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Encyclopedia > FM broadcasting

FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ... Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... high fidelity, or hi-fi, generally means high audio quality. ...

Main article: frequency modulation

Contents

Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ...

Broadcast bands

The original FM broadcast band in the United States until 1946 was on 42 to 50 MHz with 0.2 MHz channel spacing. This band was abandoned after World War II and is now allocated to fixed, mobile, and land mobile radio services. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The term "FM band" can upset purists, because it conflates a modulation scheme with a range of frequencies. It is effectively shorthand for 'frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting'. The exact range of frequencies used varies around the world, but always falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. The term "VHF" was previously in common use for "FM" within the EU. ("UKW," which stands for "Ultrakurzwellen" in German, means "ultra short wave" in that language, is still widely used in Germany.) Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ...


Broadcast bands around the world

Throughout the world, the broadcast band is 87.5 to 108.0 MHz, or some portion thereof. In the U.S. it is 87.8 to 108.0 MHz. Japan is the only exception, using the 76 to 90 MHz band with 0.1 MHz channel spacing.


In the former Soviet republics, and some Eastern Bloc nations, an additional older band from 65.9 to 74 MHz is also used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... The International Radio and Television Organisation (official name in French: Organisation Internationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision or OIRT), more often called Intervision (Russian Интервидение, Polish Interwizja), was an East European network of radio and television broadcasters...


The frequency of an FM broadcast station (more strictly its assigned nominal centre frequency) is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of the Americas and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe, Greenland and Africa, only even multiples are used. In Italy, "half-channel" multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete standards in some countries, including 0.001, 0.01, 0.03, 0.074, and 0.3 MHz. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


For more information on FM frequency allocations, see FM broadcast band. In most of the world, the FM broadcast band, used for broadcasting FM radio stations, goes from 87. ...


Technical characteristics

Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis

Random noise has a 'triangular' spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest frequencies within the baseband. This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver also reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and then reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. For the Irish mythological figure, see Naoise. ... Familiar concepts associated with a frequency are colors, musical notes, radio/TV channels, and even the regular rotation of the earth. ... FreQuency is a music video game developed by Harmonix and published by SCEI. It was released in November 2001. ... Baseband is an adjective that describes signals and systems whose range of frequencies is measured from 0 to a maximum bandwidth or highest signal frequency; it is sometimes used as a noun for a band of frequencies starting at 0. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... In processing electronic audio signals preemphasis refers to a system process designed to increase, within a band of frequencies, the magnitude of some (usually higher) frequencies with respect to the magnitude of other (usually lower) frequencies in order to improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio by minimizing the adverse... In telecommunication, deemphasis is a system process designed to decrease, within a band of frequencies, the magnitude of some (usually higher) frequencies with respect to the magnitude of other (usually lower) frequencies in order to improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio by minimizing the adverse effects of such phenomena...


The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In North America, 75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions and to baseband audio (not the subcarriers). In physics and engineering, the time constant usually denoted by the Greek letter , (tau), characterizes the frequency response of a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system. ... resistor-capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is one of the simplest analogue electronic filters. ... Monaural (often shortened to mono) sound reproduction is single-channel. ... Label for 2. ...


The amount of pre-emphasis that can be applied is limited by the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. (Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e.g., dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all.) This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The logo represents both the company and its noise reduction system dbx is a noise reduction system for analog tape recording, North American TV broadcasting, and, less commonly, vinyl LPs. ... Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an NTSC-format audio carrier. ...


The problems with pre-emphasis due to the high frequency energy in modern music can be greatly attenuated using psychoacoustics principles, as Oscar Bonello demonstrates in his March 2007 AES paper. A new device, the IM cancelled high frequency clipper, is able to produce heavy audio clipping at high audio frequencies, with low listener fatigue.[1][2]


FM stereo

In the early 1960s, several systems to add stereo to FM radio were considered by the FCC, including one submitted by E. H. Armstrong, the inventor of FM, which avoided many of the problems with the Zenith-GE pilot tone multiplex system. The Armstrong system was rejected by the FCC because it did not allow sub-carrier services, and the Zenith system has become the standard method in most countries. Zenith Electronics Corporation is a manufacturer of televisions in the USA. It was the inventor of the modern remote control, and it introduced HDTV in North America. ... This article is about the American company. ... In telecommunication, a pilot is a signal, usually a single frequency, transmitted over a communications system for supervisory, control, equalization, continuity, synchronization, or reference purposes. ... In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ...


