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Encyclopedia > Fairway (golf)

Golf (gowf in Scots) is a sport where individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and is one of the few ball games that does not use a fixed standard playing area. It is defined in the Rules of Golf as "playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules." Scots, sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic language of the Highlands is a variety of Anglic language spoken in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans but by... A golf ball on a Tee with a driver ready for a drive A golf ball is a ball designed for use in the game of golf. ... Some golf clubs Golf is played with golf clubs of various types. ... Alternate uses: See Ball (disambiguation) A ball is a round object that is used most often in sports and games. ... Golf (gowf in Scots) is a sport where individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and is one of the few ball games that does not use a fixed standard playing area. ...

Golf Portal

Golf originated in Scotland and has been played for at least five centuries in the British Isles. The oldest course in the world is The Old Links at Musselburgh. Golf, in essentially the form we know it today, has been played on Scotland's Musselburgh Links since 1672, and earlier versions of the game had been played in the British Isles and the low-countries of Northern Europe for several centuries before that. Although often viewed as an elite pastime, golf is an increasingly popular sport that can be played for one's entire life. Image File history File links Portal. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The British Isles consist of Great Britain, Ireland (usually) and a number of much smaller surrounding islands. ... Musselburgh is a town in East Lothian, Scotland, on the coast of the Firth of Forth, six miles east of Edinburgh city centre. ... Musselburgh Links in the small town of Musselburgh in East Lothian, Scotland, is one of the oldest golf courses in the world, and claims to be the oldest on which play has been continuous. ...

Tee for the first hole at The Links at Spanish Bay
Tee for the first hole at The Links at Spanish Bay
Bunkers at Filton Golf Club, Bristol, England
Bunkers at Filton Golf Club, Bristol, England


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1454x1000, 1247 KB) Tee for the first hole at The Links at Spanish Bay. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1454x1000, 1247 KB) Tee for the first hole at The Links at Spanish Bay. ... Bunkers at Filton Golf Club, Filton, Bristol, England. ... Bunkers at Filton Golf Club, Filton, Bristol, England. ...

Anatomy of a golf course

The famous 17th hole of the TPC at Sawgrass Stadium Course.
The famous 17th hole of the TPC at Sawgrass Stadium Course.

Golf is played on a tract of land designated as the course. The course consists of a series of holes. A hole means both the hole in the ground into which the ball is played (also called the cup), as well as the total distance from the tee (a pre-determined area from where a ball is first hit) to the green (the area surrounding the actual hole in the ground). Most golf courses consist of nine or eighteen holes. (The "nineteenth hole" is the colloquial term for the bar/grill at a club house). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1814x1222, 1473 KB) Summary The famous 17th hole at the w:TPC at Sawgrass golf course. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1814x1222, 1473 KB) Summary The famous 17th hole at the w:TPC at Sawgrass golf course. ... The Stadium Courses famous (or infamous) 17th hole The TPC at Sawgrass is a well-known golf course in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, and was the inaugural Tournament Players Club. ...

The first stroke on each hole is done from the Tee (officially, teeing ground), where the grass is well tended to make the tee shot easier. After teeing off, a player strokes the ball again from the position at which it came to rest, either from the fairway (where the grass is cut so low that most balls can be easily played) or from the rough (grass cut much longer than fairway grass, or which may be uncut) until the ball comes to rest in the cup. Many holes include hazards, which may be of two types: water hazards (lakes, rivers, etc.) and bunkers. Special rules apply to playing balls that come to rest in a hazard, which make it undesirable to play a ball into one. For example, in a hazard, a player must not touch the ground with his club before playing a ball, not even for a practice swing. A ball in any type of hazard may be played as it lies without penalty. If it cannot be played from the hazard for any reason, it may be removed by hand and dropped outside the hazard within two club lengths and a penalty of one stroke. If a ball was observed entering a hazard but cannot be found, it may be replaced by dropping another ball outside the hazard, with one stroke penalty. Exactly where a ball may be dropped outside a hazard is governed by strict rules. Bunkers (or sand traps) are hazards from which the ball is more difficult to play than from grass. As in a water hazard, a ball in a sand trap must be played without previously touching the sand with the club. A tee is a stand used to support a stationary ball so that the player can strike it, particuarly in golf, Tee Ball, American football, and rugby. ... A bunker or sand trap is a hazard in the game of golf. ...

The grass of the putting green (or more commonly the green) is cut very short so that a ball can roll easily over distances of several yards. To putt means to play a stroke, usually but not always on the green, wherein the ball does not leave the ground. The direction of growth of individual blades of grass often affects the roll of a golf ball and is called the grain. The slope of the green, called the break, can also affect the roll of the ball. The cup is always found within the green, and must have a diameter of 108 mm (4.25 in.) and a depth of at least 100 mm (3.94 in.). Its position on the green is not static and may be changed from day to day. The cup usually has a flag on a pole positioned in it so that it may be seen from some distance, but not necessarily from the tee. This flag and pole combination is often called the pin. A typical lawn A lawn sprinkler A lawn is an area of land planted with grass and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at an even low height. ...

Putting greens are not of all the same quality. Generally, the finest quality greens are well kept so that a ball will roll smoothly over the closely mowed grass. Golfers describe a green as being "fast" if a light stroke of the ball allows it to roll a long distance. Conversely, a green is termed "slow" if a stronger stroke is required to roll the ball the required distance.

The borders of a course are marked as such, and beyond them is out of bounds, that is, ground from which a ball must not be played. Some areas on the course may be designated as ground under repair, meaning that a ball coming to rest in them may be lifted and then played from outside such ground without penalty. Certain man-made objects on the course are defined as obstructions, and specific rules determine how a golfer may proceed when the play is impeded by these.

Practice range with 43 tees (20 covered)
Practice range with 43 tees (20 covered)

At most golf courses there are additional facilities that are not part of the course itself. Often there is a practice range, usually with practice greens, bunkers, and driving areas (where long shots can be practiced). There may even be a practice course (which is often easier to play or shorter than other golf courses). A golf school is often associated with a course or club. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2468x1797, 1350 KB) Summary Golf Range Description: Golf driving practice range with 43 lighted tees (20 covered) at the University of Washington. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2468x1797, 1350 KB) Summary Golf Range Description: Golf driving practice range with 43 lighted tees (20 covered) at the University of Washington. ...


