mens Movement in the United States. ... Gail Carson Levine Gail Carson Levine (born September 17, 1947 in New York, N.Y.) is an American author of young adult books. ... Jasper Fforde (born in London on 11 January 1961) is an English novelist. ...


It may be hard to lay down the rule between fairy tales and fantasies that use fairy tale motifs, or even whole plots, but the distinction is commonly made, even within the works of a single author: George MacDonald's Lilith and Phantastes are regarded as fantasies, while his "The Light Princess", "The Golden Key", and "The Wise Woman" are commonly called fairy tales. The most notable distinction is that fairytale fantasies, like other fantasies, make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose, characterization, or setting.[74] Fairytale fantasy is a diverse subgenre of fantasy fiction, starting perhaps with Charles Perrault and other writers who took up the folktales of their time and developed them into literary forms. ... For other uses, see Lilith (disambiguation). ... Phantastes, A Faerie Romance for Men and Women is an 1858 fantasy novel written by George MacDonald. ... The Light Princess is a fairy tale by George MacDonald. ... The Golden Key is a fairy tale written by George MacDonald. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ...


Film

Fairy tales have been enacted dramatically; records exist of this in commedia dell'arte,[75] and later in pantomime.[76] The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner, with the use of special effects and animation; the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and, indeed, fantasy in general.[77] Disney's influence helped establish this genre as children's movies, despite the fact that Snow White, as well as the company's other early feature-length films, were originally intended for adults as well, and has been blamed for simplification of fairy tales ending in situations where everything goes right, as opposed to the pain and suffering — and sometimes unhappy endings — of many folk fairy tales[70] Commedia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pantomime (disambiguation). ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 animated feature, the first produced by Walt Disney. ... This is a list of theatrical animated feature films produced and/or released by Walt Disney Productions/The Walt Disney Company: // The following is a list of the forty-nine feature films that are part of the Walt Disney Feature Animation (WDFA) canon, also known as the Walt Disney Animated...


Many filmed fairy tales have been made primarily for children, from Disney's later works to Aleksandr Rou's retelling of Vasilissa the Beautiful, the first Soviet film to use Russian folk tales in a big-budget feature.[78] Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth,[79] Ivan Bilibins illustration of the red rider from Vasilissa the Beautiful. ... Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. ... Labyrinth is a 1986 fantasy film, directed by Jim Henson, produced by George Lucas, and designed through the art of Brian Froud. ...


Other works have retold familiar fairy tales in a darker, more horrific or psychological variant aimed primarily at adults. Notable examples are Jean Cocteau's Beauty and the Beast[80] and The Company of Wolves, based on an Angela Carter's retelling of Little Red Riding Hood.[81] Likewise, Princess Mononoke[82] and Pan's Labyrinth[83] create new stories in this genre from fairy tale and folklore motifs. Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Beauty and the Beast (in French: La Belle et la Bête) is a French film, made in 1946, based on the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast. The film was directed by Jean Cocteau, and starred his gay lover Jean Marais as the Beast and Josette Day as Beauty. ... The Company of Wolves is a 1984 fantasy-horror film directed by Neil Jordan, and starring Sarah Patterson and Angela Lansbury. ... Angela Carter (May 7, 1940 – February 16, 1992) was an English novelist and journalist, known for her post-feminist magical realist and science fiction works. ... A depiction by Gustave Doré. Little Red Riding Hood is a famous fairytale about a young girls encounter with a wolf. ... Princess Mononoke ) is a Japanese animated film by Hayao Miyazaki, produced through his company, Studio Ghibli, that was first released in Japan on July 12, 1997 and in the United States on October 29, 1999 in select cities and on November 26, 1999. ... Pans Labyrinth (Spanish: , literally The Labyrinth of the Faun) is an Academy Award-winning Spanish language fantasy film[2][3] written and directed by Mexican film-maker Guillermo del Toro. ...


