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Encyclopedia > Exxon Valdez oil spill

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24 March 1989. It is considered one of the most devastating man-made environmental disasters ever to occur at sea. As significant as the Exxon Valdez spill was, it ranks well down on the list of the world's largest oil spills in terms of volume released.[1] However, Prince William Sound's remote location (accessible only by helicopter and boat) made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response. The region was a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and sea birds. The vessel spilled 10.8 million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the sea, and eventually covered 11,000 square miles.[2] This article is about the tank vessel Exxon Valdez. ... A beach after an oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ...

During the first few days of the spill, heavy sheens of oil, such as the sheen visible in this photograph, covered large areas of the surface of Prince William Sound.

Contents

During the first few days of the spill, heavy sheens of oil, such as the sheen visible in this photograph, covered large areas of the surface of Prince William Sound. ... During the first few days of the spill, heavy sheens of oil, such as the sheen visible in this photograph, covered large areas of the surface of Prince William Sound. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ...

The accident

The oil tanker Exxon Valdez departed the Valdez oil terminal in Alaska at 9:12 pm on March 23, 1989 with 53 million gallons of crude oil bound for Washington. A harbor pilot guided the ship through the Valdez Narrows before departing the ship and returning control to Joseph Hazelwood, the ship's master. The ship maneuvered out of the shipping lane to avoid icebergs. Following the maneuver and sometime after 11 pm, Hazelwood departed the wheel house and was in his stateroom at the time of the accident. He left Third Mate Gregory Cousins in charge of the wheel house and Able Seaman Robert Kagan at the helm with instructions to return to the shipping lane at a prearranged point. Exxon Valdez failed to return to the shipping lanes and struck Bligh Reef at around 12:04 am March 24, 1989.[2] Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ... This article is about the tank vessel Exxon Valdez. ... The Valdez Oil Terminal is an oil port in Valdez, Alaska, at the southern end of the Alaska Pipeline. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Signal flag H(Hotel) - Pilot on Board Boarding is tricky, as both vessels are moving and cannot afford to slow down. ... Time magazine featured Joseph Hazelwood and the Exxon Valdez in the July 24, 1989 edition. ... Captain Sir Arthur Henry Rostron receiving a loving cup from Margaret Brown for his rescue of RMS Titanic survivors Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks Captain is the traditional customary title given to the person in charge of a ship at sea. ... The third officer of a merchant vessel. ... Gregory Cousins (born ???), of Tampa, Florida, was third mate at the time of Exxon Valdez oil spill. ... This article is about a civilian occupation. ... Bligh Reef is a reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

Beginning three days after the vessel grounded, a storm pushed large quantities of fresh oil onto the rocky shores of many of the beaches in the Knight Island chain. In this photograph, pooled oil is shown stranded in the rocks.
Beginning three days after the vessel grounded, a storm pushed large quantities of fresh oil onto the rocky shores of many of the beaches in the Knight Island chain. In this photograph, pooled oil is shown stranded in the rocks.

According to official reports, the ship carried 53,094,510 gallons of oil, of which 10.8 million gallons (42 million liters)[3] were spilled into the Prince William Sound.[4] This figure has become the consensus estimate of the spill's volume, as it has been accepted by the State of Alaska's Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council,[2] the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,[1] and environmental groups such as Greenpeace and the Sierra Club.[5][6] Some groups, such as Defenders of Wildlife, dispute the official estimates, maintaining that the volume of the spill has been underreported.[7] Beginning 3 days after the vessel grounded, a storm pushed large quantities of fresh oil onto the rocky shores of many of the beaches in the Knight Island chain. ... Beginning 3 days after the vessel grounded, a storm pushed large quantities of fresh oil onto the rocky shores of many of the beaches in the Knight Island chain. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... Defenders of Wildlife is dedicated to the protection of all native wild animals and plants in their natural communities. ...


Cleanup measures and environmental consequences

Workers using high-pressure, hot-water washing to clean an oiled shoreline.