A hole is classified by its par. Par is the number of strokes that a skilled golfer should require to complete the hole. For example, a skilled golfer expects to reach the green on a par four hole in two strokes, one from the tee (his "drive"), another to the green (his "approach"), and then roll the ball into the hole with two putts. Traditionally, a golf hole is either a par three, four, or five although, due to the distance obtained off the tee by many of today's professional golfers, a few par six holes now exist. The par of a hole is primarily, but not exclusively, determined by the distance from tee to green. A typical length for a par three hole is anywhere between 91 to 224 m (100 to 250 yds.), for a par four, between 225 to 434 m (251 to 475 yds.). Par five holes are typically at between 435 m (476 yds.) and 630 m (690 yds.), and par six holes are anything longer than that. It should be noted, however, that these distances are not absolute hard and fast rules; for example, it is possible that a hole of length 500 yards could be classed as a par four since the par for a hole is determined by its 'effective playing length.' So, if tee to green on a hole is predominantly downhill, it will play shorter than its physical length and may be given a lower par. Many 18-hole courses have approximately four par-three, ten par-four, and four par-five holes. The total par of a regulation course is 72. In many countries, courses are classified by a course rating in addition to the course's par. This rating describes the difficulty of a course and may be used to calculate a golfer's playing handicap for that individual course (see golf handicap).

Play of the game

Every game of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A round typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. On a nine-hole course, a standard round consists of two successive nine-hole rounds. A hole of golf consists of hitting a ball from a tee on the teeing ground (a marked area designated for the first shot of a hole), and, once the ball comes to rest, striking it again, and repeating this process until the ball at last comes to rest in the cup. Once the ball is on the green (an area of finely cut grass) the ball is usually putted (hit along the ground) into the hole. The aim of holing the ball in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by various hazards, such as bunkers and water hazards. In golf, the teeing ground is the rectangular area at the beginning of a hole from which the players first stroke is taken. ... Water hazards, like bunkers, are designed to add both visual interest and difficulty to a golf course. ...

Players walk (or in some countries, often drive in motorized electric carts) over the course, either singly or in groups of two, three, or four, sometimes accompanied by caddies who carry and manage the players' equipment and give them advice. Each player plays a ball from the tee to the hole, except that in the mode of play called foursomes, two teams of two players compete, and the members of each team alternate shots using only one ball, until the ball is holed out. When all individual players or teams have brought a ball into play, the player or team whose ball is the farthest from the hole is next to play. In some team events, a player whose ball is farther from the hole may ask his partner to play first. When all players of a group have completed the hole, the player or team with the best score on that hole has the honor, that is, the right to play first on the next tee. In golf, caddy (or caddie) is the person who carries a players bag, and gives insightful advice and moral support. ...

Each player acts as marker for one other player in the group, that is, he or she records the score on a score card. In stroke play (see below), the score consists of the number of strokes played plus any penalty strokes incurred. Penalty strokes are not actually strokes but penalty points that are added to the score for violations of rules or for making use of relief procedures in certain situations.


In every form of play, the goal is to play as few shots per round as possible. Scores for each hole can be described as follows:

Term on a
Specific term Definition
-4 triple-eagle (condor) four strokes under par
-3 double-eagle (albatross) three strokes under par
-2 eagle two strokes under par
-1 birdie one stroke under par
0 par or even strokes equal to par
+1 bogey one stroke more than par
+2 double bogey two strokes over par
+3 triple bogey three strokes over par

The two basic forms of playing golf are match play and stroke play. Match play is a scoring system for golf (compare to stroke play). ... Stroke play is a scoring system for golf (compare to match play). ...

  • In match play, two players (or two teams) play every hole as a separate contest against each other. The party with the lower score wins that hole, or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is "halved" (drawn). The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other. In the case that one team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played, the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead, and the remainder of the holes are not played. For example, if one party already has a lead of six holes, and only five holes remain to be played on the course, the match is over. At any given point, if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining, the match is said to be "dormie", and is continued until the leader increases the lead by one hole, thereby winning the match, or until the match ends in a tie. When the game is tied after the predetermined number of holes have been played, it may be continued until one side takes a one-hole lead, and thereupon immediately wins by one hole.
  • In stroke play, every player (or team) counts the number of shots taken for the whole round or tournament to produce the total score, and the player with the lowest score wins. A variant of stroke play is Stableford scoring, where a number of points (two for the target score) are given for each hole, and the fewer shots taken, the more points obtained, so the aim is to have as many points as possible. Another variant of stroke play, the Modified Stableford method, awards points on each hole in relation to par and then adds the points over a round; for more details on this method, see the article on The International, a tournament that uses Modified Stableford scoring.

There are many variations of these basic principles, some of which are explicitly described in the "Rules of Golf" and are therefore regarded "official". "Official" forms of play are, among others, foursome and four-ball games. The INTERNATIONAL (the capitalization is official) is a golf tournament in the United States PGA TOUR held annually (currently in early August) at Castle Pines Golf Club in Castle Rock, Colorado, near Denver. ...


If one wishes to play on a golf course, one has to pay a certain fee. There are two different fees: the range fee, which is for the practice range; and the green fee, which allows play on the golf course itself. The green fee may vary from the equivalent of a few U.S. dollars for communal courses in many countries, up to that of several hundred dollars for elite clubs. Discounts on fees may be offered for players starting their round late in the day. If the course has golf carts, there may also be a fee to use them, even if a member of your group is not actively playing. This fee is usually combined with the green fee.

Team play

A foursome (defined in Rule 29) is played between two teams of two players each, in which each team has only one ball and players alternate playing it. For example, if players A and B form a team, A tees off on the first hole, B will play the second shot, A the third, and so on until the hole is finished. On the second hole, B will tee off (regardless who played the last putt on the first hole), then A plays the second shot, and so on. Foursomes can be played as match play or stroke play.

A four-ball (Rules 30 and 31) is also played between two teams of two players each, but every player plays his own ball and for each team, the lower score on each hole is counted. Four-balls can be played as match play or stroke play.

There are also popular unofficial variations on team play. In a scramble, or ambrose (also known as a best ball tournament), each player in a team tees off on each hole, and the players decide which shot was best, Every player then plays his second shot from where the best ball has come to rest, and the procedure is repeated until the hole is finished.

In a greensome both players tee off, and then pick the best shot as in a scramble. The player who did not shoot the best first shot plays the second shot. The play then alternates as in a foursome.

Handicap systems

Main article: Golf handicap

A handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfer's ability. It can be used to calculate a so-called "net" score from the number of strokes actually played, thus allowing players of different proficiency to play against each other on equal terms. Handicaps are administrated by golf clubs or national golf associations. A golf handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfers playing ability. ... The word amateur has at least two connotations. ...

Handicaps are complicated, but essentially are the average over par of the ten best scores of the golfer's last 20 rounds, adjusted for course difficulty.

Handicap systems are not used in professional golf. Professional golfers typically score several strokes below par for a round.

Golf rules and other regulations

The rules of golf [1] [2] are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (R&A), which was founded 1754 and the United States Golf Association (USGA). By agreement with the R&A, USGA jurisdiction on the enforcement and interpretation of the rules is limited to the United States and Mexico. Canada has the separate Royal Canadian Golf Association, but generally follows the lead of the two larger bodies in determining rules. Because the rules of golf continue to evolve, amended versions of the rule book are usually published and made effective in a four-year cycle. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is one of the oldest golf clubs in the world. ... The United States Golf Association (USGA) is the United States national association of golf courses, clubs and facilities and the governing body of golf for the U.S. and Mexico. ... The Royal Canadian Golf Association (RCGA) is the governing body of amateur golf in Canada. ...