In comics and animated TV series, The Sandman, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Princess Tutu, Fables and MÄR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative necessitates. The Sandman is a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman. ... Serialized in Ciao Original run 1996 – 1997 Volumes 5 TV anime Director Kunihiko Ikuhara Studio J.C.Staff Network TV Tokyo Original run April 2, 1997 – December 24, 1997 Episodes 39 Movie: The Adolescence of Utena Director Kunihiko Ikuhara Studio J.C.Staff Released 1999 Runtime 80 min. ... Original run 16 August 2002 – 23 May 2003 Episodes 38 Princess Tutu ) is an anime TV-series based on and around ballet and the art of storytelling and fairy tales, particularly those of a Germanic origin. ... Fables is a Vertigo comic book series created and written by Bill Willingham. ... Serialized in Shonen Sunday Original run May 2003 – July 2006 No. ... Fairytale fantasy is a diverse subgenre of fantasy fiction, starting perhaps with Charles Perrault and other writers who took up the folktales of their time and developed them into literary forms. ...


Motifs

Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other. Two of the most influential classifications are those of Antti Aarne, as revised by Stith Thompson into the Aarne-Thompson classification system, and Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folk Tale. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (901x633, 131 KB) Summary An illustration by Warwick Goble for Beauty and the Beast, 1913. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (901x633, 131 KB) Summary An illustration by Warwick Goble for Beauty and the Beast, 1913. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... An illustration by Warwick Goble for Beauty and the Beast, 1913. ... Antti Amatus Aarne (1867 - 1925) was a Finnish folklorist, who developed the initial version of what became the Aarne-Thompson classification system of classifying folktales, first published in 1910. ... Stith Thompson (1885-1976) was one of the worlds leading authorities on folklore. ... Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Russian: ; 29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1895 — 22 August 1970) was a Russian structuralist scholar who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements. ...


Aarne-Thompson

This system groups fairy and folk tales according to their overall plot. Common, identifying features are picked out to decide which tales are grouped together. Much therefore depends on what features are regarded as decisive.


For instance, tales like Cinderella – in which a persecuted heroine, with the help of the fairy godmother or similar magical helper, attends an event (or three) in which she wins the love of a prince and is identified as his true bride – are classified as type 510, the persecuted heroine. Some such tales are The Wonderful Birch, Aschenputtel, Katie Woodencloak, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, Fair, Brown and Trembling, Finette Cendron, Allerleirauh, and Tattercoats. For other uses, see Cinderella (disambiguation). ... In fairy tales, a fairy godmother is a fairy or person with magical powers who acts as a mentor or parent to someone. ... A talking wolf helps Prince Ivan in Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf In fairy tales, a donor is a character in fairy tales that tests the hero (and sometimes other characters as well) and provides magical assistances to the hero while he succeeds. ... The Wonderful Birch is a Russian fairy tale. ... Gustave Dorés illustration for Cendrillon For other uses, see Cinderella (disambiguation). ... Katie Woodencloak or Kari Woodengown is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe and included by Andrew Lang in The Red Fairy Book It is Aarne-Thompson type 510A, the persecuted heroine. ... Tấm Cám Silk painting by Yên Hòa The Story of Tam and Cam is a Vietnamese fairy tale collected by L. T. Bach-Lan in Vietnamese Legends. ... Ye Xian or in the southern part, Yeh-Shen is a Chinese fairy tale that resembles Cinderella. ... Cap O Rushes is an English fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in English Fairy Tales. ... Catskin is a fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs. ... Fair, Brown and Trembling is an Irish fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in his Celtic Fairy Tales. ... Finette Cendron is a French literary fairy tale written by Madame dAulnoy. ... Allerleirauh or All-Kinds-of-Fur is a fairy tale recorded by the Brothers Grimm. ... Tattercoats is a Scottish fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in his More English Fairy Tales. ...


Further analysis of the tales shows that in Cinderella, The Wonderful Birch, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, and Aschenputtel, the heroine is persecuted by her stepmother and refused permission to go to the ball or other event, and in Fair, Brown and Trembling and Finette Cendron by her sisters and other female figures, and these are grouped as 510A; while in Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, and Allerleirauh, the heroine is driven from home by her father's persecutions, and must take work in a kitchen elsewhere, and these are grouped as 510B. But in Katie Woodencloak, she is driven from home by her stepmother's persecutions and must take service in a kitchen elsewhere, and in Tattercoats, she is refused permission to go to the ball by her grandfather. Given these features common with both types of 510, Katie Woodencloak is classified as 510A because the villain is the stepmother, and Tattercoats as 510B because the grandfather fills the father's role.


