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Encyclopedia > Fairtrade labelling

Fairtrade labelling (usually simply Fairtrade or Fair Trade Certified in the United States) is a product certification system designed to allow consumers to identify products (especially agricultural products such as coffee) which meet agreed standards. Overseen by an international umbrella organisation, the Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO), the system involves independent auditing of producers to ensure the agreed standards are met. Companies offering products that meet the Fairtrade standards may apply for licences to use the Fairtrade Certification Mark for those products. Image File history File linksMetadata Fairtradelogofinalversion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fairtradelogofinalversion. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ... Product certification or product qualification is the cornerstone of all bounding and the process of certifying that a certain product has passed performance and/or quality assurance tests or qualification requirements stipulated in regulations such as a building code and nationally accredited test standards, or that it complies with a... In economics, consumers are individuals or households that consume goods and services generated within the economy. ... Coffee Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... For other uses of fair trade, see fair trade. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ...


The FLO Fairtrade certification system covers a growing range of products, including bananas, honey, oranges, cocoa, cotton, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables, juices, nuts and oil seeds, quinoa, rice, spices, sugar, tea and wine. Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ... Species Hybrid origin; see text Banana is the common name used for herbaceous plants in the genus Musa, which because of their size and structure, are often mistaken for trees. ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones. ... RDA percentages are US recommendations for adults Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... Vegetables in a Market Venn diagram representing the relationship between (botanical) fruits and vegetables. ... Juice is a fluid naturally contained in animal or plant tissue. ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut Carya ovata nut anatomy A nut is a seed of a plant. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Magnified crystals of refined sugar Magnification of typical sugar In general use, non-scientists take sugar to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ...


In 2005, Fairtrade labelled sales amounted to approximately €1.1 billion worldwide, a 37 % year-to-year increase. As per December 2005, 508 producer organizations in 58 developing countries were FLO Fairtrade certified.[1] December 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 31 December 2005 (Saturday) 25-year-old Scottish human rights worker Kate Burton and her parents are freed unharmed in the Gaza Strip by the Palestinian gunmen who kidnapped them two days earlier. ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ...

Contents


History

Although many attempts to market Fairtrade products were observed in the 1960s and 1970s, Fairtrade sales only really took off with Fairtrade labelling. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Fairtrade sales prior labelling initiatives were contained to relatively small World shops (also called charity shops), operated by alternative trading organizations (ATOs) such as Oxfam and Traidcraft. Many felt that these World shops were too disconnected from the rhythm and the lifestyle of contemporary developed societies. The inconvenience of going to them to buy only a product or two was too high even for the most militant customers. The only way to increase sale opportunities was to start offering Fairtrade products where consumers normally shop, in the large distribution channels. The problem was to find a way to expand distribution without compromising consumer trust in Fairtrade products and in their origins. Worldshops, world shops or Fair Trade Shops are retail outlets that practice the principles of fair trade. ... An alternate trading organization (ATO) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) which aims to benefit producers, not maximise profits. ... Oxfam International, founded in 1995, is a confederation of 12 independent, not-for-profit, secular, community-based aid and development organizations who work with local partners in over 100 countries worldwide to reduce poverty, suffering, and injustice. ... Traidcraft is a the UKs leading fair trade organisation dedicated to fighting poverty through trade. ... Worldshops, world shops or Fair Trade Shops are retail outlets that practice the principles of fair trade. ...

Early Fairtrade Certifications Marks
Early Fairtrade Certifications Marks

At the initiative of Mexican coffee farmers, the first Fairtrade label, Max Havelaar, was launched in the Netherlands on November 15, 1988 by Nico Roozen, Frans Van Der Hoff and Dutch ecumenical development agency Solidaridad. Image File history File links Oldftlogos2. ... Image File history File links Oldftlogos2. ... Coffee Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nico Roozen is a Dutch economist who, in collaboration with Frans Van Der Hoff and ecumenical development agency Solidaridad, launched Max Havelaar, the first Fairtrade Certification Mark in 1988. ... Frans Van Der Hoff (born in 1939) is a Dutch missionary who, in collaboration with Nico Roozen and ecumenical development agency Solidaridad, launched Max Havelaar, the first Fairtrade label in 1988. ... The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ... An aid agency is an organisation dedicated to distributing aid. ... For other uses of the name Solidaridad or Solidarity, see Solidarity (disambiguation). ...


