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Encyclopedia > Eye surgery
Eye surgery in the middle ages.
Eye surgery in the middle ages.

Eye surgery, also known as ophthalmic surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.[1] Although most eye surgery can be performed by an experienced general ophthalmologist, more complex procedures are usually done by one who is fellowship trained. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1073x1534, 246 KB) Beschreibung Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Eye surgery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1073x1534, 246 KB) Beschreibung Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Eye surgery ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... In medicine, Adnexa refers to the appendages of an organ. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ...

Contents

Preparation and precautions

The eye is a delicate organ, requiring extreme care before, during and after a surgical procedure. An expert ophthalmologist must identify the need for specific procedure and be responsible for conducting the procedure safely. Many university programs allow patients to specify if they want to be operated upon by the consultant or the resident / fellow.


Proper anesthesia is a must for any eye surgery. Local anesthesia is most commonly used. Retrobulbar and peribulbar techniques for infiltrating the local area surrounding the eye muscle cone are used to immobilize the extraocular muscles and eliminate pain sensation. Topical anesthesia using lidocaine topical gel is preferred for quick procedures. In topical anesthesia, patient cooperation is a must for a smooth procedure. General anesthesia is recommended for children, traumatic eye injuries, major orbitotomies and for apprehensive patients. Cardiovascular monitoring is preferable in local anesthesia and is mandatory in general anesthesia. Proper sterile precautions are taken to prepare the area for surgery, including use of antiseptics like povidone-iodine. Sterile drapes, gowns and gloves are a must. A plastic sheet with a receptacle helps collect the fluids during phacoemulsification. An eye speculum is inserted to keep the eyes wide open. For anxious patients, supplementation with a facial nerve block using lidocaine and bupivacaine is recommended. Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with local anesthetic. ... Betadine is the name of a consumer-available antiseptic used to treat minor cuts on mammals. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic. ...


Laser eye surgery

Although the terms Laser Eye Surgery and Refractive surgery are commonly used as if they were interchangeable, this is not the case. Lasers may be used to treat nonrefractive conditions (e.g. to seal a retinal tear), while radial keratotomy is an example of refractive surgery without the use of a laser. Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease dependency on glasses or contact lenses. ...


Cataract surgery

Main article: Cataract surgery
Cataract surgery, using a temporal approach phacoemulsification probe (in right hand) and "chopper"(in left hand) being done under operating microscope at a Navy medical center
Cataract surgery, using a temporal approach phacoemulsification probe (in right hand) and "chopper"(in left hand) being done under operating microscope at a Navy medical center

A cataract is an opacification or cloudiness of the eye's crystalline lens due to aging, disease, or trauma that typically prevents light from forming a clear image on the retina. If visual loss is significant, surgical removal of the lens may be warranted, with lost optical power usually replaced with a plastic intraocular lens (IOL). Due to the high prevalence of cataracts, cataract extraction is the most common eye surgery.[2] Cataract surgery is the removal of the lens of the eye that has developed a cataract. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1576, 480 KB) source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1576, 480 KB) source: http://www. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Visual loss results in the absence of vision where it existed before, which can happen either acutely or over a long period of time. ... Optical power or dioptric power or refractive power is the degree to which a lens or mirror converges or diverges light. ... An intraocular lens (IOL) is an implanted lens in the eye, usually replacing the existing crystalline lens because it has been clouded over by a cataract, or as a form of refractive surgery to change the eyes optical power. ...


Glaucoma surgery

Main article: Glaucoma surgery

Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP). There are many types of glaucoma surgery, and variations or combinations of those types, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous. Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP). ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... Visual loss results in the absence of vision where it existed before, which can happen either acutely (i. ... Intraocular pressure is the fluid pressure inside the eye. ... The aqueous humour is the clear, watery fluid that fills the complex space in the front of the eye which is bounded at the front by the cornea and at the rear by the front surface or face of the vitreous humour. ...