This system has its weaknesses in the difficulty of having no way to classify subportions of a tale as motifs. Rapunzel is type 310 (The Maiden in the Tower), but it opens with a child being demanded in return for stolen food, as does Puddocky; but Puddocky is not a Maiden in the Tower tale, while The Canary Prince, which opens with a jealous stepmother, is. For other uses, see Rapunzel (disambiguation). ... Puddocky is a German fairy tale. ... The Canary Prince is an Italian fairy tale, the 18th tale in Italian Folktales by Italo Calvino. ...


It also lends itself to emphasis on the common elements, to the extent that the folklorist describes The Black Bull of Norroway as the same story as Beauty and the Beast. This can be useful as a shorthand but can also erase the coloring and details of a story.[84] The Black Bull of Norroway is a fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ...


Morphology

Vladimir Propp specifically studied a collection of Russian fairy tales, but his analysis has been found useful for the tales of other countries.[85] Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Russian: ; 29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1895 — 22 August 1970) was a Russian structuralist scholar who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements. ...

Father Frost acts as a donor in the Russian fairy tale Father Frost, testing the heroine before giving her riches.
Father Frost acts as a donor in the Russian fairy tale Father Frost, testing the heroine before giving her riches.

Having criticized Aarne-Thompson type analysis for ignoring what motifs did in stories, and because the motifs used were not clearly distinct,[86] he analyzed the tales for the function each character and action fulfilled and concluded that a tale was composed of thirty-one elements and eight character types. While the elements were not all required for all tales, when they appeared they did so in an invariant order — except that each individual element might be negated twice, so that it would appear three times, as when, in Brother and Sister, the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice, so that it is the third that enchants him.[87] Image File history File links Ivan Bilibins illustration to the fairy tale about Morozko (King Frost) (1910s). ... Image File history File links Ivan Bilibins illustration to the fairy tale about Morozko (King Frost) (1910s). ... Father Frost is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev. ... For other uses, see Rule of three. ... Sister Alenushka Weeping about Brother Ivanushka (painting by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1881), Russian variant collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki. ...


One such element is the donor who gives the hero magical assistance, often after testing him.[88] In The Golden Bird, the talking fox tests the hero by warning him against entering an inn and, after he succeeds, helps him find the object of his quest; in The Boy Who Drew Cats, the priest advised the hero to stay in small places at night, which protects him from an evil spirit; in Cinderella, the fairy godmother gives Cinderella the dresses she needs to attend the ball, as their mothers' spirits do in Bawang Putih Bawang Merah and The Wonderful Birch; in The Fox Sister, a Buddhist monk gives the brothers magical bottles to protect against the fox spirit. The roles can be more complicated.[89] In The Red Ettin, the role is split into the mother – who offers the hero the whole of a journey cake with her curse or half with her blessing – and when he takes the half, a fairy who gives him advice; in Mr Simigdáli, the sun, the moon, and the stars all give the heroine a magical gift. Characters who are not always the donor can act like the donor.[90] In Kallo and the Goblins, the villain goblins also give the heroine gifts, because they are tricked; in Schippeitaro, the evil cats betray their secret to the hero, giving him the means to defeat them. Other fairy tales, such as The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was, do not feature the donor. In fairy tales, a fairy godmother is a fairy or person with magical powers who acts as a mentor or parent to someone. ... The Golden Bird is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale about the troubled pursuit of a golden bird by a kings three sons. ... This article is about the animal. ... The Boy Who Drew Cats is a Japanese fairy tale collected by Lafcadio Hearn in Japanese Fairy Tales. ... For other uses, see Cinderella (disambiguation). ... Bawang Putih Bawang Merah is one of the more famous of old Malay folktales, passed down orally through the generations. ... The Wonderful Birch is a Russian fairy tale. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... The Red Ettin or The Red Etin is a fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs. ... Mr Simigdáli is a Greek fairy tale, collectd by Irene Naumann-Mavrogordato in Es war einmal: Neugriechische Volksmärchen. ... Kallo and the Goblins is a Greek fairy tale; variants have been collected by Fani Papalouka, Nikolaos Politis, and Haris Sakellariou. ... Schippeitaro is a Japanese fairy tale. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale. ...