The first cleanup response was through the use of a dispersant, a surfactant and solvent mixture. A private company applied dispersant on 24 March with a helicopter and dispersant bucket. Because there was not enough wave action to mix the dispersant with the oil in the water, the use of the dispersant was discontinued. One trial burn was also conducted during the early stages of the spill, in a region of the spill isolated from the rest by a fire-resistant boom. The test was relatively successful, but because of unfavorable weather no additional burning was attempted in this cleanup effort. Mechanical cleanup was started shortly afterwards using booms and skimmers, but the skimmers were not readily available during the first 24 hours following the spill, and thick oil and kelp tended to clog the equipment.[4] Workers using high-pressure, hot-water washing to clean an oiled shoreline. ... Workers using high-pressure, hot-water washing to clean an oiled shoreline. ... A dispersant is a compound consisting of a surfactant and a solvent, sprayed to dissipate oil slicks. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Exxon was widely criticized for its slow response to cleaning up the disaster and John Devens, the mayor of Valdez, has said his community felt betrayed by Exxon's inadequate response to the crisis.[8] Working with the United States Coast Guard, which officially led the response, Exxon mounted a cleanup effort that exceeded in cost, scope and thoroughness any previous oil spill cleanup. More than 11,000 Alaska residents, along with some Exxon employees, worked throughout the region to try to restore the environment. Valdez (IPA: ) is a city in Valdez-Cordova Census Area in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...

Clean-up efforts after Exxon Valdez oil spill.
Clean-up efforts after Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Because Prince William Sound contained many rocky coves where the oil collected, the decision was made to displace it with high-pressure hot water. However, this also displaced and destroyed the microbial populations on the shoreline; many of these organisms (e.g. plankton) are the basis of the coastal marine food chain, and others (e.g. certain bacteria and fungi) are capable of facilitating the biodegradation of oil. At the time, both scientific advice and public pressure was to clean everything, but since then, a much greater understanding of natural and facilitated remediation processes has developed, due somewhat in part to the opportunity presented for study by the Exxon Valdez spill. Despite the extensive cleanup attempts, a study conducted by NOAA determined that as of early 2007 more than 26,000 gallons of oil remain in the sandy soil of the contaminated shoreline, declining at a rate of less than 4% per year.[9] For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ...


In 1992, Exxon released a video titled Scientists and the Alaska Oil Spill. It was provided to schools with the label "A Video for Students". Critics say this video is reputed to misrepresent the clean-up process.[10]

Wildlife was severely affected by the oil spill.
Wildlife was severely affected by the oil spill.

Both the long- and short-term effects of the oil spill have been studied comprehensively. Thousands of animals died immediately; the best estimates include 250,000 to as many as 500,000 seabirds, at least 1,000 sea otters, approximately 12 river otters, 300 harbor seals, 250 bald eagles, and 22 orcas, as well as the destruction of billions of salmon and herring eggs.[3][10] Due to a thorough cleanup, little visual evidence of the event remained in areas frequented by humans just 1 year later. However, the effects of the spill continue to be felt today. Overall reductions in population have been seen in various ocean animals, including stunted growth in pink salmon populations.[11] Sea otters and ducks also showed higher death rates in following years, partially because they ingested prey from contaminated soil and from ingestion of oil residues on hair due to grooming.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1286, 562 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Exxon Valdez oil spill ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1286, 562 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Exxon Valdez oil spill ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Binomial name Lontra canadensis (Schreber, 1777) The Northern River Otter, Lontra canadensis, is a North American member of the Mustelidae or weasel family. ... Binomial name bobbi Linnaeus,, 1758 Common or Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) are true seals of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range  Resident, breeding Summer visitor, breeding Winter visitor On migration only Star: accidental records Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle (Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... Mortality rate is the annual number of deaths per 1000 people. ...


Almost 15 years after the spill, a team of scientists at the University of North Carolina found that the effects are lasting far longer than expected.[11] The team estimates some shoreline habitats may take up to 30 years to recover.[3] Exxon Mobil denies any concerns over this, stating that they anticipated a remaining fraction that they assert will not cause any long-term ecological impacts, according to the conclusions of 350 peer-reviewed studies.[12] However, a study from scientists from NOAA concluded that this contamination can produce chronic low-level exposure, discourage subsistence where the contamination is heavy, and decrease the "wilderness character" of the area.[9] Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ...


Litigation

In 1994, in the case of Baker vs. Exxon, an Anchorage jury awarded $287 million for actual damages and $5 billion for punitive damages. The punitive damages amount was equal to a single year's profit by Exxon at that time. This article is about the city in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Punitive damages are damages awarded to a successful plaintiff in a civil action, over and above the amount of compensatory damages, to: punish the conduct of the civil defendant; deter the civil defendant from committing the invidious act again; and deter others from doing the same thing. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Exxon appealed the ruling, and the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ordered the original judge, Russel Holland, to reduce the punitive damages. On December 6, 2002, the judge announced that he had reduced the damages to $4 billion, which he concluded was justified by the facts of the case and was not grossly excessive. Exxon appealed again and the case returned to court to be considered in light of a recent Supreme Court ruling in a similar case, which caused Judge Holland to increase the punitive damages to $4.5 billion, plus interest. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Hawaii... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... For other senses of this word, see interest (disambiguation). ...