The underlying principle of the rules is fairness. As stated on the back cover of the official rule book: "play the ball as it lies", "play the course as you find it", and "if you can't do either, do what is fair". Some rules state that:

  • every player is entitled and obliged to play the ball from the position where it has come to rest after a stroke, unless a rule allows or demands otherwise (Rule 13-1)
  • a player must not accept assistance in making a stroke (Rule 14-2)
  • the condition of the ground or other parts of the course may not be altered to gain an advantage, except in some cases defined in the rules
  • a ball may only be replaced by another during play of a hole if it is destroyed (Rule 5-3), lost (Rule 27-1), or unplayable (Rule 28), or at some other time permitted by the Rules. The player may always substitute balls between the play of two holes.

The Decisions on the Rules of Golf are based on formal case decisions by the R&A and USGA and are revised and updated every other year.

There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers [3]. Essentially, everybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction or played golf for money is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs. Non-cash prizes won in a competition may be accepted within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status.

In addition to the officially printed rules, golfers also abide by a set of guildelines called golf etiquette. Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety, fairness, easiness and pace of play, and a player's obligation to contribute to the care of the course. Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules, players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyone's playing experience [4].

Strandhill Golf Club in Ireland is an example of a coastal links course.
Strandhill Golf Club in Ireland is an example of a coastal links course.

Download high resolution version (1024x768, 122 KB)The Strandhill Golf Course in Strandhill, a town in County Sligo, Ireland. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 122 KB)The Strandhill Golf Course in Strandhill, a town in County Sligo, Ireland. ...

Golf course architecture and design

While no two courses are alike, many can be classified into one of the following broad categories:

  • Links courses: the most traditional type of golf course, of which some centuries-old examples have survived in the British isles. Located in coastal areas, on sandy soil, often amid dunes, with few artificial water hazards and few if any trees. Traditional links courses, such as The Old Course at St. Andrews, are built on "land reclaimed from the sea," land that was once underwater. Linksland "links" the beach to the arable land. It was historically suitable primarily for grazing sheep
  • Parkland courses: typical inland courses, often resembling traditional British parks, with lawn-like fairways and many trees.
  • Heathland – a more open, less-manicured inland course often featuring gorse and heather and typically less wooded than “parkland” courses. Examples include Woodhall Spa in England and Gleneagles in Scotland.
  • Desert courses: a rather recent invention, popular in Australia, parts of the USA and in the Middle East. Desert courses require heavy irrigation for maintenance of the turf, leading to concerns about the ecological consequences of excessive water consumption. A desert course also violates the widely accepted principle of golf course architecture that an aesthetically pleasing course should require minimal alteration of the existing landscape. Nevertheless, many players enjoy the unique experience of playing golf in the desert.
  • Browns courses: Akin to sand courses (see below), but much more involved in terms of using layers of tar and gravel below the sandy surface layer, to give firmness and support and ensure a consistent bounce/roll. Common in arid parts of the Indian Subcontinent. The world's highest course of any type is a 9-hole browns course in Leh, Ladakh (J&K), maintained by the Indian Army. It is at 11,600 feet. Being beyond the Great Himalaya in an extension of the arid Tibetan Plateau, the region lies in a rain shadow, which would make a greens course impossible to water. Mixed courses that have both brown and green holes are called 'browns-greens' courses; e.g., the green and the central fairway may be grass, but the tee and rough would be brown.
  • Sand courses: instead of a heavily irrigated 'green', the players play on sand; holes are less 'involved' than browns courses (see above), and are for the casual golfer.
  • Snow courses: another rather recent invention; golf being played on snow, typically with an orange colored or another brightly colored ball. Can be played in Arctic or subarctic regions during winter.
  • Par 3 courses: The course consists entirely of holes with Par 3. These are considered a good test of iron shot precision and short game, as the driver is rarely used.
  • Executive courses: A course which generally is smaller than the typical 18-hole course, designed to cater to the fast-paced, executive lifestyle.

In the United States design varies widely, with courses such as the entirely artificial Shadow Creek in Las Vegas, where a course complete with waterfalls was created in the desert, and on the other end of the spectrum, Rustic Canyon outside of Los Angeles, which was created with a minimal amount of earth moving resulting in an affordable daily green fee and a more natural golfing experience. A links golf course, sometimes referred to as a Seaside links is the oldest style of course, first developed in Scotland, where golf originated. ... The Old Course at St Andrews is one of the oldest golf courses in the world. ... Glen Eagles is a glen or valley in the Ochil Hills. ... Tikse monastery, Ladakh Ladakh is the largest district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, covering more than half the area of the state (of which it is the eastern part). ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ...

Hitting a golf ball

To hit the ball, the club is swung at the motionless ball on the ground (or wherever it has come to rest) from a side stance. Many golf shots make the ball travel through the air (carry) and roll out for some more distance (roll). Some golf clubs Golf is played with golf clubs of various types. ...

Every shot is a compromise between length and precision, as long shots are generally less precise than short ones. Obviously, a longer shot may result in a better score if it helps reduce the total number of strokes for a given hole, but the benefit may be more than outweighed by additional strokes or penalties if a ball is lost, out of bounds, or comes to rest on difficult ground. Therefore, a skilled golfer must assess the quality of his or her shots in a particular situation in order to judge whether the possible benefits of aggressive play are worth the risks.

Types of shots

  • A tee shot is the first shot played from a teeing ground. It is often made with a driver (i.e., a 1-wood) off a tee for long holes, or with an iron on shorter holes. Ideally, tee shots on long holes have a rather shallow flight and long roll of the ball, while tee shots on short holes are flighted higher and are expected to stop quickly.
  • A fairway shot is similar to a drive when done with a fairway wood. If accuracy and distance control are required, irons are usually played from the fairway. Irons or wedges are also often used when playing from the rough. However, a tee may not be used once the ball has been brought into play; therefore, playing from the fairway may be more difficult depending on how the ball lies. A clean downward strike is required to "pinch" the ball against the turf in order to get the ball airborne. Mis-hits from the fairway include thin shots, also known as "skulls", and fat shots, also known as "chunks". Thin shots are characterized by striking the middle of the ball, while fat shots occur when the club strikes the turf behind the ball.
  • A bunker shot is played when the ball is in a bunker (sand trap). It resembles a pitch and is played with a "sand wedge." The sand wedge is designed with a wider base allowing the club to skid in the sand. The bunker shot differs from other golf shots in that the ball is not touched by the clubhead, but is lifted together with an amount of sand.
  • Punch/Knockdown: a low shot that carries through the air in order to clear a low hanging tree branch or sometimes high winds.
  • On the green, a putter is used to 'putt' the ball. The ball rolls on the ground, never becoming air-borne.