Analogies have been drawn between this and the analysis of myths into the Hero's journey.[91] The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ...


This analysis has been criticized for ignoring tone, mood, characters and, indeed, anything that differentiates one fairy tale from another. [92]


Interpretations

Bluebeard gives his wife a key—a motif specific to that variant of that fairy tale.
Bluebeard gives his wife a key—a motif specific to that variant of that fairy tale.

Many variants, especially those intended for children, have had morals attached. Perrault concluded his versions with one, although not always completely moral: Cinderella concludes with the observation that her beauty and character would have been useless without her godmother, reflecting the importance of social connections.[93] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1012, 302 KB) Gustave Doré, lithographie de Barbe Bleue File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fairy tale Bluebeards Castle ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1012, 302 KB) Gustave Doré, lithographie de Barbe Bleue File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fairy tale Bluebeards Castle ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ...


Many fairy tales have been interpreted for their (purported) significance. One mythological interpretation claimed that many fairy tales, including Hansel and Gretel, Sleeping Beauty, and The Frog King, all were solar myths; this mode of interpretation is rather less popular now.[94] Many have also been subjected to Freudian, Jungian, and other psychological analysis, but no mode of interpretation has ever established itself definitively. Artwork by Arthur Rackham, 1909. ... Sir Edward Burne-Jones painted The Sleeping Beauty. ... The Frog Asks To Be Allowed To Enter The Castle - Illustration For The Frog Prince by Walter Crane 1874 The Frog King (German: Der Froschkönig), also known as The Frog Prince, is a fairy tale, best known through the Brothers Grimms written version. ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating, the sun, an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology Statue of Hathor - Luxor Museum Sun god redirects here. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) refers to the school of psychology originating from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, and then advanced by his students and other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ...


Specific analyses have often been criticized for lending great importance to motifs that are not, in fact, integral to the tale; this has often stemmed from treating one instance of a fairy tale as the definitive text, where the tale has been told and retold in many variations.[95] In variants of Bluebeard, the wife's curiosity is betrayed by a blood-stained key, by an egg's breaking, or by the singing of a rose she wore, without affecting the tale, but interpretations of specific variants have claimed that the precise object is integral to the tale.[96] For other uses, see Bluebeard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bluebeard (disambiguation). ... Fitchers Bird is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 46. ... How the Devil Married Three Sisters is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in Italian Popular Tales. ...


Other folklorists have interpreted tales as historical documents. Many German folklorists, believing the tales to have been preserved from ancient times, used Grimms' tales to explain ancient customs.[97] Other folklorists have explained the figure of the wicked stepmother historically: many women did die in childbirth, their husbands remarried, and the new stepmothers competed with the children of the first marriage for resources.[98]


Compilations

This is a list of fairy tales, the dates of their earliest known printed version, the author and, if known, the collection of tales in which it was published. ... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, in Sanskrit: पञ्चतन्त्र, Five Principles) or KalÄ«leh o Demneh (in Persian: ) or Anvār-e SoheylÄ« [4][5][6] (in Persian: , The Lights of Canopus) or Kalilag and Damnag[7] (in Syriac) or KalÄ«lah wa Dimnah[8] (in Arabic: كليلة Ùˆ دمنة, Kalilah... Giovanni Francesco (or Gianfrancesco) Straparola (c. ... Giambattista Basile (1566 or 1575–February 23, 1632) was an Italian poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. ... Giambattista Basile (1566 or 1575–February 23, 1632) was an Italian poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. ... For other uses, see Mother Goose (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French author. ... Frontispiece of first volume of Grimms Kinder- und Hausmärchen (1812). ... For other uses, see Hans Christian Andersen (disambiguation). ... Joseph Jacobs (29 August 1854 - 30 January 1916) was a literary and Jewish historian. ... Ruth Manning-Sanders (born 1895 in Swansea, Wales; died October 12, 1988, in Penzance, England) was a poet and author who was perhaps best known for her series of childrens books in which she collected and retold fairy tales from all over the world. ... Norske Folkeeventyr (Norwegian Folktales) is a collection of Norwegian folktales and legends by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. ... Illustration by Ivan Bilibin to Vasilissa the Beautiful Narodnye russkie skazki, or Russian Fairy Tales, is a collection of Russian fairy tales, collected by Alexander Afanasyev and published by him between 1855 and 1863. ... Marie-Catherine le Jumelle de Barneville, Baronne dAulnoy (1650/1651–4 January 1705) was a French writer known for her fairy tales. ... Popular Tales of the West Highlands is a four-volume collection of fairy tales, collected and published by John Francis Campbell, and often translated from Gaelic as well. ... John Francis Campbell (1822 - 1885), celtic scholar, educated at Eton and Edin. ... Rumpelstiltskin from The Blue Fairy Book, by Henry J. Ford Andrew Langs Fairy Books are a twelve-book series of fairy tale collections. ... Fairy Tales is a book of short stories by e. ... Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), popularly known as E. E. Cummings, was an American poet, painter, essayist, and playwright. ... Italian Folktales (Fiabe Italiane) is a collection of 200 Italian folktales published in 1956 by Italo Calvino. ... Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ... Făt-Frumos (lit. ... Petre Ispirescu Petre Ispirescu (January 1830–21 November 1887) was a Romanian printer and publicist. ... Tales of Brother Goose, written by Brett Nicholas Moore, was a satirical book published in May of 2006 which pokes fun at the classic Mother Goose tales. ... Yanagita Kunio (柳田 国男 July 31, 1875 - August 8, 1962) is a scholar who is often known as a father of Japanese ethnology. ...