The independent certification allowed the coffee to be sold outside World shops and in supermarkets and mass-retailers, reaching a larger consumer segment and boosting Fairtrade sales significantly. Fairtrade labelling also allowed consumers and distributors alike to track the origin of the goods to confirm that the products were really benefiting the farmers at the end of the supply chain. Worldshops, world shops or Fair Trade Shops are retail outlets that practice the principles of fair trade. ... Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The concept caught on: in the ensuing years, similar non-profit Fairtrade labelling organizations were set up in other European countries and North America, called “Max Havelaar” (in Belgium, Switzerland, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway and France), “Transfair” (in Germany, Austria, Italy, the United States, Canada and Japan), or carrying a national name: “Fairtrade Mark” in the UK and Ireland, “Rättvisemärkt” in Sweden, and Reilu Kauppan in Finland. Initially, the Max Havelaars and the Transfairs each had their own Fairtrade standards, product committees and monitoring systems. In 1994, a process of convergence among the labelling organizations – or “LIs” (for “Labelling Initiatives”) – started with the establishment of a TransMax working group, culminating in 1997 in the creation of Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International. FLO is an umbrella organization whose mission is to set the Fairtrade standards, support, inspect and certify disadvantaged producers and harmonize the Fairtrade message across the movement. Luxembourg - a small country in west Europe Luxembourg (city) - the capital city of the country Luxembourg (district) - a district in the country Luxembourg, province of Belgium Luxemburg, Iowa - a city in the USA Luxemburg, Wisconsin - a village in the USA Luxembourg Garden, Paris, France Luxemburg Township, Minnesota - a township in... For other uses of fair trade, see fair trade. ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ...


In January 2004, Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International was divided into two different organizations: FLO e.V., which sets Fairtrade standards and provides producer business support, and FLO-CERT, which inspects and certifies producer organizations. The aim of the split was to ensure the impartiality, the independence of the certification process and compliance with ISO 65 standards for certification bodies. January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FLO International e. ... ... ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ...


In 2002, FLO launched a new International Fairtrade Certification Mark. The goals of the launch were to improve the visibility of the Mark on supermarket shelves, facilitate cross border trade and simplify export procedures for both producers and exporters. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ...


The Fairtrade Certification Mark harmonization process is still under way – as of September 2006, all but three Labelling Initiatives (namely Transfair USA, Transfair Canada and Max Havelaar Switzerland) have adopted the new International Fairtrade Certification Mark. Full transition to the new Fairtrade Mark should become reality as it gradually replaces the old certification marks at various speeds in various countries. The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ... September 2006 is the ninth month of 2006 and has begun on a Friday. ... Transfair USA, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, is one of twenty members of Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO), and the only third-party certifier of Fair Trade products in the United States. ... Transfair Canada is a national non-profit certification and public education organization promoting Fair Trade Certified products in Canada to improve the livelihood of developing world farmers and workers. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ...


Fairtrade Standards

Fairtrade labelled products sold in Germany.
Enlarge
Fairtrade labelled products sold in Germany.

Standards are set by the FLO on behalf of a number of national bodies (such as the Fairtrade Foundation in the UK) for each type of product. Typically standards cover labor standards and environmental standards. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1244, 332 KB) Summary Taken from German Wikipedia: Bild:Transfair-produktauswahl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1244, 332 KB) Summary Taken from German Wikipedia: Bild:Transfair-produktauswahl. ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ... The Fairtrade Foundation is a charity which promotes the sale of Fairtrade-labelled products in the United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


For a product to obtain FLO Fairtrade certification, it must meet the following criteria:[2] Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ...