Canaloplasty

Canaloplasty is an advanced, nonpenetrating procedure designed to enhance and restore the eye’s natural drainage system to provide sustained reduction of IOP. Canaloplasty utilizes breakthrough microcatheter technology in a simple and minimally invasive procedure. To perform a canaloplasty, a doctor will create a tiny incision to gain access to a canal in the eye. A microcatheter will circumnavigate the canal around the iris, enlarging the main drainage channel and its smaller collector channels through the injection of a sterile, gel-like material called viscoelastic. The catheter is then removed and a suture is placed within the canal and tightened. By opening the canal, the pressure inside the eye will be relieved.


Refractive surgery

Main article: Refractive surgery
  • Refractive surgery aims to correct errors of refraction in the eye, reducing or eliminating the need for corrective lenses
    • Keratomilleusis is method of reshaping the cornea surface to change its optical power. A disc of cornea is shaved off, quickly frozen, lathe-ground, then returned to its original power.
    • Automated lamellar keratoplasty (ALK)
    • Laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK)[3]
    • Laser assisted sub-epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK), aka Epi-LASIK
    • Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)[4]
    • Laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK)
    • Conductive keratoplasty (CK) uses radio frequency waves to shrink corneal collagen. It is used to treat mild to moderate hyperopia.[3]
    • Limbal relaxing incisions (LRI)
    • Astigmatic keratotomy (AK), aka Arcuate keratotomy or Transverse keratotomy
    • Radial keratotomy (RK)
    • Hexagonal keratotomy (HK)
    • Epikeratophakia is the removal of the corneal epithelium and replacement with a lathe cut corneal button.[5]
    • Intracorneal rings (ICRs), or corneal ring segments (Intacs) [6]
    • Implantable contact lenses
  • Presbyopia reversal
    • Anterior ciliary sclerotomy (ACS)
      • Laser reversal of presbyopia (LRP)
    • Scleral expansion bands

Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease dependency on glasses or contact lenses. ... Keratomileusis is the surgical improvement of the refractive state of the cornea performed by lifting up the front surface of the eye by forming a thin hinged flap under which the shape of the cornea is changed by using an excimer laser or other surgical device. ... Optical power or dioptric power or refractive power is the degree to which a lens or mirror converges or diverges light. ... Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty, commonly abbreviated to ALK uses a device called a microkeratome to separate a thin layer of the cornea and create a flap. ... LASIK is the acronym for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, a type of refractive laser eye surgery performed by ophthalmologists for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section should be merged with Photorefractive keratectomy LASEK, an acronym for Laser-Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy, is an eye surgery procedure intended to reduce a persons dependency on glasses or contact lenses. ... // Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and Laser-Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy (LASEK) are laser eye surgery procedures intended to correct a persons vision and reduce their dependency on glasses or contact lenses. ... Conductive keratoplasty (CK) is a type of refractive surgery that uses radio waves to adjust the contour of the cornea by shrinking the corneal collagen around it. ... Radial keratotomy (RK) is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia. ... Epikeratophakia is a refractive surgical procedure in which a donor cornea is transplanted to the anterior surface of the patients cornea. ... A pair of Intacs® inserts. ...

Corneal surgery

The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Cornea Transplant A cornea transplant, also known as a corneal graft or penetrating keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by a donor. ... Cornea Transplant Another Cornea Transplant, aproximately 1 week after surgery. ... Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) is a type of eye surgery that uses a laser to treat various ocular disorders by removing tissue from the cornea. ... A pterygium, meaning wing, is a benign growth of the conjunctiva. ... Corneal tattooing is a form of cosmetic surgery applied to the cornea, used to improve the visual look of the eye, improve vision or reduce the effects of scarring. ...

