FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
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Generally, a fact is defined as something that is the case, something that actually exists, or something that can be verified according to an established standard of evaluation.[1][2] There is a range of other uses, depending on the context. Often a fact will be claimed in argument under the implied authority of a specific pedagogy, such as scientific facts or historical facts. Dispute may arise in defining the standard upon which the authority of the fact rests. Rhetorical use of the term often does not disclose from where the authority originates. Federation Against Copyright Theft (FACT) advertisement on a Hackney carriage The Federation Against Copyright Theft (FACT) is a UK-based body designed to protect the film and broadcasting industry from counterfeiting. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Look up argument in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... In metaphysics, particulars are, one might say, identified by what they are not: they are not abstract, not multiply instantiated. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement over which parties are actively arguing. ... For other uses, see Definition (disambiguation). ... The word standard has several meanings: Originally, standard referred to a conspicuous object used as a rallying point in battle. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ...


Etymology and usage

The word fact derives from the Latin Factum, and was first used in English with the same meaning: "a thing done or performed", a use that is now obsolete.[3] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

The common usage of, "something that has really occurred or is the case", dates from the middle of the sixteenth century.[4] Fact is also synonymous with truth or reality, as distinguishable from conclusions or opinions. This use is found for instance in the phrase Matter of fact,[5] and in "... not history, nor fact, but imagination."

Fact also indicates a matter under discussion deemed to be true or correct, such as to emphasize a point or prove a disputed issue; (e.g., "... the fact of the matter is ...").[6][7]

Alternatively, "fact" may also indicate an allegation or stipulation of something that may or may not be a "true fact",[8] (e.g., "the author's facts are not trustworthy"). This alternate usage, although contested by some, has a long history in standard English.[9]

Fact may also indicate findings derived through a process of evaluation, including review of testimony, direct observation, or otherwise; as distinguishable from matters of inference or speculation.[10] This use is reflected in the terms "fact-find" and "fact-finder" (e.g., "set up a fact-finding commission").[11]

Fact in philosophy

In philosophy, the concept fact is considered in epistemology and ontology. Questions of objectivity and truth are closely associated with questions of fact. A "fact" can be defined as something which is the case, that is, the state of affairs reported by a true proposition.[12][13] For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... State of affairs has some technical usages in philosophy, as well as being a phrase in everyday speech in English. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ...

Facts may be understood as that which makes a true sentence true. For example, the statement "Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system" is made true by the fact that Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. Facts may also be understood as those things to which a true sentence refers. The statement "Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system" is about the fact that Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system.[14]

Correspondence and the slingshot argument

Some versions of the correspondence theory of truth hold that what makes a sentence true is that it corresponds to a fact.[15] This theory presupposes the existence of an objective world. The correspondence theory of truth states that something (for example, a proposition or statement or sentence) is rendered true by the existence of a fact with corresponding elements and a similar structure. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ...

The Slingshot argument claims to show that all true statements stand for the same thing - the truth value true. If this argument holds, and facts are taken to be what true statements stand for, then we reach the counter-intuitive conclusion that there is only one fact - "the truth".[16] In philosophical logic, a slingshot argument is an argument that purports to show that all true sentences stand for the same thing (e. ...

Compound facts

Any non-trivial true statement about reality is necessarily an abstraction composed of a complex of objects and properties or relations.[17] For example, the fact described by the true statement "Paris is the capital city of France" implies that there is such a place as Paris, that there is such a place as France, that there are such things as capital cities, as well as that France has a government, that the government of France has the power to define its capital city, and that the French government has chosen Paris to be the capital, that there is such a thing as a "place" or a "government", etc.. The verifiable accuracy of all of these assertions, if facts themselves, may coincide to create the fact that Paris is the capital of France. This article is about the concept of abstraction in general. ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... The word property, in philosophy, mathematics, and logic, refers to an attribute of an object; thus a red object is said to have the property of redness. ... Logic of relatives, short for logic of relative terms, is a term used to cover the study of relations in their logical, philosophical, or semiotic aspects, as distinguished from, though closely coordinated with, their more properly formal, mathematical, or objective aspects. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ...

Difficulties arise, however, in attempting to identify the constituent parts of negative, modal, disjunctive, or moral facts.[18] Negation (i. ... In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ... Logical disjunction (usual symbol or) is a logical operator that results in true if either of the operands is true. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ...