An approach shot is played into the green from outside the green, usually over an intermediate or short distance. Types of approach shots are:

  • Pitch: an approach shot that flies the ball onto or near the green. Depending upon conditions (wind, firmness of fairway and green and/or contour of the green) a skilled player may hit a high, soft landing shot with little roll or a low running shot attempting to keep the ball in the air as much as possible. Depending upon the way the ball is struck, this shot may roll out, stop or even spin backwards towards the player. Pitch shots are usually hit with any club from a six iron to a lob wedge.
  • Flop: an even higher approach shot that stops shortly after it hits the ground. It is used when a player must play over an obstacle to the green. It is usually played with a sand wedge or a lob wedge, with the face laid wide open.
  • Chip: a low approach shot where the ball makes a shallow flight and then rolls out on the green. Chips are made with a less lofted club than the "pitch" shot or "lob" shot in order to produce the desired flatter trajectory.

Poor shots

There are several possible causes of poor shots, such as poor alignment of the club, wrong direction of swing, and off-center hits where the clubhead rotates around the ball at impact. Many of these troubles are aggravated with the "longer" clubs and higher speed of swing. Furthermore, the absolute effect of a deviation will increase with a longer shot compared with a short one.

Some of the more common Poor shots are explained below:

Hook : The ball flight curves sharply to the left for a right-handed player (to the right for left-handed players). A severe hook is commonly called a Duck-Hook or a Snap hook.

Slice : The ball curves sharply to the right for a right-handed player (to the left for left-handed players). For beginning golfers this is the typical outcome of most shots. A severe slice is commonly referred to as a Banana-Slice or a Banana-Ball.

Pull : For a right-handed player the ball is 'pulled' across the body and flies to the left of the intended target without curvature (the ball flies to the right for left-handed players). A Pull-Hook indicates that the ball started out left of target and curved even further to the left. A Pull-Slice means the ball starts out left then curves back to the right.

Push : The opposite of a Pull, where the ball is 'pushed' away from the body. The ball flies to the right of the intended target for right-handed players (to the left for left-handed players). A Push-Slice indicates that the ball started out right of target and curved even further to the right. A Push-Hook means the ball starts out right then curves back to the left.

Shank : The ball is struck by the hosel or the outer edge of the club rather than the clubface and shoots sharply to the right for a right-handed player.

Thin or Blade or Skull : The ball is struck with the bottom edge of the club and not its face. This may damage the surface of a golf ball with a soft cover material, and may result in a stinging sensation in one's hands on a cold day.

Fat : A fat shot occurs when the club strikes the ground before the ball. A large divot is usually produced along with a clubface covered in the divot.

Top : The topside of the ball is struck with the blade of the club. The result usually consists of the ball rolling forward on the ground with much topspin.

Sky Ball : The opposite of a Top. This occurs most frequently when teeing the ball up too high, though sometimes a Sky Ball will occur when the ball is sitting on top of long blades of grass and the club has space to pass under the ball. The top side of the club strikes the bottom side of the ball and forces the ball higher into the air than desired. A true sky ball occurs when the ball travels farther vertically than it does horizontally.

Flyer : This type of shot usually occurs when playing from deep rough. Grass blades come between the club face and the ball, preventing the grooves of the club from imparting maximum backspin on the ball. This loss of lift from backspin will typically cause a lower, longer shot than a cleanly contacted shot. The resulting flight of the ball is that the target is overshot by 10 or more yards and the ball does not stop as quickly on the green.

Hood : Somewhere during the swing the clubface becomes more perpendicular to the ground, or angled more toward the golfer. The clubface may strike the ground first or get caught up in heavy rough. This results in the ball flying lower to the ground than intended and usually resulting in a Pull as well.

Worm burner : The ball is hit extremely low to the ground, or bounces rapidly across the ground, essentially "burning up worms" as it speeds along.

Chili Dip : A common miscue while chipping where the ball is flubbed only a few feet forward. Sometimes referred to as a Chunk.

Fried Egg: This situation occurs when the ball lands in a sand bunker and does not move from its landing spot. A small crater, or frying pan, encircles the "egg" (golf ball), and makes the next shot a difficult one.

Foot Wedge : An illegal act of literally kicking one's ball to a better location. The character Judge Smails uses this technique In the movie Caddyshack. Caddyshack is a 1980 U.S. comedy film directed by Harold Ramis and written by Brian Doyle-Murray, Harold Ramis and Douglas Kenney. ...

The golf swing

Putts and short chips are ideally played without much movement of the body, but most other golf shots are played using variants of the full golf swing. The full golf swing itself is used in tee and fairway shots.

A full swing is a complex rotation of the body aimed at accelerating the club head to a great speed. For a right-handed golfer, it consists of a backswing to the right, a downswing to the left (in which the ball is hit), and a follow through. At address, the player stands with the left shoulder and hip pointing in the intended direction of ball flight, with the ball before the feet. The club is held with both hands (right below left for right-handed players), the clubhead resting on the ground behind the ball, hips and knees somewhat flexed, and the arms hanging from the shoulders. The backswing is a rotation to the right, consisting of a shifting of the player's body weight to the right side, a turning of the pelvis and shoulders, lifting of the arms and flexing of the elbows and wrists. At the end of the backswing the hands are above the right shoulder, with the club pointing more or less in the intended direction of ball flight. The downswing is roughly a backswing reversed. After the ball is hit, the follow-through stage consists of a continued rotation to the left. At the end of the swing, the weight has shifted almost entirely to the left foot, the body is fully turned to the left and the hands are above the left shoulder with the club hanging down over the players' back.

The full golf swing is an unnatural, highly complex motion and notoriously difficult to learn. It is not uncommon for beginners to spend several months practising the very basics before playing their first ball on a course. It is usually considered impossible to acquire a stable and successful swing without professional instruction and even highly skilled golfers may continue to take golf lessons for many years. One can also purchase or use a new golf simulator that can cost upwards of $50,000. Anyone can play the game of golf. ...

Relatively few golfers play left-handed (i.e., swing back to the left and forward to the right), with even players who are strongly left-handed in their daily life preferring the right-handed golf swing. In the past, this may have been due to the difficulty of finding left-handed golf clubs. Today, more manufacturers provide left-handed versions of their club lines, and the clubs are more readily purchased from mail-order and Internet catalogues. A golfer who plays right-handed, but holds the club left-hand-below-right is said to be "cack-handed". It is difficult to obtain the same consistency and power with this arrangement as is possible with conventional technique.