Vitreo-retinal surgery

Vitrectomy.
Vitrectomy.
  • Vitreo-retinal surgery includes the following
    • Vitrectomy[9]
      • Anterior vitrectomy is the removal of the front portio of vitreous tissue. It is used for preventing or treating vitreous loss during cataract or corneal surgery, or to remove misplaced vitreous in conditions such as aphakia pupillary block glaucoma.
      • Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), or trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV), is a procedure to remove vitreous opacities and membranes through a pars plana incision. It is frequently combined with other intraocular procedures for the treatment of giant retinal tears, tractional retinal detachments, and posterior vitreous detachments [1].
    • Pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) is a type of photocoagulation therapy used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.[10]
    • Retinal detachment repair
      • Ignipuncture is an obsolete procedure that involves cauterization of the retina with a very hot pointed instrument.[11]
      • A scleral buckle is used in the repair of a retinal detachment to indent or "buckle" the sclera inward, usually by sewing a piece of preserved sclera or silicone rubber to its surface.[12]
      • Laser photocoagulation, or photocoagulation therapy, is the use of a laser to seal a retinal tear.[10]
      • Pneumatic retinopexy
      • Retinal cryopexy, or retinal cryotherapy, is a procedure that uses intense cold to induce a chorioretinal scar and to destroy retinal or choroidal tissue.[13]
    • Macular hole repair
    • Partial lamellar sclerouvectomy[14]
      • Partial lamellar sclerocyclochoroidectomy
      • Partial lamellar sclerochoroidectomy
    • Posterior sclerotomy is an opening made into the vitreous through the sclera, as for detached retina or the removal of a foreign body [2].
    • Radial optic neurotomy
    • macular translocation surgery
      • through 360 degree retinotomy
      • through scleral imbrication technique

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3901x2730, 314 KB) Title: Vitrectomy Image ID: 3727 Photographer: Unknown Restrictions: Public Domain http://fmp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3901x2730, 314 KB) Title: Vitrectomy Image ID: 3727 Photographer: Unknown Restrictions: Public Domain http://fmp. ... Vitrectomy. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ... Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. ... Ignipuncture (Latin: Ignis (fire) + puncture) is the original procedure of closing a retina break in retinal separation by transfixation of the break with cautery. ... Cauterization is a medical term describing the burning of the body to remove or close a part of it. ... A scleral buckle is one of several ophthalmologic procedures that can be used to repair a retinal detachment. ...

Eye muscle surgery

Isolating the inferior rectus muscle
Isolating the inferior rectus muscle
Disinserting the medial rectus muscle, after pre-placing vicryl suture
Disinserting the medial rectus muscle, after pre-placing vicryl suture
Main article: Strabismus surgery

With approximately 1.2 million procedures each year, extraocular muscle surgery is the third most common eye surgery in the United States [3]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2277x1484, 347 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ophthalmology Strabismus Eye surgery Strabismus surgery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2277x1484, 347 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ophthalmology Strabismus Eye surgery Strabismus surgery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 707 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Eye surgery Portal:Medicine/Selected picture archive User talk:Arad User talk:Bticho Strabismus surgery Wikipedia:Featured pictures... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 707 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Eye surgery Portal:Medicine/Selected picture archive User talk:Arad User talk:Bticho Strabismus surgery Wikipedia:Featured pictures... Isolating the inferior rectus muscle Disinserting the medial rectus muscle Strabismus surgery is surgery on the extraocular muscles to correct the misalignment of the eyes. ... The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control the movements of the eye. ...

  • Eye muscle surgery typically corrects strabismus and includes the following[15] [4]:
    • Loosening / weakening procedures
      • Recession involves moving the insertion of a muscle posteriorly towards its origin.
      • Myectomy
      • Myotomy
      • Tenectomy
      • Tenotomy
    • Tightening / strengthening procedures
      • Resection
      • Tucking
      • Advancement is the movement of an eye muscle from its original place of attachment on the eyeball to a more forward position.
    • Transposition / repositioning procedures
    • Adjustable suture surgery is a method of reattaching an extraocular muscle by means of a stitch that can be shortened or lengthened within the first post-operative day, to obtain better ocular alignment [5].

There are seven muscles of the orbit; one controls the movement of the upper eyelid, and six others control the movement of the eye. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ...

