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Encyclopedia > Eye (cyclone)

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area and typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather of a cyclone occurs. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye, and can be as much as 15% lower than the atmospheric pressure outside the storm.[1] Look up eye of the storm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... “km” redirects here. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... A thunderstorm, also called an electrical storm or lightning storm, is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder produced from a cumulonimbus cloud. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of air above any area in the Earths atmosphere. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ...


In strong tropical cyclones, the eye is characterized by light winds and clear skies, surrounded on all sides by a towering, symmetric eyewall. In weaker tropical cyclones, the eye is less well-defined, and can be covered by the central dense overcast, which is an area of high, thick clouds which show up brightly on satellite pictures. Weaker or disorganized storms may also feature an eyewall which does not completely encircle the eye, or have an eye which features heavy rain. In all storms, however, the eye is the location of the storm's minimum barometric pressure: the area where the atmospheric pressure at sea level is the lowest.[1][2] For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... This article is about precipitation. ...

Hurricane Kate of 2003
Tropical cyclones
Formation and naming
Development - Structure
Naming - Seasonal lists - Full list
Effects

Effects
Watches and warnings
Storm surge - Notable storms
Retired hurricanes (Atlantic - Pacific)
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 680 pixel, file size: 213 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... Presently, most tropical cyclones are given a name using one of several lists of tropical cyclone names. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are given names. ... This is a list of named tropical cyclones, giving all official names for tropical cyclones. ... The effects of tropical cyclones are the impacts that tropical cyclones have on the areas they move to. ... See Severe weather terminology for a comprehensive article on this term and related weather terms. ... ... This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ... Tropical cyclone names may be retired (removed from the name list) in several tropical cyclone basins around the world by the World Meteorological Organization. ... This is a list of all Atlantic hurricanes that have had their names retired. ... Retired Pacific hurricanes This is a list of all Pacific hurricanes that have had their names retired. ...

Climatology and tracking
Basins - RSMCs - TCWCs - Scales
Observation - Rainfall forecasting - Rainfall climatology
Part of the Nature series: Weather

Contents

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. ... These centres are responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch. ... These five regional warning centers are part of the World Meteorological Organization tropical cyclone programme, and act to observe, name, and forecast tropical cyclones in their respective sections of the world, supplementing the work of the main Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres. ... NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... Surface weather map of the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 moving up the west coast of Florida Tropical cyclone obervation has been carried out over the past couple of centuries in various ways: the passage of typhoons, hurricanes, as well as other tropical cyclones have been detected by word of... While flooding is common to tropical cyclones near a landmass, there are a few factors which lead to excessive rainfall from tropical cyclones. ... A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ...

Structure

A cross section diagram of a mature tropical cyclone, with arrows indicating air flow in and around the eye
A cross section diagram of a mature tropical cyclone, with arrows indicating air flow in and around the eye

A typical tropical cyclone will have an eye approximately 30–65 km (20–40 mi) across, usually situated at the geometric center of the storm. The eye may be clear or have spotty low clouds (a clear eye), it may be filled with low- and mid-level clouds (a filled eye), or it may be obscured by the central dense overcast. There is, however, very little wind and rain, especially near the center. This is in stark contrast to conditions in the eyewall, which contains the storm's strongest winds.[3] Due to the mechanics of a tropical cyclone, the eye and the air directly above it are warmer than their surroundings.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A 3-D view of a beverage-can stove with a cross section in yellow. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ...


While normally quite symmetric, eyes can be oblong and irregular, especially in weakening storms. A large ragged eye is a non-circular eye which appears fragmented, and is an indicator of a weak or weakening tropical cyclone. An open eye is an eye which can be circular, but the eyewall does not completely encircle the eye, also indicating a weakening, moisture-deprived cyclone. Both of these observations are used to estimate the intensity of tropical cyclones via Dvorak analysis.[5] Eyewalls are typically circular; however, distinctly polygonal shapes ranging from triangles to hexagons occasionally occur.[6] The Dvorak Technique (developed in 1974 by Vernon Dvorak) is a widely used system to estimate tropical cyclone intensity based solely on visible and infrared satellite images. ... For other uses, see Hexagon (disambiguation). ...


