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Encyclopedia > Failed state

A failed state is a state whose central government is so weak or ineffective that it has little practical control over much of its territory. The level of control required to avoid being considered a failed state varies considerably amongst authorities.[citation needed] Furthermore, the declaration that a state has "failed" is generally controversial and, when made authoritatively, may carry significant geopolitical consequences.[citation needed] Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (ISBN 0-8050-7912-2) is a book by Noam Chomsky, first published in 2006, in which Chomsky argues that the United States is a “failed state,” and thus a danger to its own people and the world. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Definition

A state could be said to "succeed" if it maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within its borders. When this is broken (e.g., through the dominant presence of warlords, militias, or terrorism), the very existence of the state becomes dubious, and the state becomes a failed state. The difficulty of determining whether a government maintains "a monopoly on the legitimate use of force" (which includes the problems of the definition of "legitimate") means it is not clear precisely when a state can be said to have "failed." This problem of legitimacy can be solved by understanding what Weber intended by it. Weber clearly explains that only the state has the means of production necessary for physical violence (politics as vocation). This means that the state does not require legitimacy for achieving monopoly on the means of violence (de facto) but will need one if it needs to use it (de jure). The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


The term is also used in the sense of a state that has been rendered ineffective (i.e., has nominal military/police control over its territory only in the sense of having no armed opposition groups directly challenging state authority; in short, the "no news is good news" approach) and is not able to enforce its laws uniformly because of high crime rates, extreme political corruption, an extensive informal market, impenetrable bureaucracy, judicial ineffectiveness, military interference in politics, cultural situations in which traditional leaders wield more power than the state over a certain area but do not compete with the state, or a number of other factors. World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... In economics the informal economy is the system of exchange used outside state-controlled or money-based economic activities. ...


Crisis States Research Centre

The Crisis States Research Centre defines a “failed state” as a condition of “state collapse” – e.g. a state that can no longer perform its basic security and development functions and that has no effective control over its territory and borders. A failed state is one that can no longer reproduce the conditions for its own existence. This term is used in very contradictory ways in the policy community (for instance, there is a tendency to label a “poorly performing” state as “failed” – a tendency the Crisis States Research Centre rejects). The opposite of a “failed state” is an “enduring state” and the absolute dividing line between these two conditions is difficult to ascertain at the margins. Even in a failed state, some elements of the state, such as local state organisations, might continue to exist. The Crisis States Research Centre is based within the Development Studies Institute (DESTIN) of the London School of Economics and is funded by a grant from the UK Department for International Development DFID. Following an initial phase of research focusing on the ability of public authorities at local, national and... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


Failed States Index

See also: List of countries by Failed States Index
Failed States according to Foreign Policy, 2005-2007      Alert      Warning      No Information / Dependent Territory      Moderate      Sustainable
Failed States according to Foreign Policy, 2005-2007
     Alert      Warning      No Information / Dependent Territory      Moderate      Sustainable

Since 2005 the United States think-tank, the Fund for Peace and the magazine Foreign Policy, publishes an annual index called the Failed States Index. The list only assesses sovereign states (determined by membership in the United Nations.)[1] Several territories are excluded until their political status and UN membership is ratified in international law. For example: Taiwan, the Palestinian Territories, Northern Cyprus, Kosovo, and Western Sahara are not included in the list - even though some are recognized as sovereign states by some nations. Ranking is based on the total scores of the 12 indicators (see below.) For each indicator, the ratings are placed on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being the lowest intensity (most stable) and 10 being the highest intensity (least stable). The total score is the sum of the 12 indicators and is on a scale of 0-120.[1] This is a list of countries by Failed States Index. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/gif) //  Alert  Warning  Moderate  Sustainable  No Information / Dependent Territory To generate this map from its component parts, I did this: #!/bin/sh echo note: this requires some... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/gif) //  Alert  Warning  Moderate  Sustainable  No Information / Dependent Territory To generate this map from its component parts, I did this: #!/bin/sh echo note: this requires some... This article is about the institution. ... The Fund for Peace is an independent Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit research and educational organization. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


Indicators of State Vulnerability

The index's ranks are based on twelve indicators of state vulnerability - four social, two economic and six political.[2] The indicators are not designed to forecast when states may experience violence or collapse. Instead, they are meant to measure a state's vulnerability to collapse or conflict. All countries in the red, orange, or yellow categories display some features that make parts of their societies and institutions vulnerable to failure. Some in the yellow zone may be failing at a faster rate than those in the more dangerous orange or red zones, and therefore could experience violence sooner. Conversely, some in the red zone, though critical, may exhibit some positive signs of recovery or be deteriorating slowly, giving them time to adopt mitigating strategies.[1]