After more appeals, and oral arguments heard by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals on 27 January 2006, the damages award was cut to $2.5 billion on 22 December 2006. The court cited recent Supreme Court rulings relative to limits on punitive damages. is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Exxon appealed again. On 23 May 2007, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals denied ExxonMobil's request for a third hearing and let stand its ruling that Exxon owes $2.5 billion in punitive damages. Exxon then appealed to the Supreme Court, which agreed to hear the case.[13] On February 27, 2008, the Supreme Court heard oral arguments for 90 minutes. A decision is expected before the court's term ends in July. Justice Samuel Alito, who owns between $100,000 and $250,000 in Exxon stock, recused himself from the case.[14] is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. ...


Exxon's official position is that punitive damages greater than $25 million are not justified because the spill resulted from an accident, and because Exxon spent an estimated $2 billion cleaning up the spill and a further $1 billion to settle related civil and criminal charges. Attorneys for the plaintiffs contended that Exxon bore responsibility for the accident because the company "put a drunk in charge of a tanker in Prince William Sound."[15]


Exxon recovered a significant portion of clean-up and legal expenses through insurance claims and tax deductions for the loss of the Valdez.[16][17] Also, in 1991, Exxon made a quiet, separate financial settlement of damages with a group of seafood producers known as the Seattle Seven for the disaster's effect on the Alaskan seafood industry. The agreement granted $63.75 million to the Seattle Seven, but stipulated that the seafood companies would have to repay almost all of any punitive damages awarded in other civil proceedings. The $5 billion in punitive damages was awarded later, and the Seattle Seven's share could be high as $750 million. If the damages award holds, they could have to give the $750 million back to Exxon, and it then would be unavailable to the other plaintiffs. In effect, this would give Exxon a 'savings' of $750 million. Other plaintiffs have objected to this secret arrangement,[18] and when it came to light, Judge Holland ruled that Exxon should have told the jury at the start that an agreement had already been made, so the jury would know exactly how much Exxon would have to pay.[19] Seafood industry A group of seven seafood companies, associated with the city of Seattle, Washington. ...


The aftermath

The cause of the incident was investigated by the National Transportation Safety Board, which identified the four following factors as contributing to the grounding of the vessel: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ...

  • The third mate failed to properly maneuver the vessel, possibly due to fatigue and excessive workload.
  • The master failed to provide navigation watch, possibly due to impairment under the influence of alcohol.
  • Exxon Shipping Company failed to supervise the master and provide a rested and sufficient crew for the Exxon Valdez.
  • The United States Coast Guard failed to provide an effective vessel traffic system.[4]

The Board made a number of recommendations, such as changes to the work patterns of Exxon crew in order to address the causes of the accident.[4] The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


In response to the spill, the United States Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA). The legislation included a clause that prohibits any vessel that, after March 22, 1989, has caused an oil spill of more than one million U.S. gallons (3,800 m³) in any marine area, from operating in Prince William Sound.[20] Congress in Joint Session. ... The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 was passed by Congress to prevent further spills from occurring in the United States. ...


In April 1998, the company argued in a legal action against the Federal government that the ship should be allowed back into Alaskan waters. Exxon claimed OPA was effectively a bill of attainder, a regulation that was unfairly directed at Exxon alone.[21] In 2002, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against Exxon. As of 2002, OPA had prevented 18 ships from entering Prince William Sound.[22] A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ...


OPA also set a schedule for the gradual phase in of a double hull design, providing an additional layer between the oil tanks and the ocean. While a double hull would likely not have prevented the Valdez disaster, a Coast Guard study estimated that it would have cut the amount of oil spilled by 60 percent.[23] A double hull is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom and sides of the ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat further into the ship, perhaps...


The Exxon Valdez supertanker was towed to San Diego, arriving on July 10. Repairs began on July 30. Approximately 1,600 tons of steel were removed and replaced. In June 1990 the tanker, renamed S/R Mediterranean, left harbor after $30 million of repairs.[22] It was still sailing as of August 2007. The vessel is current owned by SeaRiver Maritime, a wholly owned subsidiary of ExxonMobil. San Diego redirects here. ...


Other consequences

The Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, representing approximately 40,000 workers nationwide, announced opposition to drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) until Congress enacted a comprehensive national energy policy. In the aftermath of the spill, Alaska governor Steve Cowper issued an executive order requiring two tugboats to escort every loaded tanker from Valdez out through Prince William Sound to Hinchinbrook Entrance. As the plan evolved in the 1990s, one of the two routine tugboats was replaced with a 210 foot (64 m) Escort Response Vehicle (ERV). The majority of tankers at Valdez are still single-hulled, but Congress has enacted legislation requiring all tankers to be double-hulled by 2015. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) covers 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. ... Steve Camberling Cowper (born August 21, 1938) is an American Democratic politician who was Governor of Alaska from 1986 to 1990. ... See Tug (disambiguation) for alternative meanings of tug. ...