Direct trade
The product is purchased by a Northern trader as directly as possible from the producer (with few or no intermediaries).
Fair price
The product is purchased at a constant and stable price (Fairtrade minimum price). An additional bonus is paid for products that are certified organic.
Long term commitment
When purchasing a product, the trader is also committing to a long term relationship with the producer/seller.
Access to credit
Upon request, producers may have access to credit of up to 60% of the purchase price or to pre-payment.
Democratic and transparent organizations
Fairtrade certified products come from producers that are managed democratically and with the utmost transparency, or from plantations that enable workers to organize and bargain collectively.
Environmental protection
Producers abide by sustainable farming methods that also respect the environment. A large percentage of Fairtrade certified products are also certified organic.
Local community development
In addition to the fairtrade guaranteed minimum price, a social Premium is paid to the producer and is invested in projects meant to improve the local communities’ health, education, environment and economy.

A complete list of criteria for inclusion in the Fairtrade network can be found on the Fairtrade Labelling Organizations' website [1]. Organic certification is an accreditation process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... Democracy is, literally, rule by the people (from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule). The methods by which this rule is exercised, and indeed the composition of the people are central to various definitions of democracy, but the general principle is that of majority rule. ... Democracy is, literally, rule by the people (from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule). The methods by which this rule is exercised, and indeed the composition of the people are central to various definitions of democracy, but the general principle is that of majority rule. ... Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities. ... Organic certification is an accreditation process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. ... Community Development, informally called community building, is a broad term applied to the practices and academic disciplines of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of local communities. ... Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) was established in 1997, and is an association of 20 national labelling initiatives that promote and market the Fairtrade Certification Mark in their countries. ...


Fairtrade standards and procedures are approved by the FLO Standards Committee, an external committee comprising all FLO stakeholders (national members, producers and traders) and external experts. Fairtrade standards are set in accordance to the requirements of the ISEAL Code of Good Practice in standards setting and are in addition the result of an extensive consultation process, involving a variety of stakeholders: producers, traders, external experts, inspectors, certification staff etc. Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ...


Fairtrade Pricing

Cocoa Market Price vs. Fairtrade Minimum Price
Cocoa Market Price vs. Fairtrade Minimum Price

The Fairtrade system is distinct from other ethical trading schemes as it provides producers two major monetary benefits: the Fairtrade Minimum Price and the Fairtrade Premium. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (962x653, 81 KB) Summary Comparative graph showing Cocoa Market Price vs. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (962x653, 81 KB) Summary Comparative graph showing Cocoa Market Price vs. ...

  • The Fairtrade Minimum Price is a guaranteed price that covers the cost of sustainable production. The set Fairtrade Price is always the minimum price paid but rises if market prices are higher.
  • The Fairtrade Premium is a separate payment designated for social and economic development in the producing communities. The producers themselves decide how these funds are to be spent. As part of the Fairtrade criteria, registered producers are accountable to FLO for the use of this money. It is generally used for improvements in health, education or other social facilities, although it may also be used for certain development projects to enable growers to improve productivity or reduce their reliance on single commodities.

It is worth mentioning that the Fairtrade premium and the Fairtrade Minimum price do no always significantly increase the end price paid by consumers for a product. There are other factors to consider when considering the price structure of Fairtrade products: sometimes economies of scale are missing or often the products are of a superior quality due to their organic farming practices etc. Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities. ... A market is, as defined in economics, a social arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to discover information and carry out a voluntary exchange. ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ... ... Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. ...


Fairtrade impact studies

FLO Certified Fairtrade Coffee Producer in Uganda
Enlarge
FLO Certified Fairtrade Coffee Producer in Uganda

Several independent studies have recently measured the impact of FLO Fairtrade certification on disadvantaged farmers and workers. Image File history File linksMetadata 2004-10-Uganda09. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 2004-10-Uganda09. ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ... Flo Robson is an obsesive hairy creature. ...


