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Encyclopedia > Fédération Internationale des Échecs

The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. It is usually referred to as FIDE (pronounced "fee day"), its French acronym. FIDE was founded in Paris, France on July 24, 1924. Its motto is Gens una sumus, meaning "We are one people". Its current president (as of May 2004) is Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, who also is president of Kalmykia, a small republic within Russia. From left, a white king, black rook and queen, white pawn, black knight, and white bishop in Staunton chess pieces. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Russian: Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов) (b. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

As well as organising the World Chess Championship and Chess Olympiad, FIDE calculates Elo ratings of players, defines the rules of chess, periodically publishes albums of the best chess problems (the FIDE Albums), awards the titles of FIDE Master, International Master, International Grandmaster, women's versions of those titles, a number of organisational titles including International Arbiter, and, via the Permanent Commission of the FIDE for Chess Composition (PCCC) Master and Grandmaster titles in problem and study composing and solving. The 1984 World Chess Championship was between Anatoly Karpov (left) and Garry Kasparov (right). ... This article or section should include material from Chess tournament history The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place every second year. ... The ELO rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ... Starting position While the exact origins of chess are unclear, the modern rules of chess first took form in Italy during the 16th century. ... Excelsior by Sam Loyd. ... The FIDE Albums are publications of world chess governing body, FIDE, via the Permanent Commission of the FIDE for Chess Compositions (PCCC), containing the best chess problems and studies of a certain period (usually three years in length). ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. Instituted in 1950, it is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as IM. Normally three favorable results (or norms) in tournaments involving other IMs and Grandmasters are required before FIDE will confer... The title International Grandmaster is awarded to superb chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. It is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as GM or IGM (this is in contrast to WGM for Woman Grandmaster and IM for International Master). ... International Arbiter is a title awarded by the world governing body of chess, FIDE, to individuals deemed capable of acting as arbiter in important events (the arbiters are responsible for ensuring the rules and laws of chess are adhered to). ... An endgame study, or just study, is a composed chess position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find a way for White, moving first, to win...

As well as the men's world championship, FIDE organises championships for women and juniors, regional championships, and the Chess Olympiad. It oversees few other tournaments, although other top-level events, almost without exception, respect FIDE rules and regulations. This article or section should include material from Chess tournament history The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place every second year. ...

In its early years, FIDE had little power. This was largely because the Soviet Union refused to join, as it saw chess and politics as being inextricably bound up, and FIDE was a non-political organisation. This changed, however, when incumbent world champion Alexander Alekhine died in 1946. FIDE stepped up to organise a tournament to find a replacement, and the Soviet Union, aware that this was a process it had to be involved with, joined. Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (sometimes spelled Aljechin) (in Russian, Александр Александрович Але́хин), (October 31 or November 1, 1892 – March 24, 1946) was a chess master, one of the great world chess champions. ...

From that initial 1948 tournament (won by Mikhail Botvinnik) to 1993, FIDE was the only body organising world chess championships. They were involved in controversies, however: in 1975, Bobby Fischer defaulted his title after FIDE refused to meet all his demands for his match with Anatoly Karpov. In 1984, FIDE president Florencio Campomanes called off the match between Karpov and Garry Kasparov without result. In 1993 reigning champion Kasparov and challenger Nigel Short (who had qualified through the FIDE system) broke away from FIDE to play their 1993 match under the auspices of the newly-formed Professional Chess Association (PCA). Since that time there have been two world championships - one held under FIDE's aegis, and the other under a variety of organisations'. Lately, FIDE's championships have consisted of a single knock-out tournament with games under quicker time controls, rather than the traditional series of long matches, a change which has also proved controversial. Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник) (August 17, 1911 - May 5, 1995) was a Russian International Grandmaster and long-time World Champion of chess. ... Robert James Bobby Fischer (born March 9, 1943) is a former world chess champion from New York City, currently residing in Iceland. ... Anatoli Karpov Anatoli Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов) (born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. ... Florencio Campomanes (born 1927) is a Filipino chess player and organizer. ... Garry Kasparov Garry Kimovich Kasparov (, pronounced with stress falling on the second syllable: kas-PA-rov) (born April 13, 1963) is a chess grandmaster and one of the strongest chess players in history. ... Nigel Short (born June 1, 1965 in Leigh Lancashire) is an English chess player. ... The Professional Chess Association was created 1993 by Garry Kasparov and Nigel Short for the marketing and organization of its chess world championship. ...

The decision to hold the 2004 World Championship in Libya has proved controversial, as have aspects of FIDE's handling of the so-called Prague Agreement (a plan to reunite the two world championships, masterminded by Yasser Seirawan). FIDE has been criticised by the Association of Chess Professionals (ACP) as well as individual players. Yasser Seirawan (born March 24, 1960) is a chess grandmaster and 4-time US-champion. ... The Association of Chess Professionals (ACP) is a not-for-profit organisation, the closest thing in existence to a trade union for professional chess players. ...

Ilyumzhinov has himself proved a controversial figure, with question marks over the sources of the money he has donated to FIDE, and accusations against him that he has not paid promised prize money among other things.

In 1999, FIDE was recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Two years later, it introduced the IOC's anti-drugs rules to chess. FIDE has stated that it would like chess to become part of the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee is an organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organise this sports event every four years. ... For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ...

FIDE Presidents

Ineke Bakker (died July 6, 2003) was secretary-general from 1972 until 1982, under Euwe and Olafsson. When Campomanes became president, she resigned. She was appointed Honorary Member of FIDE by its general assembly. 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Alexander Rueb (December 27, 1882 - 1959) was a Dutch lawyer, diplomat, and chess official. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Bror Axel Folke Per Rogard (July 6, 1899 - 1973) was a Swedish lawyer and chess official. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Max Euwe Machgielis (Max) Euwe (last name is pronounced /ø:wə/) (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess player. ... 1982 is a number and represents a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar Events January January 6 - William Bonin is convicted of being the freeway killer. January 8 - AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions January 11 - Mark Thatcher, son of the British Prime... Fridrik Olafsson (born January 26, 1935) is a chess Grandmaster. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Florencio Campomanes (born 1927) is a Filipino chess player and organizer. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Russian: Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов) (b. ...

See also

The United States Chess Federation (USCF) is the governing chess organization within the United States and is one of the federations of the FIDE. The USCF was founded in 1939 and grew gradually until 1972, when membership doubled due to interest in Bobby Fischers rise to the World Championship. ...

External link

  • The official FIDE website (http://www.fide.com/)



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