In 1991, following the collapse of the local marine population (particularly clams, herring, and seals) the Chugach Native American group went bankrupt[24] Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... Chugach (pronounced CHOO-gatch) is the name of a native Alaskan culture and group of people in the region of the Kenai Peninsula and Prince William Sound. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...


Many of the real estate appraisal methods used to value contaminated property and brownfields were developed as a result of and following the spill. The use of survey research (e.g. contingent valuation and conjoint measurement) became a well-accepted appraisal method as a result of the complex valuation problems associated with contamination.[25] A real estate appraisal is a service performed, by an appraiser, that develops an opinion of value based upon the highest and best use of real property. ... In town planning, brownfield land is an area of land previously used or built upon, as opposed to industry or mining and therefore may be contaminated by hazardous waste or pollution. ... Contingent valuation is a survey-based economic technique for the valuation of non-market resources, typically environmental areas. ...


According to several studies funded by the state of Alaska, the spill had both short- and long term economic effects. These included the loss of recreational sports fisheries, reduced tourism, and an estimate of what economists call "existence value," which is the value to the public of a pristine Prince William Sound.[26][27][28] Existence values are an unusual and somewhat controversial class of economic value, reflecting the benefit people receive from knowing that a particular environmental resource, such as Antarctica or the Grand Canyon, exists in a relatively untouched state. ...


External links

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is a part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ... EPA redirects here. ... // Introduction The Encyclopedia of Earth is an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society. ... The San Diego Union-Tribune is a daily newspaper published in San Diego, California by the Copley Press. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ...