In 2002, Loraine Ronchi of the Poverty Research Unit at the University of Sussex studied the impact of Fairtrade on the Coocafe cooperative in Costa Rica. Ronchi found that Fair Trade strengthened producer organizations and concluded that "in light of the coffee crisis of the early 1990s, Fair Trade can be said to have accomplished its goal of improving the returns to small producers and positively affecting their quality of life and the health of the organisations that represent them locally, nationally and beyond".[3] The University of Sussex is an English campus university located near the East Sussex village of Falmer, near Brighton and Hove and on the edge of the South Downs. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the very late 1980s and from 2000 and beyond. ...


In 2003, the Fair Trade Research Group at Colorado State University conducted seven case studies of Latin American Fairtrade coffee producers (UCIRI, CEPCO, Majomut, Las Colinas & El Sincuyo La Selva, Tzotzilotic and La Voz) and concluded that Fairtrade has "in a short time greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families"[4] The various case studies most notably found that producers had under Fairtrade greater access to credit and external development funding.[5] The studies also found that Fairtrade certified producers had, compared to conventional coffee producers, greater access to training and enhanced ability to improve the quality of their coffee.[6]. Families of Fairtrade Certified producers were also said to be more stable and children had better access to education than in families growing conventional coffee.[7] Colorado State University Colorado State University is a public land grant institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ...


A case study of Bolivian coffee Fair Trade producers published by Nicolas Eberhart for French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires sans frontières in 2005 concluded that Fairtrade certification has had in the Yungas a positive impact on local coffee prices, thus economically benefiting all coffee producers (Fairtrade certified or not). Fairtrade was also said to have strengthened producer organizations and increased their political influence.[8] The Yungas is an area in the eastern piedmont of the Andes Mountains, primarily in Bolivia. ... Coffee Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ...


Criticism

One of the most divisive issues within recent years has been the launch of Nestlé's first Fairtrade coffee: Partners Blend. Nestlé has been the subject of a consumer boycott campaign for a number of years due to their allegedly unethical business practices (see Nestlé boycott). Many Fairtrade activists saw any type of Nestlé involvement in the Fairtrade sector incompatible with the very principles on which the movement was built. Baby Milk Action, an organization campaigning to raise awareness of the Nestlé boycott, issued a press release criticizing the Fairtrade Foundation's decision to award Partners Blend the Fairtrade Certification Mark.[9] This article is about the company. ... The fair trade movement promotes international agreements to enforce price supports for commodities, particularly those exported from poor countries to the industrialised West. ... Coffee Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... This article is about the company. ... The Nestlé boycott is a boycott launched on July 4, 1977 in the United States against the Swiss based Nestlé corporation. ... This article is about the company. ... The Nestlé boycott is a boycott launched on July 4, 1977 in the United States against the Swiss based Nestlé corporation. ... The Fairtrade Foundation is a charity which promotes the sale of Fairtrade-labelled products in the United Kingdom. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ...


The Fairtrade Foundation justified its position in a press release explaining how Partners Blend has complied with "all the internationally agreed standards for Fairtrade certification". The Foundation further declared that the Fairtrade Mark is given to "individual products and not to companies" and that "this mark is not an endorsement" of Nestlé or any of its other activities.[10] The Fairtrade Foundation is a charity which promotes the sale of Fairtrade-labelled products in the United Kingdom. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ... This article is about the company. ...


See also

For other uses of fair trade, see fair trade. ... The International Fairtrade Certification Mark is an independent certification mark used in over 16 countries. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Ethical consumerism (or Consumarchy) is buying things that are made ethically (This means A set of principles of right conduct. ...

