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Encyclopedia > Extremes on Earth

This article describes extreme locations on Earth. Entries listed in bold are world records.

Contents

Extreme elevations and temperatures per continent

Continent Elevation (height above sea level) Temperature (recorded)
Highest Lowest Highest Lowest
Africa 5,895 metres (19,340 feet)
Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
−156 metres (−512 feet)
Lake Asal, Djibouti
57.7 °C (135.9 °F)
Al 'Aziziyah, Libya
13 September 1922
−23.9 °C (−11.0 °F)
Ifrane, Morocco
11 February 1935
America, North 6,194 metres (20,320 feet)
Mount McKinley (Denali), Alaska, U.S.A.
−86 metres (−282 feet)
Death Valley, California, U.S.A.
56.7 °C (134.0 °F)
Death Valley, California, U.S.A.
10 July 1913
−63.0 °C (−81.4 °F)
Snag, Yukon, Canada
3 February 1947
−66 °C (−87 °F)
Northice, Greenland
9 January 1954
America, South
6,962 metres (22,841 feet)
Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina
−105 metres (−344 feet)
Laguna del Carbón, Argentina
48.9 °C (120.0 °F)
Rivadavia, Argentina
11 December 1905
−33.0 °C (−27.4 °F)
Sarmiento, Argentina
1 June 1907
Antarctica 4,897 metres (16,066 feet)
Vinson Massif
−2,555 meters (−8,383 feet)
Bentley Subglacial Trench
(under ice)
14.6 °C (58.3 °F)
Vanda Station
5 January 1974
−89.2 °C (−128.6 °F)
Vostok
21 July 1983
Asia 8,848 metres (29,028 feet)
Mount Everest, Nepal - Tibet, China
[A]
−418 metres (−1,371 feet)
Dead Sea shore, Israel - Jordan
53.9 °C (129.0 °F)
Tirat Tzvi, Israel
21 June 1942
−67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) Measured
Verkhoyansk, Siberia, Russia
7 February 1892 [1]
−71.2 °C (−96.16 °F) Extrapolated
Oymyakon, Siberia, Russia
26 January 1926 [2]
Australia 2,228 metres (7,310 feet)
Mount Kosciuszko, New South Wales
−12 metres (−52 feet)
Lake Eyre, South Australia
53.1 °C (128.0 °F)
Cloncurry, Queensland
16 January 1889 [B]
−23.0 °C (−10.4 °F)
Charlotte Pass, New South Wales
29 June 1994
Europe 5,642 metres (18,506 feet)
Mount Elbrus, Russia
−28 metres (−92 feet)
Caspian Sea shore, Russia
50.0 °C (122.0 °F)
Seville, Sevilla (province), Spain
4 August 1881
−55.0 °C (−67.0 °F)
Ust-Shchugor, Russia
January (no exact date available)
Oceania 4,884 metres (16,023 feet)
Carstensz Pyramid (Puncak Jaya), New Guinea
Sea level 42.4 °C (108.3 °F)
Awatere Valley and Rangiora, New Zealand
7 February 1973
−21.6 °C (−6.9 °F)
Ophir, New Zealand
3 July 1995
Bold entries are Earth-wide extremes.