Besides the physical part, the mental aspect contributes to the difficulty of the golf swing. Golfers play against the course, not each other directly, and hit a stationary object, not one put into motion by an opponent. This means that there is never anyone to blame but oneself for a bad result, and in most competitive formats there are no teammates to directly help one out. Knowledge of this creates a great deal of psychological pressure on the golfer; this pressure exists at all levels of play. Even the best professional golfers sometimes succumb to this pressure, such as getting the "yips" (an infamous affliction of Bernhard Langer) a severe putting disorder caused by uncontrolled muscle spasms of the arms, resulting in a jerking motion during the follow through of the putt causing the ball to go much farther than desired, or having collapses of their full swing (as with Ian Baker-Finch). Bernhard Langer (born August 27, 1957 in Anhausen near Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany) is a professional German golfer. ... Ian Baker-Finch (born 24 October 1960 in Nambour, Australia) is an Australian professional golfer who is best known for winning The Open Championship in 1991. ...

A golf ball acquires spin when it is hit. Backspin is imparted in almost every shot due to the golf club's loft (i.e., angle between the clubface and a vertical plane). A spinning ball deforms the flow of air around it [5] similar to an airplane wing; a back-spinning ball therefore experiences an upward force which makes it fly higher and longer than a ball without spin. The amount of backspin also influences the behavior of a ball when it impacts the ground. A ball with little backspin will usually roll out for a few yards/meters while a ball with more backspin may not roll at all, even backwards. Sidespin occurs when the clubface is not aligned perpendicularly to the plane of swing. Sidespin makes the ball curve left or right: a curve to the left is a draw, and to the right a fade (for right-handed players). Accomplished golfers purposely use sidespin to steer their ball around obstacles or towards the safe side of fairways and greens. But because it's sometimes difficult to control or predict the amount of sidespin, balls may take an undesirable trajectory, such as hook to the left, or slice to the right (for right-handed players).

Golfer after swing.
Golfer after swing.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x800, 630 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x800, 630 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...


Golf clubs

Main article: Golf club (equipment)

A player usually carries several clubs during the game (but no more than fourteen, the limit defined by the rules). There are three major types of clubs, known as woods, irons, and putters. Wedges are irons used to play shorter shots. Woods are played for long shots from the tee or fairway, and occasionally rough, while irons are for precision shots from fairways as well as from the rough. A new type of wood known as a "hybrid" combines the straight-hitting characteristics of irons with the easy-to-hit-in-the-air characteristics of higher-lofted woods. A "hybrid" is often used for long shots from difficult rough. Hybrids are also used by players who have a difficult time getting the ball airborne with long irons. Wedges are played from difficult ground such as sand or the rough and for approach shots to the green. Putters are mostly played on the green, but can also be useful when playing from bunkers or for some approach shots. Some golf clubs Golf is played with golf clubs of various types. ...

golfball with a tough rubber core
golfball with a tough rubber core

Image File history File links Golfballinsiderp. ... Image File history File links Golfballinsiderp. ...

Golf balls

Main article: Golf ball

The minimum allowed diameter of a golf ball is 42.67mm and its mass may not exceed 45.93g. Modern golf balls have a two-, three-, or four-layer design constructed from various synthetic materials. The surface usually has a pattern of 300-400 dimples designed to improve the ball's aerodynamics. The method of construction and materials used greatly affect the ball's playing characteristics such as distance, trajectory, spin and feel. Harder materials, such as Surlyn, usually result in the ball's traveling longer distances, while softer covers, such as Balata, tend to generate higher spin, more "feel" and greater stopping potential. Golf balls are separated into three groups depending on their construction: two-, three-, or four-piece covers. Generally four-piece golf balls tend to be the most expensive, though price is no assurance of quality. As of 2006 there are even golf balls that utilize RFID technology, which allows golfers to more easily locate errant shots using a handheld homing device. A golf ball on a Tee with a driver ready for a drive A golf ball is a ball designed for use in the game of golf. ... This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ...

Golf Shafts

Golf shafts are used between the grip and the "club head". The profile of the golf shaft is circlular in shape and some of the strongest and lightest materials are used to make the golf shaft. Graphite and tempered steels are used for the best strength. In 2006 the newest profiles that are USGA approved and have ultimate strength are Triangle Golf Shafts or some call the shaft Trigraphite Shafts.

Other equipment

Golf tees, used to prop up the ball on the tee
Golf tees, used to prop up the ball on the tee

Sometimes transport is by special golf carts. Clubs and other equipment are carried in golf bags. Golfers wear special shoes with exchangeable spikes (or small plastic claws termed soft spikes) attached to the soles. They also often wear gloves that help grip the club and prevent blistering. Golf tees resemble nails with a small cup on the head and are usually made of wood or plastic. A tee is pushed into the ground to rest a ball on top of for an easier shot; however, this is only allowed for the first stroke (tee shot or drive) of each hole. When on the green, the ball may be picked up to be cleaned or if it is in the way of an opponent's putting line; its position must then be marked using a ball marker (usually a flat, round piece of plastic or a coin). A ball mark repair tool (or pitchfork) is used to repair a ball mark (depression in the green where a ball has hit the ground). To repair a ball mark, one pushes the tool under the mark, and lifts upwards gently, loosening the compacted turf to allow rapid regrowth of grass. Scores are recorded on a score card during the round. Picture of golf tees for section golf equipment in golf article. ... Picture of golf tees for section golf equipment in golf article. ... Golf carts A golf cart is a small vehicle designed originally to carry two golfers and their golf clubs around a golf course faster and with less effort than walking. ... A tee is a stand used to support a stationary ball so that the player can strike it, particuarly in golf, Tee Ball, American football, and rugby. ...


See also Timeline of golf history 1353-1850, Timeline of golf history 1851-1945, and Timeline of golf history 1945-1999. The following is a partial timeline of the history of golf: 1353 - The first recorded reference to chole, the probable antecedent of golf. ... See also Timeline of golf history 1353-1850, Timeline of golf history 1945-1999 and Timeline of golf 2000-present. ... See also Timeline of golf history 1353-1850, Timeline of golf history 1851-1945 and Timeline of golf 2000-present. ...

The origin of golf is open to debate among Chinese, French, and Scottish. Golf is generally regarded to be a Scottish invention, as the game was mentioned in two 15th-century laws prohibiting the playing of the game of "gowf". Some scholars, however, suggest that this refers to another game which is much akin to shinty or hurling, or to modern field hockey.[citation needed] They point out that a game of putting a small ball in a hole in the ground using golf clubs was played in 17th-century Netherlands. The term golf is believed to have originated from a Germanic word for "club". Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Shinty, also known as camanachd or iomain, is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... Map of Ireland. ... A game of field hockey in progress A field hockey goalkeeper makes a glove save Field hockey is a popular sport for men and women in many countries around the world. ...

The oldest playing golf course in the world is The Old Links at Musselburgh. Evidence has shown that golf was played on Musselburgh Links in 1672 although Mary, Queen of Scots reputedly played there in 1567. Musselburgh is a town in East Lothian, Scotland, on the coast of the Firth of Forth, six miles east of Edinburgh city centre. ... Musselburgh Links in the small town of Musselburgh in East Lothian, Scotland, is one of the oldest golf courses in the world, and claims to be the oldest on which play has been continuous. ... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book...