References

  1. ^ BBC News Service. (2006, June 28). Global Fairtrade sales taking off. URL accessed on August 2, 2006.
  2. ^ Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (2006). Standards. URL accessed on August 4, 2006.
  3. ^ Ronchi, L. (2002). The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their Organizations: A Case Study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. University of Sussex. p25-26.
  4. ^ Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p28
  5. ^ Taylor, Pete Leigh (2002). Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks, Colorado State University, p18.
  6. ^ Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p8
  7. ^ Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p10-11
  8. ^ Eberhart, N. (2005). Synthèse de l'étude d'impact du commerce équitable sur les organisations et familles paysannes et leurs territoires dans la filière café des Yungas de Bolivie. Agronomes et Vétérinaires sans frontières, p29.
  9. ^ Baby Milk Action (2005). Press Release 6 October 2005. URL accessed on August 4, 2006.
  10. ^ The Fairtrade Foundation (2005). Press Statement on Launch of Nescafe Partners´ Blend. URL accessed on August 4, 2006.

Further reading

  • Nicholls, A. & Opal, C. (2004). Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption. London: Sage Publications.
  • Redfern A. & Snedker P. (2002) Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement. International Labor Office.

External links

Fair Trade Networks

Fairtrade Labelling Organizations Members:

  • TransFair Austria
  • Max Havelaar Belgium
  • TransFair Canada
  • Max Havelaar France
  • Max Havelaar Denmark
  • TransFair Germany
  • Fairtrade Foundation UK
  • TransFair Italy
  • Fairtrade Mark Ireland
  • TransFair Japan
  • TransFair Minka Luxemburg
  • Stichting Max Havelaar Netherlands
  • Stiftelsen Fairtrade Max Havelaar Norge (Norway)
  • Reilun kaupan edistämisyhdistys ry. (Finland)
  • Föreningen för Rättvisemärkt (Sweden)
  • Max Havelaar Stiftung Schweiz (Switzerland)
  • TransFair USA
  • Fair Trade Association of Australia & New Zealand (Australia site)
  • Fair Trade Association of Australia & New Zealand (New Zealand site)
  • Asociación del Sello de Productos de Comercio Justo (Spain)

Associate Fairtrade Labelling Organizations Member:

  • Comercio Justo México
Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO)
Asociación del Sello de Productos de Comercio Justo Spain • Comercio Justo México • Fair Trade Association of Australia & New Zealand • Fairtrade Austria • Fairtrade Ireland • The Fairtrade Foundation • Max Havelaar Belgium • Max Havelaar France • Max Havelaar Denmark • Max Havelaar Netherlands • Max Havelaar Norway • Max Havelaar Switzerland • Reilun kaupan Finland • Rättvisemärkt Sweden • Transfair Canada • Transfair Germany • Transfair Italy • Transfair Japan • Transfair Luxemburg • Transfair USA

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fairtrade labelling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1733 words)
At the initiative of Mexican coffee farmers, the first Fairtrade label, Max Havelaar, was launched in the Netherlands on November 15, 1988 by Nico Roozen, Frans Van Der Hoff and Dutch ecumenical development agency Solidaridad.
Fairtrade labelling also allowed consumers and distributors alike to track the origin of the goods to confirm that the products were really benefiting the farmers at the end of the supply chain.
Fairtrade standards and procedures are approved by the FLO Standards Committee, an external committee comprising all FLO stakeholders (national members, producers and traders) and external experts.
Fair trade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2838 words)
A solution was found in 1988, when the first Fairtrade label, Max Havelaar, was created under the initiative of Nico Roozen, Frans Van Der Hoff and Dutch ATO Solidaridad.
The labeling initiative also allowed customers and distributors alike to track the origin of the goods to confirm that the products were really benefiting the farmers at the end of the supply chain.
Fairtrade labelling (usually simply Fairtrade or Fair Trade Certified in the US) is a Certification system designed to allow consumers to identify goods which meet agreed standards.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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