Oculoplastic surgery

Main article: Oculoplastics
  • Oculoplastic surgery, or oculoplastics, is the subspecialty of ophthalmology that deals with the reconstruction of the eye and associated structures. Oculoplastic surgeons perform procedures such as the repair of droopy eyelids (blepharoplasty)[6], repair of tear duct obstructions, orbital fracture repairs, removal of tumors in and around the eyes, and facial rejuvenation procedures including laser skin resurfacing, eye lifts, brow lifts, and even facelifts. Common procedures are:

Oculoplastics, or oculoplastic surgery, is a subspecialty of ophthalmology that includes a wide variety of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit (eye socket), eyelids, tear ducts, and the face. ... Blepharoplasty is a cosmetic plastic surgical procedure intended to reshape the upper eyelid or lower eyelid by the removal and/or repositioning of excess tissue as well as by reinforcement of surrounding muscles and tendons. ...

Eyelid surgery [7]

Blepharoplasty is a cosmetic plastic surgical procedure intended to reshape the upper eyelid or lower eyelid by the removal and/or repositioning of excess tissue as well as by reinforcement of surrounding muscles and tendons. ... “Fasial reconstruction” redirects here. ... An eyelid is a thin fold of skin and muscle that covers and protects an eye. ... Asian blepharoplasty is a type of plastic surgery where the skin around the eyes is reshaped. ... In ophthalmology, ptosis is an abnormally low position (drooping) of the upper eyelid which may grow more or less severe during the day. ... Ectropion is a condition of loose eyelids. ... Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelids fold inward. ... Front of left eye with eyelids separated to show medial canthus. ... Palpebral fissure is the anatomic name for the separation between the upper and lower eyelids. ... Epicanthoplasty is a type of eye surgery to reduce appearance of epicanthal folds. ... Tarsorrhaphy is a surgical procedure in which the eyelids are partially sewn together to narrow the opening. ... An eyelid is a thin fold of skin and muscle that covers and protects an eye. ... Palpebral fissure is the anatomic name for the separation between the upper and lower eyelids. ...

Surgery involving the lacrimal apparatus

    • A dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) or dacryocystorhinotomy is a procedure to restore the flow of tears into the nose from the lacrimal sac when the nasolacrimal duct does not function.[17][18]
    • Canaliculodacryocystostomy is a surgical correction for a congenitally blocked tear duct in which the closed segment is excised and the open end is joined to the lacrimal sac.[17][19]
    • Canaliculotomy involves slitting of the lacrimal punctum and canaliculus for the relief of epiphora[17]
    • A dacryoadenectomy is the surgical removal of a lacrimal gland.[17]
    • A dacryocystectomy is the surgical removal of a part of the lacrimal sac.[17]
    • A dacryocystostomy is an incision into the lacrimal sac, usually to promote drainage.[17]
    • A dacryocystotomy is an incision into the lacrimal sac.[17]

The lacrimal apparatus is the physiologic system containing the orbital structures responsible for tear production and drainage[1]. It consists of: (a) the lacrimal gland, which secretes the tears, and its excretory ducts, which convey the fluid to the surface of the eye; (b) the lacrimal canaliculi, the lacrimal sac... Dacryocystorhinostomy is a surgical procedure to restore the flow of tears into the nose from the lacrimal sac when the nasolacrimal duct does not function. ... Dacryocystorhinostomy is a surgical procedure to restore the flow of tears into the nose from the lacrimal sac when the nasolacrimal duct does not function. ... The lacrimal canaliculi, also known as the lacrimal canals or lacrimal ducts, are the small channels in each eyelid that commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia, on the summits of the papillæ lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis. ... The lacrimal sac, or tear sac, is the upper dilated end of the nasolacrimal duct, and is lodged in a deep groove formed by the lacrimal bone and frontal process of the maxilla. ... The lacrimal canaliculi, one in each eyelid, commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia (or lacrimal punctum, or lacrimal point), on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis. ... The lacrimal canaliculi, also known as the lacrimal canals or lacrimal ducts, are the small channels in each eyelid that commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia, on the summits of the papillæ lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis. ... Epiphora is another word for epistrophe. ...