Golf courses have not always had eighteen holes. The St Andrews Links occupy a narrow strip of land along the sea. As early as the 15th century, golfers at St. Andrews established a customary route through the undulating terrain, playing to holes whose locations were dictated by topography. The course that emerged featured eleven holes, laid out end to end from the clubhouse to the far end of the property. One played the holes out, turned around, and played the holes in, for a total of 22 holes. In 1764, several of the holes were deemed too short, and were therefore combined. The number was thereby reduced from 11 to nine, so that a complete round of the links comprised 18 holes. St Andrews Links in the city of St Andrews, Scotland, is regarded as the home of golf.It is the oldest course in the world. ...

The major changes in equipment since the 19th century have been better mowers, especially for the greens, better golf ball designs, using rubber and man-made materials since about 1900, and the introduction of the metal shaft beginning in the 1930s. Also in the 1930s the wooden golf tee was invented. In the 1970s the use of metal to replace wood heads began, and shafts made of graphite composite materials were introduced in the 1980s.

Ming Emperor Xuande is playing Golf ?
Ming Emperor Xuande is playing Golf ?

In January 2006, new evidence re-invigorated the debate concerning the origins of golf. Recent evidence unearthed by Prof. Ling Hongling of Lanzhou University suggests that a game similar to modern-day golf was played in China since Southern Tang Dynasty, 500 years before golf was first mentioned in Scotland.[citation needed] Image File history File links Ming_Emperor_Xuande_playing_Golf. ... Image File history File links Ming_Emperor_Xuande_playing_Golf. ... Categories: China-related stubs | 1398 births | 1435 deaths | Ming Dynasty emperors ... Lanzhou University is a university in Lanzhou, China (Gansu province). ... Southern Tang (also refered to as Nantang) was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-976. ...

Dongxuan Records (Chinese:東軒錄) from the Song Dynasty describe a game called chuiwan (捶丸) and also include drawings.[citation needed] It was played with 10 clubs including a cuanbang, pubang, and shaobang, which are comparable to a driver, two-wood, and three-wood. Clubs were inlaid with jade and gold, suggesting golf was for the wealthy. Chinese archive includes references to a Southern Tang official who asked his daughter to dig holes as a target.[citation needed] Ling suggested golf was exported to Europe and then Scotland by Mongolian travellers in the late Middle Ages.[citation needed] The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jadeite jade buttons Jade An ornamental stone, jade is a name applied to two different silicate minerals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Southern Tang (also refered to as Nantang) was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-976. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

A spokesman for the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, one of the oldest Scotland golf organization, said "Stick and ball games have been around for many centuries, but golf as we know it today, played over 18 holes, clearly originated in Scotland." [6] [7] The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (or R&A for short) is not only one of the oldest golf clubs, but also the governing body of golf in much of the world. ...

Social aspects of golf

In the United States, golf is the unofficial sport of the business world. It is often said that board meetings merely confirm decisions that are actually made on the golf course. For this reason, the successful conduct of business golf (which extends beyond merely knowing the game) is considered a useful business skill; various schools, including prestigious universities such as Stanford University, have started both undergraduate and graduate-level courses that teach "business golf." The PGA of America, an organization separate from the PGA Tour, helps to sponsor these programs at universities nationwide. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Stanford redirects here. ...

Cost to Play

The cost of an average round of golf is USD $36 [8], and the sport is regularly enjoyed by over 26 million Americans and many more world-wide. In fact, most regions of the United States feature public courses which strive to be affordable for the average golfer. The fact that golf tends to be a sport associated with wealthy businesspeople and professionals (doctors golfing on Wednesdays, corporate golf days, etc), not to mention the high prices and wealthy clientele that can afford to pay to join elite country clubs, contribute to the perception that golf is expensive. By contrast, there is no other single sport that might be compared to golf as a sport for affluent people (hunting may be on par, so to speak, as the sport of business in the American south, but golf is still pervasive in the south while hunting, which is common in the American north and midwest, is less prevalent as a business sport, while golf remains the standard).Caddyshack did not do much to elevate this belief above observable reality. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... A country club is a private club that offers a variety of recreational sports facilities to its members. ... Caddyshack is a 1980 U.S. comedy film directed by Harold Ramis and written by Brian Doyle-Murray, Harold Ramis and Douglas Kenney. ...

To compare golf against other sports is to quantify what makes it more expensive:

  • Golf is not a game in which equipment can be comfortably shared. By comparison, 22 people can share one soccer ball and 10 people can share one basketball. Buying or even renting an entire set of golf clubs immediately becomes more expensive.
  • Playing golf requires paying a green fee to enter a golf course. Meanwhile, playing soccer or touch-football or basketball at a school field or public playground is free of cost.
  • Exposure to golf is also not as accessible as other sports. For example, most kids will play baseball or hockey or football or soccer in high school, and the equipment is provided (usually for a registration fee that has been subsidized or sponsored privately). However, few high schools offer a golf program where kids can be exposed to and learn the game at a relatively cheaper price.
  • Comparing golf to other individual (rather than team) sports, golf is still more expensive. One racquet for a racquet sport (tennis, squash, racquetball) is still much cheaper than a set of clubs, and registration at a racquet club or even a local YMCA for a month can be cheaper than one day at the golf course. Moreover, kids can borrow an old racquet and hit a ball against a school wall for free, while there really is no way to practice driving a tee shot or chipping unless one pay to play golf or pay to work at a driving range or indoor golf training facility.

Further, the social status of better (and usually more expensive) equipment cannot be overlooked. Few will notice or care the condition of a baseball glove as long as you can catch a ball in it. Similarly, as long as a basketball has enough air to bounce evenly, no one cares what condition it is. In order to be outfitted with the latest equipment (including rather expensive clothing, shoes and gloves) one can end up spending quite a sum. Also, greens fees at some of the more picturesque and prestigious courses can be quite sizeable. Again, because golf has become the platform through which business people interact, evaluate each other, and generally talk/negotiate, the quality of one's clubs and dress are an expression of their success; "if one can't afford decent clubs and clothes, or hasn't the interest in spending enough money to look decent on the course, perhaps that one is not successful in business, or serious about doing business with me". YMCAs in the United States and Canada use this logo. ...

Cost of Maintenance

The maintenance and upkeep of a golf course demands significant expense. Public outdoor tennis courts also require fees which are allocated in part to maintenance and upkeep. Unlike a school soccer field or neighbourhood basketball court, a golf course cannot be left to the elements. Moreover, unlike a basketball or tennis court, grass continues to grow, as do weeds, trees, etc, which must be constantly and regularly trimmed and kept in order to maintain a clean course. As well, families of local fauna must be kept in check (squirrels and foxes can make for picturesque scenes, but skunks and raccoons can't be permitted to take up residence).