While typical mature storms have eyes that are a few dozen miles across, rapidly intensifying storms can develop an extremely small, clear, and circular eye, sometimes referred to as a pinhole eye. Storms with pinhole eyes are prone to large fluctuations in intensity, and provide difficulties and frustrations for forecasters.[7] Hurricane Charley nearing landfall after its rapid deepening phase Rapid deepening is when the minimum sea-level pressure of a tropical cyclone decreases drastically in a short period of time. ...

Hurricane Nate, as seen in this picture on September 6, 2005, presents a cloud-filled eye.
Hurricane Nate, as seen in this picture on September 6, 2005, presents a cloud-filled eye.

Small eyes—those less than 10 nmi (19 km, 12 mi) across—often trigger eyewall replacement cycles, where a new eyewall begins to form outside the original eyewall. This can take place anywhere from ten to a few hundred miles (fifteen to hundreds of kilometers) outside the inner eye. The storm develops two concentric eyewalls, or an "eye within an eye". In most cases, the outer eyewall begins to contract soon after its formation, which chokes off the inner eye and leaves a much larger but more stable eye. While the replacement cycle tends to weaken storms as it occurs, the new eyewall can contract fairly quickly after the old eyewall dissipates, allowing the storm to re-strengthen. This may trigger another cycle of eyewall replacement.[8] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (4000x3000, 3731 KB) Summary Hurricane Nate on September 6, 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (4000x3000, 3731 KB) Summary Hurricane Nate on September 6, 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lowest pressure 979 mbar (hPa; 28. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ...


Eyes can range in size from 320 km (200 miles) (Typhoon Carmen) to a mere 3 km (2 mi) (Hurricane Wilma) across.[9] While it is uncommon for storms with large eyes to become very intense, it does occur, especially in annular hurricanes. Hurricane Isabel was the eleventh most powerful Atlantic hurricane in recorded history, and sustained a large, 65–80 km (40–50 mi)-wide eye for a period of several days.[10] The 1960 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1960, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... Lowest pressure 882 mbar (hPa; 26. ... Hurricane Isabel of 2003 showing annular hurricane structure. ... Hurricane Isabel was the ninth named storm, the fifth hurricane, the second major hurricane, and the only Category 5 hurricane of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. ... Atlantic hurricane refers to a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator, usually in the Northern Hemisphere summer or autumn. ...


Formation and detection

See also: Tropical cyclogenesis
Tropical cyclones form when the energy released by the condensation of moisture in rising air causes a positive feedback loop over warm ocean waters.
Tropical cyclones form when the energy released by the condensation of moisture in rising air causes a positive feedback loop over warm ocean waters.
Typically, eyes are easy to spot using weather radar. This radar image of Hurricane Andrew clearly shows the eye over southern Florida.
Typically, eyes are easy to spot using weather radar. This radar image of Hurricane Andrew clearly shows the eye over southern Florida.

Tropical cyclones typically form from large, disorganized areas of disturbed weather in tropical regions. As more thunderstorms form and gather, the storm develops rainbands which start rotating around a common center. As the storm gains strength, a ring of stronger convection forms at a certain distance from the rotational center of the developing storm. Since stronger thunderstorms and heavier rain mark areas of stronger updrafts, the barometric pressure at the surface begins to drop, and air begins to build up in the upper levels of the cyclone.[11] This results in the formation of an upper level anticyclone, or an area of high atmospheric pressure above the central dense overcast. Consequentially, most of this built up air flows outward anticyclonically above the tropical cyclone. Outside the forming eye, the anticyclone at the upper levels of the atmosphere enhances the flow towards the center of the cyclone, pushing air towards the eyewall and causing a positive feedback loop.[11] Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... Image File history File links Hurricane-profile-en. ... Image File history File links Hurricane-profile-en. ... Positive feedback is a type of feedback. ... Image File history File links HurricaneAndrewFLRADAR.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hurricane Andrew ... Image File history File links HurricaneAndrewFLRADAR.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hurricane Andrew ... Weather radar in Norman, Oklahoma with rainshaft (Source: NOAA) Environment Canada King City (CWKR) weather radar station. ... Lowest pressure 922 mbar (hPa; 27. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... An Updraft or Downdraft is refers to the vertical movement of air as a weather related phenomenom. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... Positive feedback is a type of feedback. ...