Eye removal

    • An enucleation is the removal of the eye leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.[20]
    • An evisceration is the removal of the eye's contents, leaving the scleral shell intact. Usually performed to reduce pain in a blind eye.[21]
    • An exenteration is the removal of the entire orbital contents, including the eye, extraocular muscles, fat, and connective tissues; usually for malignant orbital tumors.[22]

surgical removal of the eye This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about a particular type of eye surgery. ...

Orbital surgery

  • Orbital reconstruction / Ocular prosthetics (False Eyes)
  • Orbital decompression for Grave's Disease

For the functional replacement or bionic eye see Visual prosthetic. ...

Other oculoplastic surgery

Botulin toxin or botox is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Microdermabrasion (often referred to as Microderm) is a cosmetic procedure popular in day spas, doctors practices, and medical spas, in which the stratum corneum (dead outermost surface of the skin) is partially or completely removed by light abrasion. ... A facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy (literally, surgical removal of wrinkles), is a procedure used in plastic surgery to give a more youthful appearance. ... Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty (fat modeling), liposculpture or suction lipectomy (suction-assisted fat removal) is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body. ...

Other surgery

  • A ciliarotomy is a surgical division of the ciliary zone in the treatment of glaucoma.[17]
  • A ciliectomy is 1) the surgical removal of part of the ciliary body, or 2) the surgical removal of part of a margin of an eyelid containing the roots of the eyelashes.[17]
  • A ciliotomy is a surgical section of the ciliary nerves.[17]
  • A conjunctivoanstrostomy is an opening made form the inferior conjuctival cul-de-sac into the maxillary sinus for the treatment of epiphora.[17]
  • Conjuctivoplasty is plastic surgery of the conjunctiva.[17]
  • A conjunctivorhinostomy is a surgical correction of the total obstruction of a lacrimal canaliculus by which the conjuctiva is anastomosed with the nasal cavity to improve tear flow.[17]
  • A corectomedialysis, or coretomedialysis, is an excision of a small portion of the iris at its junction with the ciliary body to form an artificial pupil.[17]
  • A corectomy, or coretomy, is any surgical cutting operation on the iris at the pupil.[17]
  • A corelysis is a surgical detachment of adhesions of the iris to the capsule of the crystalline lens or cornea.[17]
  • A coremorphosis is the surgical formation of an artificial pupil.[17]
  • A coreplasty, or coreoplasty, is plastic surgery of the iris, usually for the formation of an artificial pupil.[17]
  • A coreoplasy, or laser pupillomydriasis, is any procedure that changes the size or shape of the pupil.[21]
  • A cyclectomy is an excision of portion of the ciliary body.[17]
  • A cyclotomy, or cyclicotomy, is a surgical incision of the ciliary body, usually for the relief of glaucoma.[17]
  • A cycloanemization is a surgical obliteration of the long ciliary arteries in the treatment of glaucoma.[17]
  • An iridectomesodialsys is the formation of an artificial pupil by detaching and excising a portion of the iris at its periphery.[17]
  • An iridodialysis, sometimes known as a coredialysis, is a localized separation or tearing away of the iris from its attachment to the ciliary body.[17][21]
  • An iridencleisis, or corenclisis, is a surgical procedure for glaucoma in which a portion of the iris is incised and incarcerated in a limbal incision.[17] (Subdivided into basal iridencleisis and total iridencleisis.[23])
  • An iridesis is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the iris is brought through and incarcerated in a corneal incision in order to reposition the pupil.[17][10]
  • An iridocorneosclerectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the iris, the cornea, and the sclera.[17]
  • An iridocyclectomy is the surgical removal of the iris and the ciliary body.[17]
  • An iridocystectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the iris to form an artificial pupil.[17]
  • An iridosclerectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the sclera and a portion of the iris in the region of the limbus for the treatment of glaucoma.[17]
  • An iridosclerotomy is the surgical puncture of the sclera and the margin of the iris for the treatment of glaucoma.[17]
  • A rhinommectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the internal canthus.[17]
  • A trepanotrabeculectomy is used in the treatment of chronic open and chronic closed angle glaucoma.[23]