Social Indicators

1. Demographic pressures: including the pressures deriving from high population density relative to food supply and other life-sustaining resources. The pressure from a population's settlement patterns and physical settings, including border disputes, ownership or occupancy of land, access to transportation outlets, control of religious or historical sites, and proximity to environmental hazards.[3]


2. Massive movement of refugees and internally displaced peoples: forced uprooting of large communities as a result of random or targeted violence and/or repression, causing food shortages, disease, lack of clean water, land competition, and turmoil that can spiral into larger humanitarian and security problems, both within and between countries.[4]


3. Legacy of vengeance-seeking group grievance: based on recent or past injustices, which could date back centuries. Including atrocities committed with impunity against communal groups and/or specific groups singled out by state authorities, or by dominant groups, for persecution or repression. Institutionalized political exclusion. Public scapegoating of groups believed to have acquired wealth, status or power as evidenced in the emergence of "hate" radio, pamphleteering and stereotypical or nationalistic political rhetoric.[5] The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ...


4. Chronic and sustained human flight: both the "brain drain" of professionals, intellectuals and political dissidents and voluntary emigration of "the middle class." Growth of exile/expat communities are also used as part of this indicator.[6] This article is about the emigration term. ... For the band, see Expatriate (band). ...


Economic Indicators

5. Uneven economic development along group lines: determined by group-based inequality, or perceived inequality, in education, jobs, and economic status. Also measured by group-based poverty levels, infant mortality rates, education levels.[7]


6. Sharp and/or severe economic decline: measured by a progressive economic decline of the society as a whole (using: per capita income, GNP, debt, child mortality rates, poverty levels, business failures.) A sudden drop in commodity prices, trade revenue, foreign investment or debt payments. Collapse or devaluation of the national currency and a growth of hidden economies, including the drug trade, smuggling, and capital flight. Failure of the state to pay salaries of government employees and armed forces or to meet other financial obligations to its citizens, such as pension payments.[8]


Political Indicators

7. Criminalization and/or delegitimisation of the state: endemic corruption or profiteering by ruling elites and resistance to transparency, accountability and political representation. Includes any widespread loss of popular confidence in state institutions and processes.[9]


8. Progressive deterioration of public services: a disappearance of basic state functions that serve the people, including failure to protect citizens from terrorism and violence and to provide essential services, such as health, education, sanitation, public transportation. Also using the state apparatus for agencies that serve the ruling elites, such as the security forces, presidential staff, central bank, diplomatic service, customs and collection agencies.[10]


9. Widespread violation of human rights: an emergence of authoritarian, dictatorial or military rule in which constitutional and democratic institutions and processes are suspended or manipulated. Outbreaks of politically inspired (as opposed to criminal) violence against innocent civilians. A rising number of political prisoners or dissidents who are denied due process consistent with international norms and practices. Any widespread abuse of legal, political and social rights, including those of individuals, groups or cultural institutions (e.g., harassment of the press, politicization of the judiciary, internal use of military for political ends, public repression of political opponents, religious or cultural persecution.)[11]


10. Security apparatus as ‘state within a state’: an emergence of elite or praetorian guards that operate with impunity. Emergence of state-sponsored or state-supported private militias that terrorize political opponents, suspected "enemies," or civilians seen to be sympathetic to the opposition. An "army within an army" that serves the interests of the dominant military or political clique. Emergence of rival militias, guerilla forces or private armies in an armed struggle or protracted violent campaigns against state security forces.[12] The Praetorian Guard (sometimes Prætorian Guard) (in Latin: praetoriani) comprised a special force of bodyguards used by Roman emperors. ...


11. Rise of factionalised elites: a fragmentation of ruling elites and state institutions along group lines. Any use of nationalistic political rhetoric by ruling elites, often in terms of communal irredentism or of communal solidarity (e.g., "ethnic cleansing" or "defending the faith.")[13]


12. Intervention of other states or external factors: military or Para-military engagement in the internal affairs of the state at risk by outside armies, states, identity groups or entities that affect the internal balance of power or resolution of the conflict. Intervention by donors, especially if there is a tendency towards over-dependence on foreign aid or peacekeeping missions.[14]


Failed States List

2007

Failed States according to the "Failed States Index 2007" of Foreign Policy      Alert      Warning      No Information / Dependent Territory      Moderate      Sustainable
Failed States according to the "Failed States Index 2007" of Foreign Policy
     Alert      Warning      No Information / Dependent Territory      Moderate      Sustainable

177 states were included in the list, of which 32 were classified as "alert", 97 as "warning", 33 as "moderate", 15 as "sustainable". The worst 20 states are shown below. For the entire ranking see List of countries by Failed States Index. Change in rank from 2006 is shown in parentheses.[15] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Alert  Warning  Moderate  Sustainable  No Information / Dependent Territory File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Alert  Warning  Moderate  Sustainable  No Information / Dependent Territory File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This is a list of countries by Failed States Index. ...