It is important that stereo broadcasts should be compatible with mono receivers. For this reason, the left (L) and right (R) channels are matrixed into sum (M) and difference (S) signals, i.e. M = (L+R)/2 and S = (L−R)/2. A mono receiver will use just the M signal. A stereo receiver will matrix the M and S signals to recover L and R: L = M+S and R = M−S.


The M signal is transmitted as baseband audio in the range 30 Hz to 15 kHz. The S signal is amplitude-modulated onto a 38 kHz suppressed carrier to produce a double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC) signal in the range 23 to 53 kHz. Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in direct proportion to that of a modulating signal. ...


A 19 kHz pilot tone, at exactly half the 38 kHz subcarrier frequency and with a precisely defined phase relationship to it, is also generated. This is transmitted at 8-10% of overall modulation level and used by the receiver to regenerate the 38 kHz subcarrier with the correct phase. In telecommunication, a pilot is a signal, usually a single frequency, transmitted over a communications system for supervisory, control, equalization, continuity, synchronization, or reference purposes. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... A subcarrier is separate analog or digital signal carried on a main radio transmission, which carries extra information such as voice or data. ...


The final multiplex signal from the stereo generator is the sum of the baseband mono audio (M), the pilot tone, and the DSBSC subcarrier. This multiplex, along with any other subcarriers, modulates the FM transmitter. A stereo generator is an electronic device designed to encode stereophonic information for transmission over radio or television. ...


Converting the multiplex signal back to left and right is performed by a stereo decoder, which is built into stereo receivers.


In order to preserve stereo separation, it is normal practice to apply pre-emphasis to the left and right channels before matrixing, and to apply de-emphasis at the receiver after matrixing.


Stereo FM signals are far more susceptible to noise and multipath distortion than mono FM signals. This is due to several factors, including the following:

  • the addition of the two sidebands of the difference subcarrier to the baseband signal increases the noise bandwidth of the signal by a factor of three (9.5 dB) as compared with a mono signal.
  • as mentioned above, the pre-emphasis is applied to the audio signals before encoding. This results in the pre-emphasis acting in the wrong direction on the lower sideband of the difference subcarrier, i.e. decreasing the level as the frequency rises, which will have a further deleterious effect on the S/N of the difference signal.

For this reason many FM stereo receivers include a stereo/mono switch to allow listening in mono when reception conditions are less than ideal, and most car radios are arranged to reduce the separation as the S/N ratio worsens, eventually going to mono while still indicating a stereo signal is being received.


In addition, the reception of vertically and horizontally polarised signals at different phase relationships from the same transmitter site will further corrupt stereo reception and invoke an earlier resolution within the receiver to mono presentation.


A short lived quadraphonic version of the Zenith-GE system used an additional subcarrier at 76 kHz. 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ...


Other subcarrier services

The subcarrier system has been further extended to add other services. Initially these were private analog audio channels which could be used internally or rented out. Radio reading services for the blind are also still common, and there were experiments with quadraphonic sound. If Stereo on a station, everything from 23 kHz on up can be used for other services. The guard band around 19 kHz (±4 kHz) must still be maintained, so as not to trigger stereo decoders on receivers. If there is stereo, there will typically be a guard band between the upper limit of the DSBSC stereo signal (53 kHz) and the lower limit of any other subcarrier. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with rental agreement. ... A radio reading service or reading service for the blind is a service of many public radio stations, where a narrator reads newspapers and magazines aloud for the benefit of the blind and vision-impaired. ... Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or psychological factors. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ...


Digital services are now also available. A 57 kHz subcarrier (phase locked to the third harmonic of the stereo pilot tone) is used to carry a low-bandwidth digital Radio Data System signal, providing extra features such as Alternate Frequency (AF) and Network (NN). This narrowband signal runs at only 1187.5 bits per second, thus is only suitable for text. A few proprietary systems are used for private communications. A variant of RDS is the North American RBDS or "Smart radio" system while in Germany a system called ARI is used for broadcasting traffic announcements to motorists (without disturbing other listeners) RDS is designed to be capable of being used alongside ARI despite using identical subcarrier frequencies. A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... In electronics, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is a closed-loop feedback control system that generates and outputs a signal in relation to the frequency and phase of an input (reference) signal. ... In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. ... Radio Data System, or RDS, is a standard from the European Broadcasting Union for sending small amounts of digital information using conventional FM radio broadcasts. ... AF, Alternate frequencies. ... Narrowband (narrow bandwidth) refers to a signal which occupies only a small amount of space on the radio spectrum -- the opposite of broadband or wideband. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... Proprietary indicates that a party, or proprietor, exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ... Radio Data System, or RDS, is a standard from the European Broadcasting Union for sending small amounts of digital information using conventional FM radio broadcasts. ...