An iridectomy, also known as a surgical iridectomy or corectomy, is the surgical removal of part of the iris[1][2]. These procedures are most frequently performed in the treatment of closed-angle glaucoma and iris melanoma[2]. // In acute angle closure glauocma cases, surgical iridectomy has been superseded by... In medicine, synechia refers to an adhesion, usually involving the iris (see article below) but also within the uterus as in Ashermans syndrome. ... In mathematics, the nth roots of unity or de Moivre numbers are all the complex numbers which yield 1 when raised to a given power n. ... Iridodialysis, sometimes known as a coredialysis, is a localized separation or tearing away of the iris from its attachment to the ciliary body. ... Iridodialysis, sometimes known as a coredialysis, is a localized separation or tearing away of the iris from its attachment to the ciliary body. ... Trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure used in the treatment of glaucoma to relieve intraocular pressure by removing part of the eyes trabeculum. ...

See also

LASIK is the acronym for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, a type of refractive laser eye surgery performed by ophthalmologists for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part. ...

References

  1. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Ophthalmologic surgery
  2. ^ Uhr, Barry W. History of ophthalmology at Baylor University Medical Center. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2003 October; 16(4): 435–438. PMID 16278761
  3. ^ a b Surgery Encyclopedia - LASIK
  4. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - PRK
  5. ^ a b Surgery Encyclopedia - Corneal transplantation
  6. ^ http://www.iupui.edu/~ophthal/html/eyes_intercornealrings.html
  7. ^ Indiana University Department of Ophthalmology - Phototherapeutic Keratectomy (PTK)
  8. ^ MDAdvice.com - Pterygium removal
  9. ^ http://www.iupui.edu/~ophthal/html/eyes_vitrectomysurgery.html
  10. ^ a b Surgery Encyclopedia - Photocoagulation therapy
  11. ^ Wolfensberger TJ. "Jules Gonin. Pioneer of retinal detachment surgery." Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003 Dec;51(4):303-8. PMID 14750617.
  12. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Scleral Buckling
  13. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Retinal_cryopexy
  14. ^ Shields JA, Shields CL. Surgical approach to lamellar sclerouvectomy for posterior uveal melanomas: the 1986 Schoenberg lecture. Ophthalmic Surg. 1988 Nov;19(11):774-80. PMID 3222038.
  15. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Eye Muscle Surgery
  16. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Blepharoplasty
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Cline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 1997. ISBN 0-7506-9895-0
  18. ^ Indiana University Department of Ophthalmology. "Lacrimal Drainage Surgery (DCR: Dacryocystorhinostomy)." Retrieved August 18, 2006
  19. ^ Cherkunov BF, Lapshina AV. ["Canaliculodacryocystostomy in obstruction of medial end of the lacrimal duct."] Oftalmol Zh. 1976;31(7):544-8. PMID 1012635.
  20. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Enucleation
  21. ^ a b c Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainsville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
  22. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Exenteration
  23. ^ a b Cvetkovic D, Blagojevic M, Dodic V. ["Comparative results of trepanotrabeculectomy and iridencleisis in primary glaucoma."] J Fr Ophtalmol. 1979 Feb;2(2):103-7. PMID 444110.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Laser Eye Surgery: Is It Worth Looking Into? (2844 words)
Goldstein underwent refractive eye surgery, an elective procedure intended to correct common eye disorders, known as refractive errors, such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism (distorted vision).
Before the procedure begins, the patient's eye is measured to determine the degree of visual problem, and a map of the eye's surface is constructed.
For the eye to see, light rays must be bent or "refracted" to meet at a single point through the cornea, the clear window at the front of the eye that provides most of the focusing power.
Eye surgery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2638 words)
Eye surgery, also known as ophthalmic surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.
A cataract is an opacification or cloudiness of the eye's crystalline lens due to aging, disease, or trauma that typically prevents light from forming a clear image on the retina.
A canthorrhaphy is suturing of the outer canthus to shorten the palpebral fissure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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