See also

Bengt Holbek was a Danish folklorist who wrote one of the definitive works of fairy tale scholarship entitled Interpretation of Fairy Tales (1987). ... Fairytale fantasy is a diverse subgenre of fantasy fiction, starting perhaps with Charles Perrault and other writers who took up the folktales of their time and developed them into literary forms. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster definition of "fairy tale"
  2. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p. 9, ISBN 0-465-04125-6.
  3. ^ Heidi Anne Heiner, "What Is a Fairy Tale?"
  4. ^ Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 5. ISBN 0-292-78376-0.
  5. ^ Propp, p. 19.
  6. ^ Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, p. 15. ISBN 0-8057-0950-9.
  7. ^ Angela Carter, The Old Wives' Fairy Tale Book, p. ix, Pantheon Books, New York, 1990. ISBN 0-679-74037-6.
  8. ^ a b Terri Windling, "Les Contes de Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France"
  9. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 55, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  10. ^ a b J. R. R. Tolkien, "On Fairy-Stories" , The Tolkien Reader, p. 15.
  11. ^ Tolkien, pp. 10–11.
  12. ^ Stith Thompson,The Folktale, 1977 (Thompson: 8).
  13. ^ A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xviii, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4.
  14. ^ Italo Calvino, Six Memoes for the Next Millennium, pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-674-81040-6.
  15. ^ Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, pp. xi-xii, ISBN 0-393-97636-X.
  16. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 858.
  17. ^ Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p. 83, ISBN 0-253-35665-2.
  18. ^ Philip Martin, The Writer's Guide of Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Liar to Hero's Quest, pp. 38–42, ISBN 0-871116-195-8.
  19. ^ Swann Jones, p. 35.
  20. ^ Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p. 5, ISBN 0-253-35665-2.
  21. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. xii.
  22. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 846.
  23. ^ Linda Degh, "What Did the Grimm Brothers Give To and Take From the Folk?" p. 73, James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5.
  24. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 2. ISBN 0-415-92151-1.
  25. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Fairytale," p. 331. ISBN 0-312-19869-8.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Heidi Anne Heiner, "Fairy Tale Timeline"
  27. ^ Swann Jones, p. 35.
  28. ^ a b Moss Roberts, "Introduction", p. xviii, Chinese Fairy Tales & Fantasies. ISBN 0-394-73994-9.
  29. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 11.
  30. ^ Soula Mitakidou and Anthony L. Manna, with Melpomeni Kanatsouli, Folktales from Greece: A Treasury of Delights, p. 100, Libraries Unlimited, Greenwood Village CO, 2002, ISBN 1-56308-908-4.
  31. ^ Swann Jones, p. 38.
  32. ^ Terri Windling, White as Ricotta, Red as Wine: The Magic Lore of Italy"
  33. ^ Italo Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. 738. ISBN 0-15-645489-0.
  34. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, pp. 38–42.
  35. ^ Swann Jones, pp. 38–39.
  36. ^ Swann Jones, p. 40.
  37. ^ G. Ronald Murphy, The Owl, The Raven, and the Dove: The Religious Meaning of the Grimms' Magic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0195151690.
  38. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 77.
  39. ^ Degh, pp. 66–67.
  40. ^ Iona and Peter Opie, The Classic Fairy Tales p. 17. ISBN 0-19-211550-6.
  41. ^ Jane Yolen, p. 22, Touch Magic. ISBN 0-87483-591-7.
  42. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 846.
  43. ^ Andrew Lang, The Brown Fairy Book, "Preface"
  44. ^ Yei Theodora Ozaki, Japanese Fairy Tales, "Preface"
  45. ^ Grant and Clute, "Hans Christian Andersen," pp. 26–27.
  46. ^ Grant and Clute, "George MacDonald," p. 604.
  47. ^ Orenstein, pp. 77–78.
  48. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 845.
  49. ^ Joseph Jacobs, More Celtic Fairy Tales. London: David Nutt, 1894, "Notes and References"
  50. ^ Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xx.
  51. ^ Harry Velten, "The Influences of Charles Perrault's Contes de ma Mère L'oie on German Folklore", p. 962, Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm.
  52. ^ Velten, pp. 966–67.