References

  1. ^ a b (September 1992) Oil Spill Case Histories 1967 – 1991, Report No. HMRAD 92-11 (PDF), Seattle: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 80. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  2. ^ a b c Frequently asked questions about the Spill. History of the Spill. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  3. ^ a b c Graham, Sarah. "Environmental Effects of Exxon Valdez Spill Still Being Felt", Scientific American, 2003-12-19. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  4. ^ a b c d Skinner, Samuel K; Reilly, William K. (May 1989). The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (PDF), National Response Team. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  5. ^ Exxon Valdez disaster – 15 years of lies. Greenpeace News. Greenpeace (2004-03-24). Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  6. ^ Sierra Club (2005-03-23). "16 Years After Exxon Valdez Tragedy, Arctic Refuge, America's Coasts Still At Risk". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  7. ^ Defenders of Wildlife (2004-03-24). "Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Fifteen Years Later". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  8. ^ Baker, Mallen. Companies in Crisis – What not to do when it all goes wrong. Corporate Social Responsibility News. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  9. ^ a b MacAskill, Ewan. "18 years on, Exxon Valdez oil still pours into Alaskan waters", The Guardian, 2007-02-02. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  10. ^ a b Fry, D. Michael (January-February 1993). How's Exxon's "Video for Students" Deals in Distortions. The Textbook Letter. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  11. ^ a b Williamson, David. "Exxon Valdez oil spill effects lasting far longer than expected, scientists say", UNC/News, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2003-12-18. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  12. ^ a b "Exxon Valdez oil spill still a threat: study", abc.net.au, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-05-17. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  13. ^ Staff writer. "Supreme Court to review Exxon Valdez award", money.cnn.com, CNN, 2007-10-29. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  14. ^ Staff writer. "High Court may lower Exxon Valdez damages", CNN.com, Associated Press, 2008-02-27. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  15. ^ Egelko, Bob. "Punitive damages appealed in Valdez spill", San Francisco Chronicle, 2006-01-28. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  16. ^ Bandurka, Andrew; Sloane, Simon (2005-03-10). Exxon Valdez – D. G. Syndicate 745 vs. Brandywine Reinsurance Company (UK) - Summary of the Court of Appeal Judgment. Holman Fenwick & Willan. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  17. ^ Exxon Corporation 1993 Form 10-K. EDGAR. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (1994-03-11). Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  18. ^ Erb, George. "Exxon Valdez case still twisting through courts", Puget Sound Business Journal, 2000-11-03. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  19. ^ Exxon v. Baker, CV-89-00095-HRH (9th Cir. 2006).
  20. ^ Oil Pollution Act of 1990 - Summary. Federal Wildlife and Related Laws Handbook (1990-08-18). Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  21. ^ Carrigan, Alison. "The bill of attainder clause: a new weapon to challenge the Oil Pollution Act of 1990". Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review (Fall 2000). Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  22. ^ a b "Exxon Valdez Is Barred From Alaska Sound", The New York Times, 2002-11-02. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  23. ^ Kizzia, Tom. "Double-hull tankers face slow going", Anchorage Daily News, 1999-05-13. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  24. ^ Loshbaugh, Doug. "School of Hard Knocks", Juneau Empire. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  25. ^ McLean, David; Mundy, Bill (1999). "The Addition of Contingent Valuation and Conjoint Measurement to the Body of Knowledge for Real Estate Appraisal". Journal of Real Estate Practice and Education. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  26. ^ Carson, Richard; Hanemann, W. Michael (1992-12-18). A Preliminary Economic Analysis of Recreational Fishing Losses Related to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  27. ^ An Assessment of the Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on the Alaska Tourism Industry (PDF). Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council (August 1990). Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  28. ^ Economic Impacts of Spilled Oil. Publications. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Knox Skinner (born June 10, 1938) is an American politician and businessman. ... William K. Reilly has been a director of DuPont since 1993. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Defenders of Wildlife is dedicated to the protection of all native wild animals and plants in their natural communities. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Holman Fenwick & Willan is a law firm based in the City of London, with an international reputation for expertise in shipping law. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EDGAR, the Electronic Data-Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval system, performs automated collection, validation, indexing, acceptance, and forwarding of submissions by companies and others who are required by law to file forms with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). Not all SEC filings by public companies are available... The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Puget Sound Business Journal is a weekly American City Business Journals publication containing articles about business people, issues, and events in the greater Seattle, Washington area. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Anchorage Daily News is a daily newspaper in Anchorage, Alaska. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Juneau Empire is a newspaper for Juneau, Alaska, United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alaska in 1895 (Rand McNally). ... An Inuit woman, circa 1907 Prehistoric Alaska begins with Paleolithic peoples moving into northwestern North America sometime between 16,000 and 10,000 BCE across the Bering Land Bridge in western Alaska. ... Bering Strait, Alaskas West coast and Russias East coast // The first written accounts indicate that the first Europeans to reach Alaska came from Russia. ... The Department of Alaska was the governmental designation of Alaska from its purchase by the USA in 1867 until its organization as the District of Alaska in 1884. ... The District of Alaska was the governmental designation for Alaska from May 17, 1884 to August 24, 1912, when it became Alaska Territory. ... Alaska Territory was an organized territory of the United States from August 24, 1912 to January 3, 1959, when Alaska became the 49th state. ... Alaska in 1895 (Rand McNally). ... During the 1925 serum run to Nome, also known as the Great Race of Mercy, 20 mushers and about 150 sled dogs relayed diphtheria antitoxin 674 miles (1,085 km) by dog sled across the U.S. territory of Alaska in a record-breaking five and a half days, saving... The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) was an American law passed in 1980 by U.S. Congress and signed by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980. ... The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law on December 18, 1971, and the largest land claims settlement in United States history was concluded. ... The Alaska Statehood Act, signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on July 7, 1958, allowing Alaska to enter the Union on January 3, 1959. ... Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... This is the main article of a series that covers the History of Anchorage, Alaska, USA. // Russia was well established in the 1800s. ... Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... Earthquake Damage, Anchorage The Good Friday Earthquake (also called the Great Alaska Earthquake) of Friday, March 27, 1964 (Good Friday, a Christian holy day associated with a historical earthquake[1]), 5:36 P.M. AST (03:36 3/27 UTC) had a magnitude of 9. ... A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek. ...

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Exxon Valdez oil spill (1083 words)
The Exxon Valdez oil spill was an oil spill, involving the Exxon Valdez, on March 24 1989.
The Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker, was departing from the Valdez oil terminal (on its 28th voyage) and heading south, through Prince William Sound, with a full load of oil.
A trial burn was conducted during the early stages of the spill, in a region of the spill isolated from the rest by a fire-resistant boom.
Exxon Valdez Spill, OilSpills.org (4515 words)
Prudhoe Bay crude oil has an API gravity of 27.0, and a pour point of 0 degrees C. The bulk of the oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez was released within 6 hours of the ship's grounding.
Exxon conducted successful dispersant test applications on March 25 and 26 and was granted permission on March 26 to apply dispersants to the oil slick.
To contain oil on the open water, containment boom was towed between two vessels (usually fishing boats) to surround the oil and then the two ends of the boom were drawn together to close the loop and await collection by a skimmer.
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