However, a small portion of the built-up air, instead of flowing outward, flows inward towards the center of the storm. This causes air pressure to build even further, to the point where the weight of the air counteracts the strength of the updrafts in the center of the storm. Air begins to descend in the center of the storm, creating a mostly rain-free area; a newly-formed eye.[11]


There are many aspects of this process which remain a mystery. Scientists do not know why a ring of convection forms around the center of circulation instead of on top of it, or why the upper-level anticyclone only ejects a portion of the excess air above the storm. Hundreds of theories exist as to the exact process by which the eye forms: all that is known for sure is that the eye is necessary for tropical cyclones to achieve high wind speeds.[11]


The formation of an eye is almost always an indicator of increasing tropical cyclone organisation and strength. Because of this, forecasters watch developing storms closely for signs of eye formation.


For storms with a clear eye, detection of the eye is as simple as looking at pictures from a weather satellite. However, for storms with a filled eye, or an eye completely covered by the central dense overcast, other detection methods must be used. Observations from ships and Hurricane Hunters can pinpoint an eye visually, by looking for a drop in wind speed or lack of rainfall in the storm's center. In the United States, South Korea, and a few other countries, a network of NEXRAD Doppler radar stations can detect eyes near the coast. Weather satellites also carry equipment for measuring atmospheric water vapor and cloud temperatures, which can be used to spot a forming eye. In addition, scientists have recently discovered that the amount of ozone in the eye is much higher than the amount in the eyewall, due to air sinking from the ozone-rich stratosphere. Instruments sensitive to ozone perform measurements, which are used to observe rising and sinking columns of air, and provide indication of the formation of an eye, even before satellite imagery can determine its formation.[12] GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... Hurricane Hunters are aircraft that fly into tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic Ocean and Northeastern Pacific Ocean for the specific purpose of directly measuring weather data in and around those storms. ... NEXRAD Radar at NSSL NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 158 high-resolution Doppler radars operated by the National Weather Service, an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in the United States. ... Doppler Effect Doppler radar uses the Doppler effect to measure the radial velocity of targets in the antennas directional beam. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ...


Associated phenomena

Eyewall replacement cycles

A satellite photo of Typhoon Amber of the 1997 Pacific typhoon season, exhibiting an outer and inner eyewall while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle.

Eyewall replacement cycles, also called concentric eyewall cycles, naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones, generally with winds greater than 185 km/h (115 mph), or major hurricanes (Category 3 or above). When tropical cyclones reach this threshold of intensity, and the eyewall contracts or is already sufficiently small (see above), some of the outer rainbands may strengthen and organize into a ring of thunderstorms—an outer eyewall—that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum. Since the strongest winds are located in a cyclone's eyewall, the tropical cyclone usually weakens during this phase, as the inner wall is "choked" by the outer wall. Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely, and the storm can re-intensify. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (880 × 680 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (880 × 680 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The 1997 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1997, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ...


The discovery of this process was partially responsible for the end of the U.S. government's hurricane modification experiment Project Stormfury. This project set out to seed clouds outside the eyewall, causing a new eyewall to form and weakening the storm. When it was discovered that this was a natural process due to hurricane dynamics, the project was quickly abandoned.[8] Project Stormfury was an attempt to weaken hurricanes by using cloud seeding in the eyewall of these storms. ... Cessna 210 with cloud seeding equipment Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification, is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. ...


Almost every intense hurricane undergoes at least one of these cycles during its existence. Hurricane Allen in 1980 went through repeated eyewall replacement cycles, fluctuating between Category 5 and Category 3 status on the Saffir-Simpson Scale several times. Hurricane Juliette was a rare documented case of triple eyewalls.[13] Hurricane Allen was the strongest hurricane of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying hurricanes by the intensity of their sustained winds, developed in 1969 by civil engineer Herbert Saffir and National Hurricane Center director Bob Simpson. ... Hurricane Juliette was a long lasting hurricane in the 2001 Pacific hurricane season. ...


Moats

A moat in a tropical cyclone is a clear ring outside the eyewall, or between concentric eyewalls, characterized by slowly sinking air, little or no precipitation, and strain-dominated flow.[14] The moat between eyewalls is just one example of a rapid filamentation zone, or an area in the storm where the rotational speed of the air changes greatly in proportion to the distance from the storm's center. Such strain-dominated regions can potentially be found near any vortex of sufficient strength, but are most pronounced in strong tropical cyclones. This article is about the deformation of materials. ... Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. ...