1. Flag of Sudan Sudan (0)
2. Flag of Iraq Iraq (+2)
3. Flag of Somalia Somalia (+4)
4. Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (+1)
5. Flag of Chad Chad (+1)
6. Flag of Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire (-3)
7. Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo (-5)
Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ...

8. Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan (+2)
9. Flag of Guinea Guinea (+2)
10. Flag of the Central African Republic Central African Republic (+3)
11. Flag of Haiti Haiti (-3)
12. Flag of North Korea North Korea (+1)
13. Flag of Burma Burma/Myanmar (+4)
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, (Spoken in Myanmars Autonomous States. ...

14. Flag of Uganda Uganda (+6)[16]
15. Flag of Nigeria Nigeria (+5)[17]
16. Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia (+8)[18]
17. Flag of Burundi Burundi (-4)
18. Flag of East Timor Timor-Leste (N/A)[19]
Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Timor. ... Motto: Unidade, Acção, Progresso (Portuguese: Unity, Action, Progress) Anthem: Pátria Capital (and largest city) Dili Official languages Tetum and Portuguese1 Demonym East Timorese Government Parliamentary republic  -  President José Ramos-Horta  -  Acting President Fernando de Araújo  -  Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão Independence from Portugal²   -  Declared November 28, 1975...

2006

Failed States according to the "Failed States Index 2006" of Foreign Policy      Alert      Warning      No Information / Dependent Territory      Moderate      Sustainable
Failed States according to the "Failed States Index 2006" of Foreign Policy
     Alert      Warning      No Information / Dependent Territory      Moderate      Sustainable

146 states were included in the 2006 list, of which 28 were classified as "alert", 78 as "warning", 27 as "moderate", 13 as "sustainable". The worst 20 states are shown below. Change in rank from 2005 is shown in parentheses.[20] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Alert  Warning  Moderate  Sustainable  No Information / Dependent Territory File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Alert  Warning  Moderate  Sustainable  No Information / Dependent Territory File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

1. Flag of Sudan Sudan (+2)
2. Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo (0)
3. Flag of Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire (-2)
4. Flag of Iraq Iraq (0)
5. Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (+10)
6. Flag of Chad Chad (+1)
7. Flag of Somalia Somalia (-2)
Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ...

8. Flag of Haiti Haiti (+2)
9. Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan (+1)
10. Flag of Guinea Guinea (+5)
11. Flag of Liberia Liberia (-3)
12. Flag of the Central African Republic Central African Republic (+7)
13. Flag of North Korea North Korea (-1)
Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ...

14. Flag of Burundi Burundi (+3)
15. Flag of Yemen Yemen (-8)
16. Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (-11)
17. Flag of Burma Burma/Myanmar (+5)[21]
18. Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh (-2)
19. Flag of Nepal Nepal (+15)[22]
Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, (Spoken in Myanmars Autonomous States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ...

2005

Failed States according to the "Failed States Index 2005" of Foreign Policy      Alert      Warning      Moderate / Sustainable / No Information / Dependent Territory
Failed States according to the "Failed States Index 2005" of Foreign Policy
     Alert      Warning      Moderate / Sustainable / No Information / Dependent Territory

2005 was the first year that the Fund for Peace published the list. 76 states were analyzed, of which 33 were classified as "alert" and 43 as "warning" (ratings better than "warning" were not done in this year). The worst 20 are shown below. [23] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Alert  Warning  Moderate / Sustainable / No Information / Dependent Territory File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png)  Alert  Warning  Moderate / Sustainable / No Information / Dependent Territory File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

1. Flag of Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire
2. Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
3. Flag of Sudan Sudan
4. Flag of Iraq Iraq
5. Flag of Somalia Somalia
6. Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone
7. Flag of Chad Chad
Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ...

8. Flag of Yemen Yemen
9. Flag of Liberia Liberia
10. Flag of Haiti Haiti
11. Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan
12. Flag of Rwanda Rwanda
13. Flag of North Korea North Korea
14. Flag of Colombia Colombia
Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ...

15. Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
16. Flag of Guinea Guinea
17. Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh
18. Flag of Burundi Burundi
19. Flag of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
20. Flag of the Central African Republic Central African Republic
Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ...

See also

This is a list of countries by Failed States Index. ... Rogue state is a term applied by some international theorists to states considered threatening to the worlds peace. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ... A crisis state is a state under acute stress, where reigning institutions face serious contestation and are potentially unable to manage conflict and shocks. ... A fragile state is a state significantly susceptible to crisis in one or more of its sub-systems. ... The Crisis States Research Centre is based within the Development Studies Institute (DESTIN) of the London School of Economics and is funded by a grant from the UK Department for International Development DFID. Following an initial phase of research focusing on the ability of public authorities at local, national and...

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