The sheer size of a golf course (on average, 75 acres) demands no small amount of crew and equipment. But, not just any crew or any equipment - specialized groundskeepers and specialized equipment must be used to maintain a stimulating and beautiful tee, fairway, green, as well as bunkers, water hazards, etc. Quality grasses, soils, flora, and a high degree of ever-changing technology requires that a country club can't really "go cheap" and expect to remain profitable.

Golfing countries

In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that there were nearly 32,000 golf courses in the world, approximately half of them in the United States. [9] The countries with most golf courses in relation to population, starting with the best endowed were: Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Canada, Wales, United States, Sweden, and England (countries with less than 500,000 people were excluded). Apart from Sweden all of these countries have English as the official language, but the number of courses in new golfing territories is increasing rapidly. For example the first golf course in the People's Republic of China only opened in the mid-1980s, but by 2005 there were 200 courses in that country. Golf Digest is a monthly golf magazine published by Advance Publications in the United States. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Official Languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th UK 13,843... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, England and Wales and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

The professional sport was initially dominated by British golfers, but since World War I, America has produced the greatest quantity of leading professionals. Other Commonwealth countries such as Australia and South Africa are also traditional powers in the sport. Since around the 1970s, Japan, Scandinavian and other Western European countries have produced leading players on a regular basis. The number of countries with high-class professionals continues to increase steadily, especially in East Asia. South Korea is notably strong in women's golf. More information is available at [10]. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... The English noun Commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ...

Professional golf

Golf is played professionally in many different countries. The majority of professional golfers work as club or teaching professionals, and only compete in local competitions. A small elite of professional golfers are "tournament pros" who compete full time on international "tours". In golf the distinction between amateurs and professionals in rigorously maintained. ...

Golf tours

Tiger Woods, who is currently the leading professional golfer in the world.
Tiger Woods, who is currently the leading professional golfer in the world.
Main article: Professional golf tours

There are at least twenty professional golf tours, each run by a PGA or an independent tour organisation, which is responsible for arranging events, finding sponsors, and regulating the tour. Typically a tour has "members" who are entitled to compete in all of its events, and also invites non-members to compete in some of them. Gaining membership of an elite tour is highly competitive, and most professional golfers never achieve it. Download high resolution version (386x650, 82 KB)Caption: 040303-N-5319A-009 Arabian Gulf (Mar. ... Download high resolution version (386x650, 82 KB)Caption: 040303-N-5319A-009 Arabian Gulf (Mar. ... Eldrick Tiger Woods (born December 30, 1975, in Cypress, California) is an American golfer and among the greatest golfers of all time. ... // Introduction Professional golf is one of the more lucrative sports in the world for both men and women, but it is has a very different structure from other sports, especially team sports. ... PGA means one of the following things: Professional Golfers Association Producers Guild of America Peoples Global Action Pin grid array, a type of packaging for integrated circuits Plastic grid array Professional Graphics Adapter, a video interface card for CAD applications An abbreviation for a type of prostaglandin (with PGB, PGC...

The most widely known tour is the PGA TOUR (officially rendered in all caps), which attracts the best golfers from all the other men's tours. This is due mostly to the fact that most PGA TOUR events have a first prize of at least USD 800,000. The European Tour, which attracts a substantial number of top golfers from outside North America, ranks second to the PGA TOUR in worldwide prestige. Some top professionals from outside North America play enough tournaments to maintain membership on both the PGA TOUR and European Tour. There are several other men's tours around the world. The PGA Tour is an organization headquartered in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, USA that operates the USAs main professional golf tours for men. ... This article is about general United States currency. ... The PGA European Tour is a top-level professional mens golf tour. ...

Golf is unique in having lucrative competition for older players. There are several senior tours for men 50 and older, the best known of which is the U.S.-based Champions Tour. The Champions Tour, a golf tour run by the PGA TOUR, hosts 30 events annually in the United States and Canada for golfers 50 and older. ...

There are five principal tours for women, each based in a different country or continent. The most prestigious of these is the U.S-based LPGA Tour. The LPGA is the Ladies Professional Golf Association. ...

Men's major championships

Main article: Men's major golf championships

The major championships are the four most prestigious men's tournaments of the year. In current (2005) chronological order they are: The Major Championships, often referred to simply as the Majors are the four most prestigious annual tournaments in mens professional golf. ...

The fields for these events include the top several dozen golfers from all over the world. The Masters has been played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia since its inception in 1934. The U.S. Open and PGA Championship are played at various courses around the United States, while The Open Championship is played at various courses in the UK. The Masters is one of four major championships in mens golf and the first to take place each year, being played the weekend following the first Monday in April. ... The United States Open Championship is an annual mens golf tournament staged by the United States Golf Association each June. ... 2005 Open Champion Tiger Woods holding the Claret Jug. ... Logo for the 2006 PGA The PGA Championship is an annual golf tournament, conducted by the Professional Golfers Association of America as part of the PGA TOUR. The PGA Championship is one of the four Major Championships in mens golf, and it is the golf seasons final major... Augusta National Golf Club, a private golf club in Augusta, Georgia, is one of the most famous and exclusive golf clubs in the world and is considered Bobby Joness masterpiece. ... Nickname: The Garden City (of the South), Masters City, The AUG Motto: We Feel Good Location Location of the consolidated areas of Augusta and Richmond County in the state of Georgia. ...

The number of major championships a player accumulates in his career has a very large impact on his stature in the sport. Jack Nicklaus is widely regarded as the greatest golfer of all time, largely because he has won a record 18 professional majors, or 20 majors in total if his two U.S. Amateurs are included. Tiger Woods, who may be the only golfer likely to challenge Nicklaus's record, has won ten professional majors (13 total if his three U.S. Amateurs are included), all before the age of thirty. Woods also came closest to winning all four current majors in one season (known as a Grand Slam completed first by Bobby Jones) when he won them consecutively across two seasons: the 2000 U.S. Open, Open Championship, and PGA Championship; and the 2001 Masters. This feat has been frequently called the Tiger Slam. Nicklaus celebrates his victory in the 1980 U.S. Open Jack William Nicklaus (born January 21, 1940 in Columbus, Ohio), also known as The Golden Bear, was a major force in professional golf, first on the PGA Tour from the 1960s to the mid to late 1980s, and then on... The U.S. Amateur Championship is the leading annual golf tournament in the United States for male amateur golfers. ... Eldrick Tiger Woods (born December 30, 1975, in Cypress, California) is an American golfer and among the greatest golfers of all time. ... The Grand Slam of golf consists of four major golfing events held each year; the events are often referred to as the major tournaments and are all recognized as a part of the worlds two most prestigious tours, the PGA TOUR in the United States and the PGA European...

Prior to the advent of the PGA Championship and The Masters, the four Majors were the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur, the Open Championship, and the British Amateur. These are the four that Bobby Jones won in 1930 to become the only player ever to have earned a Grand Slam. The Amateur Championship is a golf tournament which is held in the United Kingdom. ... Bobby Jones won the Grand Slam in 1930. ...

