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Encyclopedia > Factor X

Factor X, also known by the An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. One of the first cases was in second millennium BC, when the Assyrians named each year after a high official (limmu). Also, the eponym archon was the highest magistrate in Athens... eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. Like any catalyst, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction, thus allowing the reaction... enzyme ( EC numbers (Enzyme Commission numbers) are a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme. Every enzyme code consists of the letters EC followed by four numbers... EC  (http://us.expasy.org/cgi-bin/nicezyme.pl? of the Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. This article is about a specific medical usage of the term with reference to human bloods mechanisms for forming scabs over wounds. The coagulation of human blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots... coagulation cascade. It is a In biochemistry, a serine proteases or serine endopeptidases (newer name) are a class of peptidases which are characterised by the presence of a serine residue in the active center of the enzyme. Serine proteases participate in a wide range of functions in the body, including blood clotting, inflammation as well... serine endopeptidase (protease group S1).



Factor X is synthetised in the The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body including detoxification, glycogen storage and plasma protein synthesis. It also produces bile which is important for digestion. Medical terms related to the liver often start... liver and requires This article describes the biomolecule known as Vitamin K. For the unrelated drug sometimes referred to in slang as Vitamin K, see Ketamine. Vitamin K is a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives. It is a human vitamin, lipophilic (i.e. soluble in lipids) and therefore hydrophobic (i.e. insoluble... vitamin K for its synthesis.

Factor X is activated into factor Xa by both Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1. Deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia B. Physiology Factor IX is inactive unless activated by factor XIa (of the contact... factor IX (in the presence of Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. The lack of normal FVIII causes Hemophilia A, an inherited bleeding disorder. Genetics The gene for Factor VIII is located on the X chromosome (Xq28). Physiology FVIII is a glycoprotein synthesized and released into the bloodstream by the liver. In the circulating... factor VIII) and Factor VII (old name proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. It is an enzyme (EC of the serine protease class. Physiology The main role of factor VII (FVII) is to initiate the process of coagulation in conjunction with tissue factor (TF... factor VII. It is therefore the first member of the final common pathway or thrombin pathway.

It acts by cleaving Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. It is in fact an enzyme of the serine protease type (EC, and therefore acts by cleaving proteins at certain locations. Its main action is to turn fibrinogen into fibrin... prothrombin in two places (an Categories: Amino acids | Biochemistry stubs ... arg- Threonine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. Nutritionally, in humans, threonine is also an essential amino acid. Threonine contains two chiral centers, so there are four possible stereoisomers of threonine. It means that there are two possible diastereomers of L-threonine. However, name L... thr and then an Categories: Amino acids | Biochemistry stubs ... arg- Isoleucine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids, and coded for in DNA. Its chemical composition is identical to that of leucine, but the arrangement of its atoms is slightly different resulting in different properties. Nutritionally, in humans, isoleucine is an essential amino acid. Isoleucine has two... ile bond), which yields the active Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. It is in fact an enzyme of the serine protease type (EC, and therefore acts by cleaving proteins at certain locations. Its main action is to turn fibrinogen into fibrin... thrombin. This process requires Factor V is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor. In contrast to most other coagulation factors, it is not enzymatically active but functions as a cofactor. Deficiency leads to predisposition for hemorrhage, while some mutations (most notably factor V Leiden) predispose for... factor V as a cofactor.

Factor Xa is inactived by protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI), a Serine protease inhibitors or serpins (short for serine protease inhibitor) are a group of proteins that inhibit peptidases (old name: proteases). Although initially considered a class of protease inhibitors (agents that block the action of protein-degrading enzymes), it was discovered later that it has members that do not inhibit... serine protease inhibitor (serpin). The affinity of this protein for factor Xa is increased 1000-fold by the presence of protein Z, while it does not require protein Z for inactivation of factor XI. Defects in protein Z lead to increased factor Xa activity and a propensity for thrombosis.


The human factor X This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). Introns are regions often found in eukaryote genes which are removed in the splicing process: only the exons encode the protein. This diagram labels a region of only 40... gene is located on the thirteenth This article is about the biological chromosome. For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see Chromosome (genetic algorithm). Figure 1: Chromosome. (1) Chromatid. One of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere. The point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3... chromosome (13q34).

Role in disease

Inborn deficiency of factor X is very uncommon (1:500,000), and may present with Nosebleed as a result of fracture through a rugby impact. A nosebleed, medically known as epistaxis, is a relatively common affliction wherein there is hemorrhage (bleeding) from the nose, usually noticed when it drains out through the nostrils. There are two types: anterior (the most common), and posterior (less common... epistaxis (nosebleeds), hemarthrosis (bleeding into joints) and gastrointestinal blood loss. Apart from congenital deficiency, low factor X levels may occur occasionally in a number of disease states.

Deficiency of vitamin K or antagonism by Warfarin (also known under the brand name Coumadin®) is an anticoagulant medication that can be administered orally. It is used for the prophylaxis of thrombosis and embolism in many disorders. Its activity has to be monitored by frequent blood testing for the international normalized ratio (INR). In addition to its... warfarin (or similar medication) leads to the production of an inactive factor X. In warfarin therapy, this is desireable to prevent Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. Thromboembolism is a general term describing both thrombosis and its main complication: dislodgement of a clot and embolisation. Causes Classically, thrombosis is caused by abnormalities in one or... thrombosis.

Therapeutic use

Factor X is not commerically available as a concentrate, but is part of fresh frozen plasma and prothrombin complex.


American and British scientists described deficiency of factor X independently in 1953 and 1956, respectively. As with some other coagulation factors, the factor was initially named after these patients, a Mr Rufus Stuart and a Miss Audrey Prower.

External links

  • The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. It is available as a book titled Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which is currently in its 12th... OMIM 227600  (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227600)
  • Factor X (http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3495.htm) (Emedicine)
  • Factor X deficiency (http://www.hemophilia.ca/en/2.3.6.php)



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