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Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at normal room temperature, depending on their structure and composition. Although the words "oils", "fats" and "lipids" are all used to refer to fats, "oils" is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while "fats" is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature. "Lipids" is used to refer to both liquid and solid fats. The word "oil" is used for any substance that does not mix with water and has a greasy feel, such as petroleum (or crude oil) and heating oil, regardless of its chemical structure. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A carboxylic acid ester. ... “Glycerine” redirects here. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... Some common lipids. ... Look up oil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Heating oil, or burning oil, also known in the United States as No. ...


Fats form a category of lipid, distinguished from other lipids by their chemical structure and physical properties. This category of molecules is important for many forms of life, serving both structural and metabolic functions. They are an important part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Some common lipids. ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ...


Examples of edible fats are lard (pig fat), margarine, butter, and cream. Fats or lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases. This article is about the fat. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Cans of cream. ...

Contents

Chemical structure

A triglyceride molecule
A triglyceride molecule

There are many different kinds of fats, but each is a variation on the same chemical structure. All fats consist of fatty acids (chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms, with a carboxylic acid group at one end) bonded to a backbone structure, often glycerol (a "backbone" of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen). Chemically, this is a triester of glycerol, an ester being the molecule formed from the reaction of the carboxylic acid and an organic alcohol. As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E. The fatty acids would each be a horizontal line; the glycerol "backbone" would be the vertical line that joins the horizontal lines. Fats therefore have "ester" bonds. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x893, 274 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fat Trimyristin User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x893, 274 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fat Trimyristin User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... “Glycerine” redirects here. ... A carboxylic acid ester. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecules have fixed equilibrium geometries--bond lengths and angles--that are dictated by the laws of quantum mechanics. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ...


The properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids that constitute it. Different fatty acids are comprised of different numbers of carbon and hydrogen atoms. The carbon atoms, each bonded to two neighboring carbon atoms, form a zigzagging chain; the more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be. Fatty acids with long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction (in this case, van der Waals forces), raising its melting point. Long chains also yield more energy per molecule when metabolized. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...


A fat's constituent fatty acids may also differ in the number of hydrogen atoms that are bonded to the chain of carbon atoms. Each carbon atom is typically bonded to two hydrogen atoms. When a fatty acid has this typical arrangement, it is called "saturated", because the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen; meaning they are bonded to as many hydrogens as possible. In other fats, a carbon atom may instead bond to only one other hydrogen atom, and have a double bond to a neighboring carbon atom. This results in an "unsaturated" fatty acid. More specifically, it would be a "monounsaturated" fatty acid, whereas, a "polyunsaturated" fatty acid would be a fatty acid with more than one double bond. Saturated and unsaturated fats differ in their energy content and melting point. Since an unsaturated fat contains fewer carbon-hydrogen bonds than a saturated fat with the same number of carbon atoms, unsaturated fats will yield slightly less energy during metabolism than saturated fats with the same number of carbon atoms. Saturated fats can stack themselves in a closely packed arrangement, so they can freeze easily and are typically solid at room temperature. But the rigid double bond in an unsaturated fat fundamentally changes the chemistry of the fat. There are two ways the double bond may be arranged: the isomer with both parts of the chain on the same side of the double bond (the cis-isomer), or the isomer with the parts of the chain on opposite sides of the double bond (the trans-isomer). Most trans-isomer fats (commonly called trans fats) are commercially produced rather than naturally occurring. The cis-isomer introduces a kink into the molecule that prevents the fats from stacking efficiently as in the case of fats with saturated chains. This decreases intermolecular forces between the fat molecules, making it more difficult for unsaturated cis-fats to freeze; they are typically liquid at room temperature. Trans fats may still stack like saturated fats, and are not as susceptible to metabolization as other fats. Trans fats and saturated fats significantly increase the risk of coronary heart disease.[1] Look up Saturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Covalent” redirects here. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services... Trans is a Latin noun or prefix, meaning across, beyond or on the opposite side [of] . It is the opposite of cis, which means on the same side [of]. In chemistry, a double bond (or ring) not subject to free rotation in which the greater radical on both ends is... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Importance for living organisms

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble, meaning they can only be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats. Fats are sources of essential fatty acids, an important dietary requirement. Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ...


Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell function. They also serve as energy stores for the body. Fats are broken down in the body to release glycerol and free fatty acids. The glycerol can be converted to glucose by the liver and thus used as a source of energy. Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For the musical, see Hair (musical). ... Glycerin, also well known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ...


The fat content of a food can be analyzed by extraction. The exact method varies on what type of fat to be analyzed - for example, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are tested quite differently.


Fat also serves as a useful buffer towards a host of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic -- reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively dilute -- or at least maintain equilibrium of -- the offending substances by storing it in new fat tissue. This helps to protect vital organs, until such time as the offending substances can be metabolized and/or removed from the body by such means as excretion, urination, accidental or intentional bloodletting, sebum excretion, and hair growth. The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. ... For the musical, see Hair (musical). ...


While it is nearly impossible to remove fat completely from the diet, it would be wrong to do so. Some fatty acids are essential nutrients, meaning that they can't be produced in the body from other compounds and need to be consumed in small amounts. All other fats required by the body are non-essential and can be produced in the body from other compounds.


Adipose tissue

The obese mouse on the left has large stores of adipose tissue. For contrast, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue is shown on the right.
The obese mouse on the left has large stores of adipose tissue. For contrast, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue is shown on the right.
Main article: Adipose tissue

Adipose, or fatty tissue is the human body's means of storing metabolic energy over extended periods of time. Depending on current physiological conditions, adipocytes store fat derived from the diet and liver metabolism or degrades stored fat to supply fatty acids and glycerol to the circulation. These metabolic activities are regulated by several hormones (i.e., insulin, glucagon and epinephrine). The location of the tissue determines its metabolic profile: "Visceral fat" is located within the abdominal wall (i.e., beneath the wall of abdominal muscle) whereas "subcutaneous fat" is located beneath the skin (and includes fat that is located in the abdominal area beneath the skin but above the abdominal muscle wall). It was briefly thought that visceral fat produced a hormone involved in insulin resistance, but this has been disproved by clinical tests (see, resistin, a hormone, ultimately misnamed, which is produced by adipose tissue and does cause insulin resistance in mice but not in humans). License This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... License This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. ... This article is about the animal. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... “Glycerine” redirects here. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... “Adrenaline” redirects here. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ...


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Oil and fat
Look up Fat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Animal fats are fats obtained from animal sources, including: blubber cod liver oil lard (pork fat) tallow (beef fat) schmaltz (chicken fat) In human nutrition—as far as regions where heart disease is a more common cause of death than starvation are concerned—animal fats are often claimed to be... Brown fat is a type of adipose tissue present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ... Weight, in the context of human body weight measurements in the medical sciences and in sports is a measurement of mass, and is thus expressed in units of mass, such as kilograms (kg), or units of force such as pounds (lb). ... Some common lipids. ... The National Weight Control Registry is a United States register of people (18 years or older) who have lost at least 14 kg (30 lb) of weight and kept it off for at least one year. ... It has been suggested that Fish oil, Oily fish be merged into this article or section. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... “Vegetable oil” redirects here. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... Yellow grease is a term from the rendering industry. ... The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, or NAAFA, was founded in 1969 by William Fabrey in New York. ...

References

  1. ^ Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (April 2006). "Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease". New England Journal of Medicine 354 (15): 1601-1613.  PMID 16611951
  • Rebecca J. Donatelle. Health, The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.

External links

  • Euro Fed Lipid – The European Federation for the Science and Technology of Lipids

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1123 words)
Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water.
Although the words "oils", "fats" and "lipids" are all used to refer to fats, "oils" is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while "fats" is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature.
All fats consist of fatty acids (chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms, with an oxygen atom at one end and occasionally other molecules) bonded to a backbone structure, often glycerol (a "backbone" of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen).
NBC10.com - Health Encyclopedia - Fat (1223 words)
Fats are organic compounds that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are the most concentrated source of energy in foods.
Fat is one of the three nutrients (along with protein and carbohydrates) that supply calories to the body.
Fats provide the "essential" fatty acids, which are not made by the body and must be obtained from food.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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