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Encyclopedia > Factor XI

Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecent is one of the Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. Like any catalyst, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction, thus allowing the reaction... enzymes ( EC numbers (Enzyme Commission numbers) are a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme. Every enzyme code consists of the letters EC followed by four numbers... EC 3.4.21.27  (http://www.expasy.org/cgi-bin/nicezyme.pl?3.4.21.27)) of the Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. This article is about a specific medical usage of the term with reference to human bloods mechanisms for forming scabs over wounds. The coagulation of human blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots... coagulation cascade. Like many other coagulation factors, it is a In biochemistry, a serine proteases or serine endopeptidases (newer name) are a class of peptidases which are characterised by the presence of a serine residue in the active center of the enzyme. Serine proteases participate in a wide range of functions in the body, including blood clotting, inflammation as well... serine protease.

Contents

Genetics

The This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). Introns are regions often found in eukaryote genes which are removed in the splicing process: only the exons encode the protein. This diagram labels a region of only 40... gene for factor XI is located on the fourth This article is about the biological chromosome. For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see Chromosome (genetic algorithm). Figure 1: Chromosome. (1) Chromatid. One of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere. The point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3... chromosome (4q35).


Physiology

Factor XI is produced by the The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body including detoxification, glycogen storage and plasma protein synthesis. It also produces bile which is important for digestion. Medical terms related to the liver often start... liver and circulates in its inactive form. It is activated into factor XIa by The Hageman factor, is a plasma protein now usually known as factor XII. It is part of the coagulation cascade and activates factor XI and prekallikrein. It is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.38) of the serine protease (or serine endopeptidase) class. Hageman factor deficiency is a rare hereditary... factor XII, and is therefore a member of the "contact pathway" (with includes High-molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), also known as the Williams-Fitzgerald-Flaujeac factor or the Fitzgerald factor is a protein from the blood coagulation system as well as the kinin-kallikrein system. Nomenclature High-molecular weight kininogen is one of the kininogens, a class of proteins. As with many other... HMWK, prekallikrein, The Hageman factor, is a plasma protein now usually known as factor XII. It is part of the coagulation cascade and activates factor XI and prekallikrein. It is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.38) of the serine protease (or serine endopeptidase) class. Hageman factor deficiency is a rare hereditary... factor XII, factor XI and Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3.4.21.22) of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1. Deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia B. Physiology Factor IX is inactive unless activated by factor XIa (of the contact... factor IX).


Factor XIa activates factor IX by selectively cleaving Categories: Amino acids | Biochemistry stubs ... arg- Chemical structure Alanine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids. It is hydrophobic, with a methyl group side chain, and is the second-smallest of the 20 after glycine. Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and was first isolated in 1879. L-Alanine is created in... ala and Categories: Amino acids | Biochemistry stubs ... arg- Valine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth, and is coded for in DNA. Nutritionally, valine is also an essential amino acid. In Sickle Cell Anaemia, it subsitutes for the hydrophilic glutamic acid amino acid in haemoglobin, and because it is hydrophobic, the haemoglobin does... val Diagram showing the π-bonded amino acids and the point of rotation A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). This is a dehydration synthesis... peptide bonds. Factor IXa, in turn, activates Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3.4.21.6) of the coagulation cascade. It is a serine endopeptidase (protease group S1). Physiology Factor X is synthetised in the liver and requires vitamin K for its synthesis. Factor X... factor X.


Inhibitors of factor XIa include protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI, a member of the Serine protease inhibitors or serpins (short for serine protease inhibitor) are a group of proteins that inhibit peptidases (old name: proteases). Although initially considered a class of protease inhibitors (agents that block the action of protein-degrading enzymes), it was discovered later that it has members that do not inhibit... serine protease inhibitor/serpin class of proteins), which is independent of protein Z (its action on factor X, however, is protein Z-dependent, hence its name).