  53. ^ Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xxi.
  54. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 1.
  55. ^ Lewis Seifert, "The Marvelous in Context: The Place of the Contes de Fées in Late Seventeenth Century France", Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 913.
  56. ^ Seifert, p. 915.
  57. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 47.
  58. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 19, ISBN 0-691-06722-8.
  59. ^ Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 20.
  60. ^ Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 32.
  61. ^ Byatt, pp. xlii-xliv.
  62. ^ Tolkien, p. 31.
  63. ^ K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, pp. 181–182, University of Chicago Press, London, 1967.
  64. ^ Jack Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p. 48, ISBN 0-312-29380-1.
  65. ^ Grant and Clute, "Cinema", p. 196.
  66. ^ Patrick Drazen, Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation, pp. 43–44, ISBN 1-880656-72-8.
  67. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition and so on!, pp. 24–25.
  68. ^ Grant and Clute, "Fairytale," p. 333.
  69. ^ Martin, p. 41.
  70. ^ a b Helen Pilinovsky, "Donkeyskin, Deerskin, Allerleirauh: The Reality of the Fairy Tale"
  71. ^ Briggs, p. 195.
  72. ^ Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, pp. 251–52.
  73. ^ D. Ward, Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal to Noise Ratios: A Fairy TalePDF (304 KiB), Defense AT&L, Sept/Oct 2005.
  74. ^ Diana Waggoner, The Hills of Faraway: A Guide to Fantasy, pp. 22–23, 0-689-10846-X.
  75. ^ Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 219.
  76. ^ Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 745.
  77. ^ Grant and Clute, "Cinema", p. 196.
  78. ^ James Graham, "Baba Yaga in Film"
  79. ^ Richard Scheib, review of Labyrinth My Neighbor Totoro and the films of Michel Ocelot.<ref>Drazen, p. 264.</li> <li id="cite_note-79">'''[[#cite_ref-79|^]]''' Terri Windling, [http://www.endicott-studio.com/rdrm/forbewty.html "Beauty and the Beast"]</li> <li id="cite_note-80">'''[[#cite_ref-80|^]]''' Terri Windling, [http://www.endicott-studio.com/rdrm/rrPathNeedles.html "The Path of Needles or Pins: Little Red Riding Hood"]</li> <li id="cite_note-81">'''[[#cite_ref-81|^]]''' Drazen, p. 38.</li> <li id="cite_note-82">'''[[#cite_ref-82|^]]''' {{cite news |url=http://www.scifi.com/sfw/interviews/sfw14471.html|title=Guillermo del Toro and Ivana Baquero escape from a civil war into the fairytale land of ''Pan's Labyrinth'' |accessdate=2007-07-14|date=[[2006-12-25]] |publisher=[[Science Fiction Weekly]]|last=Spelling|first=Ian}}</li> <li id="cite_note-83">'''[[#cite_ref-83|^]]''' Tolkien, p. 18.</li> <li id="cite_note-84">'''[[#cite_ref-84|^]]''' Propp, ''Morphology of the Folk Tale''.</li> <li id="cite_note-85">'''[[#cite_ref-85|^]]''' Propp, pp. 8–9.</li> <li id="cite_note-86">'''[[#cite_ref-86|^]]''' Propp, p. 74.</li> <li id="cite_note-87">'''[[#cite_ref-87|^]]''' Propp, p. 39.</li> <li id="cite_note-88">'''[[#cite_ref-88|^]]''' Propp, pp. 81–82.</li> <li id="cite_note-89">'''[[#cite_ref-89|^]]''' Propp, pp. 80–81.</li> <li id="cite_note-90">'''[[#cite_ref-90|^]]''' Christopher Vogler, ''The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers'', 2nd edition, p. 30, ISBN 0-941188-70-1.</li> <li id="cite_note-91">'''[[#cite_ref-91|^]]''' [http://www.brown.edu/Courses/FR0133/Fairytale_Generator/propp.html Vladimir Propp's Theories]</li> <li id="cite_note-92">'''[[#cite_ref-92|^]]''' Maria Tatar, ''The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales'', p. 43. ISBN 0-393-05163-3.</li> <li id="cite_note-93">'''[[#cite_ref-93|^]]''' Tatar, ''The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales'', p. 52.</li> <li id="cite_note-94">'''[[#cite_ref-94|^]]''' Alan Dundes, "Interpreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", pp. 18–19, James M. McGlathery, ed., ''The Brothers Grimm and Folktale'', ISBN 0-252-01549-5.</li> <li id="cite_note-95">'''[[#cite_ref-95|^]]''' Tatar, ''The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales'', p. 46.</li> <li id="cite_note-96">'''[[#cite_ref-96|^]]''' Zipes, ''The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World'', p. 48.</li> <li id="cite_note-97">'''[[#cite_ref-97|^]]''' [[Marina Warner]], ''From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers'', p. 213. ISBN 0-374-15901-7.</li></ol></ref>