Eyewall mesovortices

Eyewall mesovortices are small scale rotational features found in the eyewalls of intense tropical cyclones. They are similar, in principle, to small "suction vortices" often observed in multiple-vortex tornadoes. In these vortices, wind speed can be up to 10% higher than in the rest of the eyewall. Eyewall mesovortices are most common during periods of intensification in tropical cyclones. A multiple vortex tornado is a tornado that contains several vortices rotating around and inside of and part of the main vortex. ...


Eyewall mesovortices often exhibit unusual behavior in tropical cyclones. They usually rotate around the low pressure center, but sometimes they remain stationary. Eyewall mesovortices have even been documented to cross the eye of a storm. These phenomena have been documented observationally,[15] experimentally,[16] and theoretically.[17]


Eyewall mesovortices are a significant factor in the formation of tornadoes after tropical cyclone landfall. Mesovortices can spawn rotation in individual thunderstorms (a mesocyclone), which leads to tornadic activity. At landfall, friction is generated between the circulation of the tropical cyclone and land. This can allow the mesovortices to descend to the surface, causing large outbreaks of tornadoes. This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercell. ...


Stadium effect

A picture of Hurricane Wilma's eye taken at 08:22 CDT (13:22 UTC) October 19, 2005, by the crew aboard the International Space Station. At the time, Wilma was the strongest Atlantic hurricane in history, with a minimum central pressure of only 882 mbar (26.06 inHg). Not only is this a classic example of a pinhole eye, but also of the stadium effect, where the eyewall slopes out and up.
A picture of Hurricane Wilma's eye taken at 08:22 CDT (13:22 UTC) October 19, 2005, by the crew aboard the International Space Station. At the time, Wilma was the strongest Atlantic hurricane in history, with a minimum central pressure of only 882 mbar (26.06 inHg).[18] Not only is this a classic example of a pinhole eye, but also of the stadium effect, where the eyewall slopes out and up.

The stadium effect is a phenomenon observed in strong tropical cyclones. It is a fairly common event, where the clouds of the eyewall curve outward from the surface with height. This gives the eye an appearance resembling an open dome from the air, akin to a sports stadium. An eye is always larger at the top of the storm, and smallest at the bottom of the storm because the rising air in the eyewall follows isolines of equal angular momentum, which also slope outward with height.[19][20][21] This phenomenon refers to the characteristics of tropical cyclones with very small eyes, where the sloping phenomenon is much more pronounced. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (3032 × 2008 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of notable... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (3032 × 2008 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of notable... Lowest pressure 882 mbar (hPa; 26. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC-6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC-5). ... “UTC” redirects here. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS redirects here. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... Inches of mercury or inHg is a non SI unit for pressure. ... The new Wembley Stadium in London is the most expensive stadium ever built; it has a seating capacity of 90,000 This article is about the building type. ... Elevation contour map A contour line shows elevation. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ...


Hazards

Though the eye is by far the calmest part of the storm, with no wind at the center and typically clear skies, over the ocean it is possibly the most hazardous area. In the eyewall, wind-driven waves are all traveling in the same direction. In the center of the eye, however, waves from all directions converge, creating erratic crests which can build on each other, creating rogue waves. The maximum height of hurricane waves is unknown, but measurements of Hurricane Ivan, when it was a category four hurricane, estimated that waves near the eyewall were in excess of 40 meters (130 ft) from peak to trough.[22] This is in addition to any storm surge which may occur, as storm surges often extend into the eye. The Draupner wave, a single giant wave measured on New Years Day 1995, finally confirmed the existence of freak waves, which had previously been considered near-mythical Freak waves, also known as rogue waves or monster waves, are relatively large and spontaneous ocean surface waves which can sink even... Lowest pressure 910 mbar (hPa) Damage $19. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... ...


A common mistake, especially in areas where hurricanes are uncommon, is for residents to wander outside to inspect the damage while the eye passes over, thinking the storm is over. They are then caught completely by surprise by the violent winds in the opposite eyewall. The National Weather Service strongly discourages leaving shelter while the eye passes over.[23] The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ...


Other storms

Main article: Cyclone

Though only tropical cyclones have structures which are officially called "eyes", there are other storms which can exhibit eye-like structures: This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ...


