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Encyclopedia > FR layout
Sketch of FR layout
Sketch of FR layout

In automobile design, an FR, or front-engine, rear wheel drive means a layout where the engine is in the front of the vehicle and drive wheels at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... In automobile design layout is the place where both the engine and driven wheels are. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Automotive design. ... A front-mounted engine describes the placement of an automobile engine in front of or on the front axle. ... Rear wheel drive was a common form of engine/transmission layout used in automobiles throughout the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ...


Overview

This layout is typically chosen for its simple design and weight distribution. Placing the engine at the front gives the vehicle a traditional long hood, or bonnet, and engine cooling is simple to arrange. Placing the drive wheels at the rear allows ample room for the transmission in the center of the vehicle and avoids the mechanical problems of transmitting drive to steered wheels. The layout is still more suitable than front-wheel drive for performance-oriented vehicles with engine outputs of more than about 200 bhp, as the weight transference during acceleration loads the rear wheels and increases grip.


The FMR layout is based on the FR layout. Sketch of FMR layout The FMR layout, standing for front mid-engine, rear wheel drive, is a layout of an automobile that places the engine in the front, like the FR layout, but pushed back enough that the engines center of gravity is to the rear of the front...


History

The first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the "Système Panhard" in the early years. Most American cars used the FR layout until the mid 1980s. The Oil crisis of the 1970s and the success of small FF cars like the Mini, Volkswagen Golf, and Honda Civic led to the widespread adoption of that layout. A Panhard-Levassor was the first automobile to be introduced in Japan, in 1898 Panhard & Levassor X18 1912 Panhard & Levassor 1914 Panhard & Levassor X31 1921 A 1920s Panhard Dyna Panhard X 86 4-Door Sedan 1952 Panhard repair manual cover showing PL 17 A VBL of the French Army Panhard... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... In automobile design, an FF, or Front-engine, Front wheel drive, layout places both the engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. ... For the new MINI, see MINI (BMW). ... The Volkswagen Golf (Mark 1 and Mark 5 badged as Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada, Caribe in Mexico) is a compact car / small family car that Volkswagen manufactures. ... The Honda Civic is a compact car manufactured by Honda. ...


Some manufacturers, such as Alfa Romeo, Porsche (944,924,928) and Chevrolet (C5 and C6 Corvettes), retained this layout but moved the gearbox from behind the engine to between the rear wheels, putting more weight over the driven axle. This configuration is often referred to as a transaxle since the transmission and axle are one unit. A transaxle, in the automotive field, is a component that combines the functionality of the transmission, the differential and the drive axle into one integrated assembly. ...


After the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles (station wagons, luxury sedans) were phased out for the FF layout - this trend would spawn the SUV/van conversion market. As for the American domestic automotive companies; Chrysler went 100% FF by 1990, GM and Ford retained FR for their luxury and performance vehicles. This article or section should be merged with 1973 energy crisis On October 16th, 1973, as part of the political strategy that included the Yom Kippur War, OPEC cut production of oil, and placed an embargo on shipments of crude oil to the West, with the Netherlands, specifically targetted. ...


GM phased out its FR luxury cars after the 1996 model year, and its F-car (Chevrolet Camaro/Pontiac Firebird) in 2002. GM reintroduced North American FR luxury cars with the 2003 Cadillac CTS. This was followed by the reintroduction of the the Pontiac GTO (imported from Australia) between 2004 and 2006. Currently they produce the Chevrolet Corvette/Cadillac XLR and the Cadillac CTS/STS. GM Holden continued to produce RWD cars through this period. The F platform, or F-body, was General Motors less-expensive rear wheel drive automobile platform from the 1967 until 2002. ... The Chevrolet Camaro is a pony car made in North America by the Chevrolet Motor Division of General Motors. ... </gallery> The Pontiac Firebird was a pony car built by the Pontiac division of General Motors between 1967 and 2002. ... The CTS (Catera Touring Sedan) [1] is a mid size entry level Luxury car made by General Motors for the Cadillac brand. ... 1965 Pontiac GTO convertible The Pontiac GTO was an automobile built by Pontiac from 1964 to 1974, and by General Motors Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. ... The Chevrolet Corvette is a sports car that has been manufactured by Chevrolet since 1953. ... XLR shown with the top up The XLR is a luxury roadster sold by the Cadillac division of General Motors and is assembled in Bowling Green, Kentucky. ... The CTS (Catera Touring Sedan) [1] is a mid size entry level Luxury car made by General Motors for the Cadillac brand. ... The STS (Seville Touring Sedan) is a luxury car sold by Cadillac. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ...


In Australia, FR cars have remained popular throughout this period, with the Holden Commodore and Ford Falcon having consistently strong sales. The Holden Commodore is an automobile produced by the Holden division of General Motors (GM) in Australia. ... This article is about the Australian car model. ...


Today, most cars are FF, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. Many of the newest models have adopted all wheel drive, and some, like the Chrysler 300 are switching back to the FR layout. Most sports cars and luxury cars have always been FR. Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... The Chrysler 300 is a full-size entry-level luxury vehicle designed by Ralph Gilles. ... 1963 Jaguar E-Type, a classic sports car 1963 Chevrolet Corvette was based upon European sports cars A sports car is an automobile designed for performance driving. ... A luxury car is a relatively expensive car. ...


References


  Results from FactBites:
 
FR layout - WOI Encyclopedia Italia (461 words)
In Automobile design, an FR, or Front-engine, Rear wheel drive means a layout where the engine is in the front of the vehicle and drive wheels at the rear.
The first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the "Systeme Panhard" in the early years.
Most American cars used the FR layout until the 1980s, exemplified by the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Corvette, and originally German vehicles from BMW and Mercedes-Benz.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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