Angela Carter (May 7, 1940 – February 16, 1992) was an English novelist and journalist, known for her post-feminist magical realist and science fiction works. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Stith Thompson (1885-1976) was one of the worlds leading authorities on folklore. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... Paul Le Page Barnett (1949 - ) is a writer and editor of science fiction, poetry and non-fiction, who usually writes as John Grant or occasionally as Eve Devereux. He has published three original novels, as well as novels in the Judge Dredd and Legends of Lone Wolf series; has edited... John [Frederick] Clute is a Canadian born author and critic who lives in Britain. ... Cover art The Encyclopedia of Fantasy is a reference work on fantasy, edited by John Clute and John Grant. ... Peter Mason Opie (1918 - 1982) and Iona Archibald Opie (born Iona Archibald, 1923) were a husband-and-wife team of folklorists, who applied modern techniques to childrens literature, summarized in their studies, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (1952) and The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren (1959). ... Jane Yolens Wizards Hall Jane Yolen (born February 11, 1939 in New York City) is an American author and editor of almost 300 books. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... My Neighbor Totoro ), or My Neighbour Totoro on UK DVD box titles, is a 1988 film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli. ... Michel Ocelot (a pseudonym[1], real name unknown) was born in 1943 in Villefranche-sur-Mer, on the French Riviera. ...

References

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Fairy Tales (2769 words)
Irish fairy tales have been collected by many people over the years; this collection is of particular interest because it was assembled by arguably the greatest poet of his time, and because it was a major product of and contributor to the Irish Renaissance of the 1890s.
Regarded as the first original fairy tale written in English, this tells the story of three brothers affected by the gold fever of the two eldest; it is closely modeled on the Grimms' tales.
Victorian Fairy Tales: The Revolt of the Fairies and Elves.
Fairy tale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1090 words)
A fairy tale is a story featuring folkloric characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others.
Although in the nineteenth and twentieth century the fairy tale came to be associated with children's literature, adults were originally as likely as children to be the audience of the fairy tale.
Fairy tales resurfaced in literature in the 17th century, with the Neapolitan tales of Giambattista Basile and the later Contes of Charles Perrault, who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella.
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