Polar lows

Polar lows are mesoscale weather systems (typically smaller than 1,000 km or 600 miles across) found near the poles. Like tropical cyclones, they form over relatively warm water, can feature deep convection (thunderstorms), and feature winds of gale force (51 km/h, 32 mph) or greater. Unlike storms of tropical nature, however, they thrive in much colder temperatures and at much higher latitudes. They are also smaller and last for shorter durations (few last longer than a day or so). Despite these differences, they can be very similar in structure to tropical cyclones, featuring a clear eye surrounded by an eyewall and rain/snow bands.[24] Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... Mesoscale Meteorology refers to weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than storm-scale cumulus systems. ... The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure for describing wind intensity based mainly on observed sea conditions. ... This article is about the geographical term. ...


Extratropical storms

The North American blizzard of 2006, an extratropical storm, showed an eye-like structure at its peak intensity (here seen just to the east of the Delmarva Peninsula).
The North American blizzard of 2006, an extratropical storm, showed an eye-like structure at its peak intensity (here seen just to the east of the Delmarva Peninsula).

Extratropical storms are areas of low pressure which exist at the boundary of different air masses. Almost all storms found at mid-latitudes are extratropical in nature, including classic North American nor'easters and European windstorms. The most severe of these can have a clear "eye" at the site of lowest barometric pressure, though it is usually surrounded by lower, non-convective clouds and is found near the back end of the storm.[25] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x776, 129 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x776, 129 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1Maximum snowfall or ice accretion The Blizzard of 2006 was a noreaster that began on the evening of February 11, 2006. ... Delmarva Peninsula map The Delmarva Peninsula is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by portions of three U.S. states: Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... In meteorology, an air mass is a large volume of air having fairly uniform characteristics of temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water vapor content. ... Satellite image of the intense noreaster responsible for the North American blizzard of 2006. ... A European windstorm is a severe cyclonic storm that tracks across the North Atlantic towards north-west Europe in the winter months. ...


Subtropical storms

Subtropical storms are cyclones which have some extratropical characteristics and some tropical characteristics. As such, they may have an eye, but are not true tropical storms. Subtropical storms can be very hazardous, with high winds and seas, and often evolve into true tropical storms. As such, the National Hurricane Center began including subtropical storms in their naming scheme in 2002.[26] Image:Http://upload. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Tornadoes

Tornadoes are destructive, small-scale storms, which produce the fastest winds on earth. There are two main types—single-vortex tornadoes, which consist of a single spinning column of air, and multiple-vortex tornadoes, which consist of small suction vortices, resembling mini-tornadoes themselves, all rotating around a common center. Both of these types of tornadoes are theorized to have calm centers, referred to by some meteorologists as "eyes". These theories are supported by doppler radar observations[27] and eyewitness accounts.[28] This article is about the weather phenomenon. ...


Extraterrestrial storms

A hurricane-like storm on the south pole of Saturn displaying an eyewall tens of kilometers high
A hurricane-like storm on the south pole of Saturn displaying an eyewall tens of kilometers high

NASA reported in November 2006 that the Cassini spacecraft observed a 'hurricane-like' storm locked to the south pole of Saturn that had a clearly defined eyewall. This observation is particularly notable because eyewall clouds have not been seen on any planet other than Earth (including a failure to observe an eyewall in the Great Red Spot of Jupiter by the Galileo spacecraft).[29] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1527 × 1018 pixels, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1527 × 1018 pixels, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo and Inertial Upper Stage being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ...


See also

Tropical cyclones Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ... The radius of maximum wind, or RMW, of a tropical cyclone is defined to be the distance between the center of the cyclone and its band of strongest winds. ... ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Landsea, Chris and Sim Aberson. (August 13, 2004). What is the "eye"?. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  2. ^ Landsea, Chris. (October 19, 2005). What is a "CDO"?. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  3. ^ National Weather Service (October 19, 2005). Tropical Cyclone Structure. JetStream—An Online School for Weather. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  4. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What is an extra-tropical cyclone?. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  5. ^ Objective Dvorak Technique. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
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Christopher Landsea is a research meteorologist with Hurricane Research Division of Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory at NOAA. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Colorado State University is a public institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Snow and Ice Data Center, or NSIDC, is a United States information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Science News is an American weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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