Women's majors

Main article: Women's major golf championships

Women's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The LPGA's list of majors has changed several times over the years, with the last change in 2001. Like the PGA TOUR, the LPGA currently has four majors: Womens golf has evolved a set of major championships which parallels that in mens golf, but the womens system is younger and has been less stable than the mens. ...

Only the last of these is also recognised by the Ladies European Tour. The Kraft Nabisco Championship (originally the Colgate/Dinah Shore Winners Circle Championship) is one of the four major golf tournaments for women on the LPGA Tour. ... The U.S. Womens Open Golf Championship is one of the LPGAs major championships along with the LPGA Championship, the Womens British Open, and the Kraft Nabisco Championship. ... The LPGA Championship, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the McDonalds LPGA Championship, is the second-longest running tournament in the history of the Ladies Professional Golf Association surpassed only by the U.S. Womens Open. ... The Womens British Open, also known for sponsorship reasons as the Weetabix Womens British Open, is one of the leading events in womens professional golf, being the only tournament which is classified as a major by both the Ladies European Tour and the LPGA Tour. ... // The Ladies European Tour is a professional golf tour for women which was founded in 1979. ...

Environmental impact

Environmental concerns over the use of land for golf courses have grown over the past 50 years. Specific concerns include the amount of water and chemical pesticides and fertilizers used for maintenance, as well as the destruction of wetlands and other environmentally important areas during construction. It has been suggested that ecologism be merged into this article or section. ... Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... spreading manure, an organic fertiliser Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ...

Wildlife is sometimes seen on golf courses but not encouraged due to damage it causes to the course.
Wildlife is sometimes seen on golf courses but not encouraged due to damage it causes to the course.

These, along with health and cost concerns, have led to significant research into more environmentally sound practices and turf grasses. The modern golf course superintendent is well trained in the uses of these practices and grasses. This has led to reductions in the amount of chemicals and water used on courses. The turf on golf courses is an excellent filter for water and has been used in many communities to cleanse grey water. While many people continue to oppose golf courses for environmental reasons, there are others who feel that they are beneficial for the community and the environment as they provide corridors for migrating animals and sanctuaries for birds and other wildlife. pd photo of deer on golf course. ... pd photo of deer on golf course. ...

A major result of modern equipment is that today's players can hit the ball much further than previously. In a concern for safety, modern golf course architects have had to lengthen and widen their design envelope. This has led to a ten percent increase in the amount of area that is required for golf courses today. At the same time, water restrictions placed by many communities have forced many courses to limit the amount of maintained turf grass. While most modern 18-hole golf courses occupy as much as 60 ha (150 acres) of land, the average course has 30 ha (75 acres) of maintained turf. (Sources include the National Golf Foundation and the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America [GCSAA].)

Golf courses are built on many different types of land, including sandy areas along coasts, abandoned farms, strip mines and quarries, deserts and forests. Many Western countries have instituted significant environmental restrictions on where and how courses can be built [citation needed].

In some parts of the world, attempts to build courses and resorts have led to significant protests along with vandalism and violence by both sides. Although golf is a relatively minor issue compared to other land-ethics questions, it has symbolic importance as it is a sport normally associated with the wealthier Westernized population, and the culture of colonization and globalization of non-native land ethics. Resisting golf tourism and golf's expansion has become an objective of some land-reform movements, especially in the Philippines and Indonesia. Environmental ethics is theory and practice about appropriate concern for, values in, and duties to the natural world. ... El Nido, Philippines Tourism is the act of travel for the purpose of recreation and business, and the provision of services for this act. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ...

In Saudi Arabia, golf courses have been constructed on nothing more than oil-covered sand. However, in some cities such as Dhahran, modern, grass golf courses have been built recently. Dhahran (Arabic الظهران aẓ-Ẓahrān) is a city in Saudi Arabia located in the countrys Eastern Province not far from the Persian Gulf. ...

In Coober Pedy, Australia, there is a famous golf course that consists of nine holes dug into mounds of sand, diesel and oil and not a blade of grass or a tree to be seen. You carry a small piece of astroturf from which you tee. Coober Pedy, population 3,500, is a small town in South Australia, 846 kilometres north of Adelaide on the Stuart Highway. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...

In New Zealand it is not uncommon for rural courses to have greens fenced off and sheep graze the fairways. Many golf courses have been displaced by urban planning practices. Many things that displace golf courses range from neighborhoods to shopping malls. The King of Prussia Mall, one of the largest in the world, located in Pennsylvania, United States For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ...


The word Golf is first mentioned in 1457 in a Scottish statute on forbidden games as Gouf, which may be related to Dutch kolf, "bat, club". A folk etymology also suggests golf refers to "Gentlemen Only Ladies Forbidden". Folk etymology (or popular etymology) is a linguistic term for a category of false etymology which has grown up in popular lore, as opposed to one which arose in scholarly usage. ...

Golf Movies

Happy Gilmore is a 1996 sports comedy film starring Adam Sandler, Carl Weathers, Julie Bowen, Allen Covert, Frances Bay and Christopher McDonald. ... Promotional poster for The Greatest Game Ever Played The Greatest Game Ever Played is a 2005 biographical sports film, directed by Bill Paxton. ... The Legend of Bagger Vance DVD cover The Legend of Bagger Vance is a 1995 book by Steve Pressfield (ISBN 0380817446), transporting the story of The Bhagavad Gita to the world of Georgia in the 1920s. ... Tin Cup is a 1996 romantic comedy starring Kevin Costner and Rene Russo. ... Caddyshack is a 1980 U.S. comedy film directed by Harold Ramis and written by Brian Doyle-Murray, Harold Ramis and Douglas Kenney. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of common golfing terms. ... This list of golfers is sorted alphabetically. ... The table below lists all the players who have won three or more of golfs major championships for men, and is complete through the 2005 Masters. ... This is a list of all the golfers who have won twenty or more official events on the PGA TOUR. Players under 50 years of age are shown in bold. ... The PGA Tour is an organization headquartered in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, USA that operates the USAs main professional golf tours for men. ... // The PGA European Tour, is an organisation which operates the three leading mens professional golf tours in Europe: the elite European Tour, the European Seniors Tour and the developmental Challenge Tour. ... The Ryder Cup is a golf trophy contested biennially in an event officially called the Ryder Cup Matches by teams from Europe and the United States. ... The Golf Channel, sometimes abbreviated as TGC, is an American cable television network with coverage focused on the game of golf. ... Anyone can play the game of golf. ... // Mens professional golf Major championships 6-9 April: The Masters 15-18 June: U.S. Open 20-23 July: The Open Championship 17-20 August: PGA Championship World Golf Championships (individual events) 22-26 February: WGC-Accenture World Matchplay Championship 24-27 August: WGC-Bridgestone Invitational 28 September - 1...

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