The fact-value distinction

Main article: fact-value distinction

Moral philosophers since David Hume have debated whether values are objective, and thus factual. In A Treatise of Human Nature Hume pointed out that there is no obvious way for a series of statements about what ought to be the case to be derived from a series of statements of what is the case. Those who insist that there is a logical gulf between facts and values, such that it is fallacious to attempt to derive values from facts, include G. E. Moore, who called attempting to do so the Naturalistic fallacy. The == [[{| class=wikitable |- fact-value distinction |}]] == is a concept used to distinguish between arguments which can be claimed through reason alone, and those where rationality is limited to describing a collective opinion. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosopher. ... It has been suggested that Moral realism be merged into this article or section. ... A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1739–1740. ... The == [[{| class=wikitable |- fact-value distinction |}]] == is a concept used to distinguish between arguments which can be claimed through reason alone, and those where rationality is limited to describing a collective opinion. ... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... George Edward Moore The naturalistic fallacy is often claimed to be a formal fallacy. ...

The factual-counterfactual distinction

Factuality — what has occurred — can also be contrasted with counterfactuality — what might have occurred, but did not. A counterfactual conditional or subjunctive conditional is a conditional (or "if-then") statement indicating what would be the case if events had been other than they actually are. For example, "If Alexander had lived, his empire would have been greater than Rome[citation needed]". This is to be contrasted with an indicative conditional, which indicates what is (in fact) the case if its antecedent is (in fact) true — for example, "if you drink this, it will make you well[citation needed]". A counterfactual conditional (sometimes called a subjunctive conditional) is a logical conditional statement whose antecedent is (ordinarily) taken to be contrary to fact by those who utter it. ... A counterfactual conditional (sometimes called a subjunctive conditional) is a logical conditional statement whose antecedent is (ordinarily) taken to be contrary to fact by those who utter it. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... In grammar, conditional sentences are sentences discussing factual implications or hypothetical situations and their consequences. ... The indicative conditional is the logical operation given by statements of the form If A then B in ordinary English (or similar natural languages). ...

Such sentences are important to Modal logic, especially since the development of Possible world semantics. In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ... In philosophy and logic, the concept of possible worlds is used to express modal claims. ...

Fact in science

Further information: scientific method and philosophy of science

Just as in philosophy, the scientific concept of fact is central to fundamental questions regarding the nature, methods, scope and validity of scientific reasoning. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ...

In the most basic sense, a scientific fact is an objective and verifiable observation; in contrast with a hypothesis or theory, which is intended to explain or interpret facts.[19] In science, the ideal of objectivity is an essential aspect of the scientific method, and is generally considered by the scientific community to come about as a result of strict observance of the scientific method, including the scientists willingness to submit their methods and results to an open debate by... One of Wikipedias rules to consider. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ...

Various scholars have offered significant refinements to this basic formulation, some of which are detailed below. Also, rigorous scientific use of the term "fact" is careful to distinguish: 1) states of affairs in the external world; from 2) assertions of fact that may be considered relevant in scientific analysis. The term is used in both senses in the philosophy of science.[20]

Scholarly inquiry regarding scientific fact

Scholars and clinical researchers in both the social and natural sciences have forwarded numerous questions and theories in clarifying the fundamental nature of scientific fact.[21] Some pertinent issues raised by this inquiry include: The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ...

  • the process by which "established fact" becomes recognized and accepted as such;[22]
  • whether and to what extent "fact" and "theoretic explanation" can be considered truly independent and separable from one another;[23][24]
  • to what extent are "facts" influenced by the mere act of observation;[25] and
  • to what extent are factual conclusions influenced by history and consensus, rather than a strictly systematic methodology.[26]

Consistent with the theory of confirmation holism, some scholars assert "fact" to be necessarily "theory-laden" to some degree. Thomas Kuhn and others pointed out that knowing what facts to measure, and how to measure them, requires the use of some other theory (e.g., age of fossils is based on radiocarbon dating which is justified by reasoning that radioactive decay follows a Poisson process rather than a Bernoulli process). Similarly, Percy Williams Bridgman is credited with the methodological position known as operationalism, which asserts that all observations are not only influenced, but necessarily defined by the means and assumptions used to measure them. Path-dependence is a phrase used to mean one of two things (Pierson 2004). ... The consensus theory of truth, originated by Charles Sanders Peirce who called it pragmatism, and later pragmaticism, holds that a statement is true if it would be agreed to by all those who investigate it if investigation were carried sufficiently far in that particular direction. ... Confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism is the claim that a scientific theory cannot be tested in isolation; a test of one theory always depends on other theories and hypotheses. ... Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... In probability and statistics, a Bernoulli process is a discrete-time stochastic process consisting of a sequence of independent random variables taking values over two symbols. ... Percy Williams Bridgman (April 21, 1882–August 20, 1961) was an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures. ... Operationalization is the process of converting concepts into specific observable behaviors that a researcher can measure. ...

Fact and the scientific method

Apart from the fundamental inquiry in to the nature of scientific fact, there remain the practical and social considerations of how fact is investigated, established, and substantiated through the proper application of the scientific method.[27] Scientific facts are generally believed to be independent from the observer in that no matter which scientist observes a phenomenon, all will reach the same necessary conclusion.[28] In addition to these considerations, there are the social and institutional measures, such as peer review and accreditation, that are intended to promote factual accuracy (among other interests) in scientific study.[29] Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Generally, accreditation is the process by which a facility becomes officially certified as providing services of a reasonably good quality, so that the public can trust in the quality of its services. ...