Role in disease

Deficiency of factor XI causes the rare A mild form of hemophilia that mainly occurs in Jews of Ashkenazi descent. It is due to deficiency of coagulation factor XI. Treatment is usually not necessary, except in relation to operations. Categories: Stub | Hematology ... hemophilia C; this mainly occurs in This article is about the Ashkenazi Jews. For the Russian pianist, see Vladimir Ashkenazy. Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called... Ashkenazi The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews, although it has been described in other populations. It is an In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). Every person has two copies of every gene, one from mother and one from... autosomal recessive disorder. There is little spontaneous bleeding, but surgical procedures may cause excessive blood loss, and prophylaxis is required.


Low levels of factor XI also occur in many other disease states, including Noonan Syndrome (NS) is a relatively common congenital genetic condition which affects both males and females. The principal features include congenital heart malformation, short stature, learning problems, indentation of the chest, impaired blood cloting, and a characteristic configuration of facial features. NS is one of the most common conditions associated... Noonan syndrome.


High levels of factor XI have been implicated in Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. Thromboembolism is a general term describing both thrombosis and its main complication: dislodgement of a clot and embolisation. Causes Classically, thrombosis is caused by abnormalities in one or... thrombosis, although it is uncertain what determines these levels and how serious the procoagulant state is.


External links

  • The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. It is available as a book titled Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which is currently in its 12th... OMIM 264900  (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=264900)