[A]: Height above sea level is the usual choice of definition for elevation. In terms of the point farthest away from the centre of the Earth, Chimborazo in Ecuador (6,267 m) can be considered the planet's most extreme high point. This is due to the Earth's oblate spheroid shape, with points near the Equator being farther out from the centre than those at the poles.
Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... Fig. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kilimanjaro is a mountain in northeastern Tanzania. ... Lake Assal seen from space Lake Karum in the Ethiopian portion of the northern Afar Depression is also sometimes called Lake Assal. ... Al Aziziyah is one of the municipalities of Libya, located in the north of the country. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Ifrane (Arabic: ‎) is a town and ski resort in the Middle Atlas region of Morocco. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Image File history File links Denali - Mt. ... Denali redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Death Valley is a valley in the U.S. state of California, and is the location of the lowest elevation in North America at -282 feet (-86 meters). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Death Valley is a valley in the U.S. state of California, and is the location of the lowest elevation in North America at -282 feet (-86 meters). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... // Main List Here is a list of cities, towns, villages and unincorporated communities in the Yukon Territory, Canada. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 331 KB) Aconcagua, Argentina, January, 2005, by Sergio Schmiegelow File links The following pages link to this file: Aconcagua Gallery of mountains ... The Cerro Aconcagua is located in Argentina and is the highest mountain in The Americas and the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the highest peak outside of Asia and one of the Seven Summits. ... Mendoza is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. ... Laguna del Carbón (Spanish for Coals lagoon) is a 105 metres (315 ft) below sea level depression located at coordinates in the Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sarmiento is a city in the province of Chubut, Argentina. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... NASA image of Vinson Massif. ... Vinson Massif is the highest mountain of Antarctica, located about 1,200 km (750 mi) from the South Pole. ... The Bentley Subglacial Trench is a vast trench in Antarctica, 80°S, 115°W. At 2,555 meters (8,383 ft) below sea level, it is the lowest point on the surface of the earth not covered by ocean, although it is covered by ice. ... Vanda Station was a summer-only antarctic research base in the western highlands (Victoria Land) of the Ross Dependency, specifically on the shore of Lake Vanda, which is in the Wright Valley. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Vostok, Antarctica is a Russian research station located near the Geomagnetic South Pole (see South Pole), at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) as seen from Kala Pattar The image copyright owner, Craig Knelsen, hereby agrees to the licensing terms of the GFDL for use on Wikipedia. ... “Everest” redirects here. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ), (Arabic: ), is the Earths lowest point not covered by water or ice, at 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level and falling,[2] and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, at 330 m (1,083 feet) deep. ... Tirat Zvi (Hebrew: ‎) is a kibbutz in the Israeli Bet Shean Valley. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on January 18 1815 (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Verkhoyansk (Russian: ) is a town in the Sakha Republic, Russia, situated on the Yana River, near the Arctic Circle, 675 km from Yakutsk. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Oymyakon in Russia Oymyakon (Russian: ) is a village (selo) in Oymyakonsky Ulus of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1144 KB)Mt Kosciuszko taken by nick english Since this picture has been uploaded by the photographer: Lupo 11:39, 11 May 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Mount Kosciuszko Categories: GFDL images ... Mount Kosciuszko, located in the Snowy Mountains, in Kosciuszko National Park, is the highest mountain in mainland Australia. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Location of Cloncurry in Queensland (red) Cloncurry () is a town and Local Government Area situated in north west Queensland, Australia, 770 kilometres west of the city of Townsville via the Flinders Highway. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charlotte Pass (Elev. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Image File history File links 19th-century postcard of Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus Mountains. ... Mount Elbrus (Russian: Эльбрус) is a peak located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Russia, near the border of Georgia. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... Sevilla province Sevilla is a province of southern Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ... Image File history File links Puncak_Jaya_icecap_1972. ... Carstensz Pyramid is the traditional name among mountaineers for Puncak Jaya, the highest mountain in Oceania. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The Awatere River is a large river flowing through Marlborough, New Zealand. ... Rangiora is a rural town in the South Island of New Zealand. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Ophir is a small town in Central Otago, New Zealand, located between Alexandra and Ranfurly beside the Manuherikia River. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chimborazo is a province in Ecuador. ... Oblate also refers to a member of the Roman Catholic religious order of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, or in some cases to a lay or religious person who has officially associated himself (or herself) with a monastic community such as the Benedictines for reasons of personal enrichment without...

[B]: The temperature of 53.1 °C (128.0 °F) was recorded under non-standard exposure conditions and is therefore not considered official. The highest temperature in Australia recorded under standard exposure conditions is 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) on 2 January 1960 in Oodnadatta, South Australia. Transcript of report on the highest temperature

January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Oodnadatta, South Australia (27°32′ S 135°26′ E) is located in the heart of the desert 112 m above sea level, 1,011 km north of Adelaide. ...