The United States is the only country attempting to put digital radio onto FM rather than using Eureka 147 like most other countries (including Canada), or ISDB like Japan. This in-band on-channel approach results in highly-compressed audio, and blocks any opportunity for new stations to broadcast. The proprietary iBiquity system, branded as "HD Radio", uses subcarriers and extends out somewhat into the sidebands. The hybrid digital (hence "HD") system can later take the bandwidth used by the current analog stereo system, and eventually go all-digital, though this would shut out every existing analog radio. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format. ... In-band on-channel (IBOC) is a method of transmitting digital radio and analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on the same frequency. ... Audio compression is a form of data compression designed to reduce the size of audio files. ... iBiquity is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States. ... A brand includes a name, logo, slogan, and/or design scheme associated with a product or service. ... HD Radio is an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system created by iBiquity for broadcasting via existing FM and AM radio stations. ... In radio communications, a sideband is a band of frequencies higher than or lower than the carrier frequency, containing energy as a result of the modulation process. ... // This article is about a biological term. ...


In the USA services (other than Stereo, Quad and RDS) using subcarriers are sometimes referred to as SCA (subsidiary communications authorisation) services. Uses for such subcarriers include book/newspaper reading services for blind listeners, Private data transmission services (For example sending stock market information to stockbrokers or stolen credit card number blacklists to stores) Subscription commercial-free background music services for shops, Paging ("beeper") services and providing a program feed for AM transmitters of AM/FM stations. SCA subcarriers are typically 67 kHz and 92 kHz.


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Dolby FM

A commercially unsuccessful noise reduction system used with FM radio in some countries during the late 1970s, Dolby FM used a modified 25 µs pre-emphasis time constant and a frequency selective companding arrangement to reduce noise. See: Dolby noise reduction system. Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal. ... A waveform before and after the compression stage of non-linear companding In telecommunication, signal processing, and thermodynamics, companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of reducing the effects of a channel with limited dynamic range. ... Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ...


Adoption of FM broadcasting worldwide

Despite having been developed in the 1940s, FM broadcasting took a long time to be adopted by the majority of radio listeners.


The first FM broadcasting stations were in the United States, but initially they were primarily used to broadcast classical music to an upmarket listenership in urban areas and for educational programming. By the late 1960s FM had been adopted by fans of "alternative rock" music, but it wasn't until 1978 (the first year that listenership to FM stations exceeded that of AM stations) that FM became mainstream. During the 1980s and 1990s, Top 40 music stations and later even country music stations largely abandoned AM for FM. Today AM is mainly the preserve of talk radio, religious programming, ethnic (minority language) broadcasting and some types of minority interest music. Ironically, this shift has transformed AM into the "alternative band" that FM once was.


Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and particularly West Germany were among the first countries to adopt FM on a widespread scale. Among the reasons for this were:

  1. The medium wave band in Western Europe is heavily overcrowded, leading to severe interference problems and, as a result, most MW frequencies are suitable only for speech broadcasting.
  2. Particularly in Germany after World War II, the best available medium wave frequencies were used by the Allied occupation forces both for broadcasting entertainment to their troops and for broadcasting cold war propaganda across the Iron curtain
  3. The regional structure of German broadcasting meant that the few remaining AM frequencies available for civilian domestic broadcasting fell far short of the number required and the broadcasters looked to FM as an alternative.

Public service broadcasters in Ireland and Australia were far slower at adopting FM radio than those in either North America or continental Europe. However, in Ireland several unlicenced commercial FM stations were on air by the mid-1980s. These generally simulcast on AM and FM. Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... American Forces Network (or AFN) is the brand name used by the United States Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) for its entertainment and command internal information networks worldwide. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


In the United Kingdom, the BBC began FM broadcasting in 1955, with three national networks carrying the Light Programme, Third Programme and Home Service (renamed Radio 2, Radio 3 and Radio 4 respectively in 1967). These three networks used the sub-band 88.0 - 94.6 MHz. The sub-band 94.6 to 97.6 MHz was later used for BBC and local commercial services. Only when commercial broadcasting was introduced to the UK in 1973 did the use of FM pick up in Britain. With the gradual clearance of other users (notably Public Services such as police, fire and ambulance) and the extension of the FM band to 108.0 MHz between 1980 and 1995, FM expanded rapidly throughout the British Isles and effectively took over from LW and MW as the delivery platform of choice for fixed and portable domestic and vehicle-based receivers. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...