The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. Functions Following are some basic functions of the human circulatory system: Delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. Collection of metabolic wastes and delivery to the excretory... Cardiovascular system - Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells ( red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). Medical terms related to blood often begin in hemo- or... Blood
Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. Red blood cells are also known as RBCs or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for red and kytos for... Red blood cells - White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. They help to defend the body against infectious disease and foreign materials as part of the immune system. There are normally between 4x109 and... White blood cells - A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. Platelets or thrombocytes are the blood cell fragments that are involved in the cellular mechanisms that lead to the formation of blood clots. Low levels or dysfunction predisposes for bleeding, while high levels - although usually asymptomatic - may increase the risk of thrombosis... Platelets - Blood plasma is a component of blood. It is the liquid in which blood cells are suspended. Blood plasma contains proteins, nutrients, metabolic end products, hormones, and inorganic electrolytes. Serum is the same as blood plasma except that clotting factors (such as fibrin) have been removed. Plasma resembles whey in... Blood plasma
White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. They help to defend the body against infectious disease and foreign materials as part of the immune system. There are normally between 4x109 and... White blood cells
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells, characterised by the fact that all types have differently staining granules in their cytoplasm on light microscopy. They are also being referred to as polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMN or PML), because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into... Granulocytes ( Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. Role in blood Neutrophil granulocytes have an average volume of 330 femtoliters (fl) and a diameter of 12-15 micrometers (┬Ám) in peripheral blood smears. They are the most... Neutrophil granulocytes, Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. These cells, transparent in vivo, appear brick-red when stained by the Romanowsky method. The red colour is visible as small granules within the cell. These granules contain histamine and other chemicals that are... Eosinophil granulocytes, Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Biology stubs | Blood and immune system cells ... Basophil granulocytes) - A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. There are two broad categories of lymphocytes, namely T cells and B cells. Lymphocytes play an important and integral part of the bodys defenses. T-cells are responsible for cell mediated immunity... Lymphocytes - A monocyte is a white blood cell, part of the human bodys immune system. It is one of the 5 major types of white blood cell, based on the appearance of white blood cells, in stained smears, as viewed under a light microscope. Monocytes evolve from the bone marrow... Monocytes
Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. This article is about a specific medical usage of the term with reference to human bloods mechanisms for forming scabs over wounds. The coagulation of human blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots... Coagulation
Coagulation factors: - Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. It is a fibrillar protein that is polymerised to form a mesh that forms a haemostatic plug or clot (in conjunction with platelets) over a wound site. Fibrin is made from its zymogen fibrinogen, a soluble plasma glycoprotein that is... Fibrin (I) - Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. It is in fact an enzyme of the serine protease type (EC 3.4.21.5), and therefore acts by cleaving proteins at certain locations. Its main action is to turn fibrinogen into fibrin... Thrombin (II) - Factor V is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor. In contrast to most other coagulation factors, it is not enzymatically active but functions as a cofactor. Deficiency leads to predisposition for hemorrhage, while some mutations (most notably factor V Leiden) predispose for... FV - Factor VII (old name proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. It is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.21) of the serine protease class. Physiology The main role of factor VII (FVII) is to initiate the process of coagulation in conjunction with tissue factor (TF... FVII - Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. The lack of normal FVIII causes Hemophilia A, an inherited bleeding disorder. Genetics The gene for Factor VIII is located on the X chromosome (Xq28). Physiology FVIII is a glycoprotein synthesized and released into the bloodstream by the liver. In the circulating... FVIII - Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3.4.21.22) of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1. Deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia B. Physiology Factor IX is inactive unless activated by factor XIa (of the contact... FIX - Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3.4.21.6) of the coagulation cascade. It is a serine endopeptidase (protease group S1). Physiology Factor X is synthetised in the liver and requires vitamin K for its synthesis. Factor X... FX - FXI - The Hageman factor, is a plasma protein now usually known as factor XII. It is part of the coagulation cascade and activates factor XI and prekallikrein. It is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.38) of the serine protease (or serine endopeptidase) class. Hageman factor deficiency is a rare hereditary... FXII - Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is an enzyme (EC 2.3.2.13) of the blood coagulation system that crosslinks fibrin. When thrombin has converted fibrinogen to fibrin, the latter forms a proteinaceous network in which every E-unit is crosslinked to only one D-unit. Factor XIII is... FXIII - High-molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), also known as the Williams-Fitzgerald-Flaujeac factor or the Fitzgerald factor is a protein from the blood coagulation system as well as the kinin-kallikrein system. Nomenclature High-molecular weight kininogen is one of the kininogens, a class of proteins. As with many other... HMWK - Von Willebrand factor (vWF, also called Factor VIII-related antigen) is a blood protein of the coagulation system. It is defective in von Willebrand disease and is involved in a large number of other diseases, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Heydes syndrome, and possibly hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Biochemistry Synthesis vWF... vWF
Inhibitors: Antithrombin is a small molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system. Its affinity for these molecules (i.e. its effectivity) is enhanced by heparin. Function Antithrombin is a serpin (serine protease inhibitor) that inactivates a number of enzymes from the coagulation system, namely Factor X, Factor IX and... Antithrombin - Protein C is a major physiological anticoagulant. It is a vitamin K-dependant serine protease enzyme (EC 3.4.21.69) that is activated by thrombin into activated protein C (APC). The activated form (with protein S as a cofactor) degrades Factor Va and Factor VIIIa, which are themselves cofactors... Protein C - Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver and it functions as a cofactor to Protein C in the inactivation of Factors Va and VIIIa. In the circulation, Protein S exists in two forms: a free form and a complex form bound to complement protein... Protein S - Protein Z - ZPI - TFPI
Fibrinolysis is the process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down. Its main enzyme, plasmin, cuts the fibrin mesh at various places, leading to the production of circulating fragments that are cleared by other proteinases or by the kidney and liver. Physiology Plasmin is produced in... Fibrinolysis: Plasmin is an important degrading enzyme (EC 3.4.21.7) of many proteins of blood plasma but specifically of fibrin clots. This process is termed fibrinolysis. It is a serine protease that is released as plasminogen into the circulation and activated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), thrombin, fibrin and... Plasmin - In blood coagulation, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.68) that activates plasminogen, leading to fibrinolysis. Recombinant tPA is used in diseases which feature blood clots, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To be effective, tPA must be administered within the first three hours of... tPA/uPA - PAI-1/2 - Alpha 2-antiplasmin (or α2-antiplasmin or plasmin inhibitor) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) responsible for inactivating plasmin, an important enzyme that participates in fibrinolysis and degradation of various other proteins. The gene for A2AP is located on the short arm of the 17th chromosome (17pter-p12). Role... α2-AP

  Results from FactBites:
 
Factor XI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (381 words)
Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecent is one of the enzymes of the coagulation cascade.
Factor XI (FXI) is produced by the liver and circulates as a homo-dimer in its inactive form.
Deficiency of factor XI causes the rare Haemophilia C; this mainly occurs in Ashkenazi Jews and is believed to affect approximately 8% of that population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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