Fact does not always mean the same thing as truth. Fact is a generally agreed-upon and seemingly obvious observation. It is a fact that things stick to the earth, without regard to why that happens. It was once a fact that the planets changed direction from time to time, and that the sun, planets and stars circled the earth once daily. This seemed obvious, and was generally agreed to be the case.

In time, the fact was changed, and it was then said that the earth circles the sun, and the planets only appear to change direction as they are passed by the earth in their orbits, or vice versa.

Misunderstanding of this difference sometimes leads to fallacy in rhetoric, in which persons will say that they have fact, while others have only theory. Such statements indicate confusion as to the meanings of both words, suggesting they believe that fact means "truth," and theory means "speculation."

Fact in History

Further information: Historiography

A common rhetorical Cliche states, "History is written by the winners." This phrase suggests but does not examine the use of facts in the writing of history. Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Clich (from French, imitative) refers to: an overused phrase or expression, or the idea expressed by it; a situation, theme or characterization which has become common; a thing (as a style of clothing) that has become overly familiar or commonplace. ...

E. H. Carr in his 1961 volume, What is History?, argues that the inherent biases from the gathering of facts makes the objective truth of any historical perspective idealistic and impossible. Facts are, "like fish in the Ocean," that we may only happen to catch a few, only an indication of what is below the surface. Even a dragnet cannot tell us for certain what it would be like to live below the Ocean's surface. Even if we do not discard any facts (or fish) presented, we will always miss the majority; the site of our fishing, the methods undertaken, the weather and even luck play a vital role in what we will catch. Additionally, the composition of history is inevitably made up by the compilation of many different bias of fact finding - all compounded over time. He concludes that for a historian to attempt a more objective method, one must accept that history can only aspire to a conversation of the present with the past - and, that one's methods of fact gathering should be openly examined. As with science, historical truth and facts will therefore change over time and reflect only the present consensus (if that). Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 1892 – 5 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. ... Template:Wiktionarypar objective Objective may be: Objective lens, an optical element in a camera or microscope. ... Look up perspective in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In philosophy, idealism is any theory positing the primacy of spirit, mind, or language over matter. ...

Others have argued[citation needed] that an approach to facts such as Carr's is relativism and they lament the loss of a transcendent or fixed moral framework. However, his views together with the popular rise of historiographical narratives and meta-narratives may comprise a consensual view[citation needed]. For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ... Look up meta- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Fact in law

Further information: Evidence (law) and Trier of fact

In most common law jurisdictions,[30] the general concept and analysis of fact reflects fundamental principles of Jurisprudence, and is supported by several well-established standards.[31][32] Matters of fact have various formal definitions under common law jurisdictions. The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... A trier of fact is the person or group of persons in a trial who make findings of fact as opposed to rulings of law. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ...

These include:

In the law, a pleading is one of the papers filed with a court in a civil action, such as a complaint, a demurrer, or an answer. ... In the law, a cause of action is a recognized kind of legal claim that a plaintiff pleads or alleges in a complaint to start a lawsuit. ... Fact is the following: Generally a fact is something that exists or has existed, of evidence. ... A trier of fact is the person or group of persons in a trial who make findings of fact as opposed to rulings of law. ... Reversible error in an error by the trier of law (judge) or the trier of fact (jury - or again the judge if it is a bench trial) or malfeasance by one of the trying attorneys which results in an unfair trial. ... In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. ... Court of Appeals or (outside the U.S. and in some American states) Court of Appeal is the title of a court which has the power to consider or hear an appeal. ... Corpus delicti (Latin: body of crime) is a term from Western jurisprudence which refers to the principle that it must be proven that a crime has occurred before a person can be convicted of committing the crime. ...

Legal pleadings

A party to a civil suit generally must clearly state all relevant allegations of fact upon which a claim is based. The requisite level of precision and particularity of these allegations varies depending on the rules of civil procedure as well as the jurisdiction. Parties who face uncertainties regarding the facts and circumstances attendant to their side in a dispute may sometimes invoke alternative pleading.[38] In this situation, a party may plead separate facts that (when considered together) may be contradictory or mutually exclusive. This (seemingly) logically-inconsistent presentation of facts may be necessary as a safeguard against contingencies (such as res judicata) that would otherwise preclude presenting a claim or defense that depends on a particular interpretation of the underlying facts.[39] A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... Alternative pleading is a legal fiction permitting a party to argue multiple possibilities that may be mutually exclusive. ... Res judicata (Latin for a matter [already] judged) is, in both civil law and common law legal systems, a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal. ...