In addition, Ofcom (previously the Radio Authority) in the UK issues on demand Restrictive Service Licences on FM and also on AM (MW) for short-term local-coverage broadcasting which is open to anyone who does not carry a prohibition and can put up the appropriate licensing and royalty fees. In 2006 almost 500 such licenses were issued.


FM started in Australia in 1947 but did not catch on and was shut down in 1961 to expand the television band. It was not reopened until 1975. Subsequently, it developed steadily until in the 1980s many AM stations transferred to FM because of its superior sound quality. Today, as elsewhere in the developed world, most Australian broadcasting is on FM - although AM talk stations are still very popular.


Most other countries expanded their use of FM through the 1990s. Because it takes a large number of FM transmitting stations to cover a geographically large country, particularly where there are terrain difficulties, FM is more suited to local broadcasting than national networks. In such countries, particularly where there are economic or infrastructural problems, "rolling out" a national FM broadcast network to reach the majority of the population can be a slow and expensive process.


ITU Conferences about FM

The frequencies available for FM were decided by some important conferences of ITU. The milestone of those conferences is the Stockholm agreement of 1961 among 38 countries. This article is about the location. ...

  • Final acts of the conference

http://www.itu.int/publications/publications.aspx?lang=en&media=electronic&parent=R-ACT-RRC.1-1961


Small-scale use of the FM broadcast band

Belkin TuneCast II for iPod FM microtransmitter
Belkin TuneCast II for iPod FM microtransmitter

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1674 × 1272 pixel, file size: 424 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Belkin TuneCast II I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1674 × 1272 pixel, file size: 424 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Belkin TuneCast II I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... Belkin International, Inc. ...

Consumer use of FM transmitters

In some countries, small-scale (Part 15 in United States terms) transmitters are available that can transmit a signal from an audio device (usually an MP3 player or similar) to a standard FM radio receiver; such devices range from small units built to carry audio to a car radio with no audio-in capability (often formerly provided by special adapters for audio cassette decks, which are becoming less and less common on car radio designs) up to full-sized, near-professional-grade broadcasting systems that can be used to transmit audio throughout a property. Most such units transmit in full stereo, though some models designed for beginner hobbyists may not. Similar transmitters are often included in satellite radio receivers and some toys. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with FM-transmitter. ... In the U.S., Part 15 is an often-quoted section of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations, mainly regarding unlicensed transmissions. ... A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ... A satellite radio or subscription radio (SR) is a digital radio signal that is broadcast by a communications satellite, which covers a much wider geographical range than terrestrial radio signals. ...


Legality of these devices varies by country. The FCC in the US and Industry Canada allow them. Starting on 1 Oct 2006 these devices became legal in most countries in the European Union. Devices made to the harmonised European specification became legal in the UK on 8 Dec 2006.[3] Industry Canada is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for regional economic development, investment, and innovation/research and development. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


FM radio microphones

The FM broadcast band can also be used by some inexpensive wireless microphones, but professional-grade wireless microphones generally use bands in the UHF region so they can run on dedicated equipment without broadcast interference. Such inexpensive wireless microphones are generally sold as toys for karaoke or similar purposes, allowing the user to use an FM radio as an output rather than a dedicated amplifier and speaker. A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic (both IPA pronunciation: ), is an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... This article is about the radio frequency. ... A karaoke machine Karaoke 空 kara, empty or void, and オーケストラ ōkesutora, orchestra) pronounced ;   is a form of entertainment in which an amateur singer or singers sing along with recorded music on microphone. ...


Microbroadcasting

Low-power transmitters such as those mentioned above are also sometimes used for neighborhood or campus radio stations, though campus radio stations are often run over carrier current. This is generally considered a form of microbroadcasting. As a general rule, enforcement towards low-power FM stations is stricter than AM stations due to issues such as the capture effect, and as a result, FM microbroadcasters generally do not reach as far as their AM competitors. Carrier current is a method of low-power broadcasting that uses the electrical system of a building to distribute an AM radio signal. ... Microbroadcasting is the process of broadcasting a message to a relatively small audience. ... In telecommunication, a capture effect is a phenomenon, associated with FM reception, in which only the stronger of two signals at or near the same frequency will be demodulated. ...


Clandestine use of FM transmitters

FM transmitters have been used to construct miniature wireless microphones for espionage and surveillance purposes (covert listening devices or so-called "bugs"); the advantage to using the FM broadcast band for such operations is that the receiving equipment would not be considered particularly suspect. Common practice is to tune the bug's transmitter off the ends of the broadcast band, into what in the United States would be TV channel 6 (<87.9 MHz) or aviation navigation frequencies (>107.9); most FM radios with analog tuners have sufficient overcoverage to pick up these beyond-outermost frequencies, although many digitally-tuned radios do not. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A bug is the common name for a covert listening device, usually a combination of a miniature radio transmitter with a microphone. ...


Constructing a "bug" is a common early project for electronics hobbyists, and project kits to do so are available from a wide variety of sources. The devices constructed, however, are often too large and poorly shielded for use in clandestine activity.


In addition, much pirate radio activity is broadcast in the FM range, due to the band's greater clarity and listenership. The term Pirate Radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmission. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Oscar Bonello, Multiband audio processing and its influence on the coverage area of FM stereo transmission, AES Journal, New York, March 2007
  2. ^ A previous version of this paper is available at http://www.solidynepro.com/documentos/JAES-07-ENG.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/news/2006/11/nr_20061123b Change to the law to allow the use of low power FM transmitters for MP3 players (retrieved from Ofcom web site Dec 7, 2006)

See also

FM broadcasting by country

FM broadcasting (technical) FM started in Australia in 1947 but did not catch on and was shut down in 1961 to expand the television band. ... FM broadcasting in Canada has never followed the same patterns of broadcasting as in the US. These are currently permitted subcarrier services, as allowed by the CRTC Radio Data System Speedband Categories: | | ... // Until the early 1990s, Egypt had only 4 FM stations. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The frequency modulation radio broadcast band in Japan is 76-90 MHz. ... // Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (formerly named RAMBO - Regulatory Authority for Media and Broadcast Organizations) was formed to gradually liberate the broadcasting sector in Pakistan. ... // The BBC began using FM radio in 1955, but at that time AM predominated. ... FM broadcasting in the USA began in the 1930s. ... FM broadcasting in New Zealand // Radio NZ started broadcasting on FM in the 1970s. ...

Lists In most of the world, the FM broadcast band, used for broadcasting FM radio stations, goes from 87. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... Radio Data System, or RDS, is a standard from the European Broadcasting Union for sending small amounts of digital information using conventional FM radio broadcasts. ... TV DX and FM DX are two terms, customarily grouped together, that mean distant reception of TV and FM radio stations, respectively. ... AM stereo is any of a number of mutually-incompatible techniques for broadcasting two_channel audio in the mediumwave band in a manner that is compatible with receivers designed for standard amplitude modulation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ripping. ...

History This is the list of broadcast station classes. ... The following is a listing of radio stations in North and Central America: // United States As of June 2004, the FCC had licensed 4,771 AM stations, 6,218 commercial FM stations, and 2,497 educational FM stations. ...

// The title of Oldest Radio Station is a controversial one, but can be assumed from several in Europe (particularly of England and Germany), and in the United States and Canada. ... The pre-history and early history of radio is the history of technology that produced instruments that use radio waves. ...

External links

Related technical content


  Results from FactBites:
 
FM Broadcasting History - Various Articles (1527 words)
The commission's decision to abandon the number-letter FM calls was based on limitations discovered by the FM broadcasters themselves.
So new broadcasters were assigned letters instead of figure combinations, and except for experimental stations have been receiving them ever since with letter prefixes denoting the countries in which the stations operated.
With the exception of FM, all the services for which provision is made in today's report have allocations in other parts of the spectrum, and so are not wholly dependent on these final assignments.
FM broadcasting: Information from Answers.com (2277 words)
The original FM broadcast band in the United States until 1946 was on 42 to 50 MHz with 0.2 MHz channel spacing.
FM started in Australia in 1947 but did not catch on and was shut down in 1961 to expand the television band.
FM transmitters have been used to construct miniature wireless microphones for espionage and surveillance purposes (covert listening devices or so-called "bugs"); the advantage to using the FM broadcast band for such operations is that the receiving equipment would not be considered particularly suspect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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