See also

De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... State of affairs has some technical usages in philosophy, as well as being a phrase in everyday speech in English. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a recent form of history which attempts to answer what if questions known as counterfactuals. ... For other uses, see Believe. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Chamber's Dictionary, ninth edition.
  2. ^ Concise OED definition
  3. ^ "Fact". OED_2d_Ed_1989, (but note the conventional uses: after the fact and before the fact).
  4. ^ "Fact" (1a). OED_2d_Ed_1989 Joye Exp. Dan. xi. Z vij b, Let emprours and kinges know this godly kynges fact. 1545
  5. ^ "Fact" (4a) OED_2d_Ed_1989
  6. ^ "Fact" (6c). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  7. ^ (See also "Matter" (2,6). Compact_OED)
  8. ^ "Fact" (5). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  9. ^ According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, "Fact has a long history of usage in the sense 'allegation'" AHD_4th_Ed. The OED dates this use to 1729.
  10. ^ "Fact" (6a). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  11. ^ "Fact" (8). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  12. ^ "A fact is, traditionally, the worldly correlate of a true proposition, a state of affairs whose obtaining makes that proposition true". -- Fact in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy
  13. ^ "A fact, it might be said, is a state of affairs that is the case or obtains" -- Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. States of Affairs
  14. ^ Alex Oliver, Fact, in Craig, Edward (2005). Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge, Oxford. ISBN 0415324955. 
  15. ^ Engel, Pascal (2002). Truth. McGill-Queen's Press- MQUP. ISBN 0773524622. 
  16. ^ The argument is presented in many places, but see for example Davidson, Truth and Meaning, in Davidson, Donald (1984). Truth and Interpretation. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 019824617x. 
  17. ^ "Facts possess internal structure, being complexes of objects and properties or relations" Oxford Companion to Philosophy
  18. ^ "Fact", in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Ted Honderich, editor. (Oxford, 1995) ISBN 0-19-866132-0
  19. ^ Gower, Barry (1997). Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0415122821. 
  20. ^ Ravetz, Jerome Raymond (1996). Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1560008512. 
  21. ^ (Gower 1996)
  22. ^ (see e.g., Ravetz, p. 182 fn. 1)
  23. ^ Ravetz, p. 185
  24. ^ Gower, p. 138
  25. ^ Gower, p. 138
  26. ^ Gower, p. 7
  27. ^ Ravetz p. 181 et. seq. (Chapter Six: "Facts and their evolution")
  28. ^ Cassell, Eric J. The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
  29. ^ (Ravetz 1996)
  30. ^ Ed. note: this section of the article emphasizes common law jurisprudence (as primarily represented in Anglo-American based legal tradition). Nevertheless, the principles described herein have analogous treatment in other legal systems (such as civil law systems) as well.
  31. ^ Estrich, Willis Albert (1952). American Jurisprudence: A Comprehensive Text Statement of American Case Law. Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company. 
  32. ^ Elkouri, Frank (2003). How Arbitration Works. BNA Books. ISBN 157018335X. p. 305
  33. ^ Bishin, William R. (1972). Law Language and Ethics: An Introduction to Law and Legal Method. Foundation Press. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized March 24, 2006. p. 277
  34. ^ (1898) The Yale Law Journal: Volume 7. Yale Law Journal Co. 
  35. ^ Per Lord Shaw of Dunfermline, Clarke v. Edinburgh and District Tramways Co., 1919 S.C.(H.L.) 35, at p 36.
  36. ^ Merrill, John Houston (1895). The American and English Encyclopedia of Law. E. Thompson. Original from Harvard University Digitized April 26, 2007. 
  37. ^ Bennett, Wayne W. (2003). Criminal Investigation. Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0534615244. 
  38. ^ Roy W. McDonald, Alternative Pleading in the United States: I Columbia Law Review, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Apr., 1952), pp. 443-478
  39. ^ (McDonald 1952)

Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Fact - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (677 words)
not tautologies) and facts is one of the provinces of epistemology.
A statement of fact or a factual claim is a statement that is presented as an accurate representation of a situation, event, or condition, and that is capable of being either proved or disproved.
A fact that was once a fact and hence becomes disproven may once again become a fact if the factual evidence supporting its validity become increasingly factual in light of new and, ultimately, factual evidence.
Encyclopedia4U - Fact - Encyclopedia Article (227 words)
At law, a statement which is found to be true by a "tryer of fact," sometimes a jury, but often the court (the judge or judges) after hearing evidence.
the jury is the finder of fact; the judge is the determiner of law.
Depending on the nature of the matter the standard of proof may require that a fact be proved to be "more likely than not", that is there is barely more evidence for the fact than against; established by a preponderance of the evidence; or true beyond a reasonable doubt.
  More results at FactBites »



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