Greatest vertical drop

Greatest purely vertical drop
1,250 metres (4,100 feet)
Mount Thor, Auyuittuq National Park, Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada
Greatest nearly vertical drop 1,340 metres (4,400 ft)
Great Trango Tower, Pakistan (summit elevation 6,286 metres/20,608 feet)

See also List of mountains and Seven Summits. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (5316x3480, 603 KB) Beschreibung v Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Extremes on Earth Auyuittuq National Park Mount Thor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image:MtThor. ... Auyuittuq National Park is a national park located on Baffin Islands Cumberland Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. ... Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Great Trango Tower (6286 m / 20608 ft) is part of the Trango massif, which is located across the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram mountain range in Pakistans Northern areas. ... . ... The Seven Summits on an Elevation World Map. ...


Subterranea

Deepest mine 3,581 metres (11,748 feet)
East Rand Mine, South Africa
Deepest cave 2,140 metres (7,021 feet)
Voronya Cave, Arabika Massif, Abkhazia, Georgia.
Deepest pitch (single vertical drop) 603 metres (1,978 feet)
Vrtoglavica Cave, Slovenia

See also List of caves. East Rand Proprietary Mines (ERPM) is a 100-year-old underground mining operation on the Witwatersrand Basin at Boksburg, to the east of Johannesburg. ... The Voronya Cave (aka Krubera-Voronia Cave) is the deepest known cave in the world. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... For other uses, see Pitch A pitch is a significant underground vertical space in mining terminology. ... The following is a partial list of caves. ...


Greatest oceanic depths

Atlantic Ocean 8,648 metres (28,374 feet)
Milwaukee Deep, Puerto Rico Trench
Arctic Ocean 5,450 metres (17,881 feet)
Litke Deep, Eurasia Basin
Indian Ocean 8,047 metres (26,401 feet)
Diamantina Deep, Diamantina Trench, South East Indian Basin
Mediterranean Sea 5,267 metres (17,280 feet)
Calypso Deep, Ionian Basin
Pacific Ocean 10,924 metres (35,840 feet)
Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench
Southern Ocean 7,235 metres (23,690 feet)
South Sandwich Trench (southernmost portion, at 60°S)
Bold entry is an Earth-wide extreme.

Milwaukee Deep is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, and is part of the Puerto Rico Trench. ... Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ... Diamantina Deep Is the deepest point of the Indian Ocean and is located in the Diamantina Trench south west of Perth, Western Australia. ... The Diamantina Trench is a deep sea trench in the South East Indian Basin. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location of Challenger Deep within the Mariana Trench The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the oceans. ... Mariana Trench location This article is about the geographical feature. ... The South Sandwich Trench is the deepest trench of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, and the second deepest of the Atlantic Ocean, after the Puerto Rico Trench. ...

Coldest and hottest inhabited places on Earth

Hottest inhabited place Dallol, Ethiopia average temperature is 34 °C (93.2 °F)
Coldest inhabited place Eureka, Nunavut, Canada daily average temperature is −19.7 °C (−3.46 °F) [3]

Dallol is a settlement in northern Ethiopia. ... Eureka is a small research base on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. ...

Northern and southernmost points of land on Earth

Northernmost point on Earth Kaffeklubben Island, east of Greenland ( 83°40′N, 29°50′W)
Various shifting gravel bars lie further north, the most famous being Oodaaq
Southernmost point on Earth The geographic South Pole

Kaffeklubben Island or Coffee Club Island is a small island lying off the north eastern tip of Greenland, and is considered to be the most northerly point of land on earth. ... Gravel bars are hydrogeologic sediments that are prone to continuous erosion and migration. ... Oodaaq is the name given to a bank of gravel and silt, north east of Greenland that was at one stage considered by some to be the most northerly point of land on earth. ... Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. ...

See also

This is a list of lists of extreme points of the world, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... // City life Capital: Wellington, New Zealand, 41°17′S 174°47′E City: Ushuaia, Argentina, 54°48′S 068°18′W Hotel: Medieval stone castle: Great Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe, 20°16′S 30°54′E Million population city: Melbourne, Australia, 37°45′S 144°58′E Motorway: Post Office: Town: Puerto... Some of the northernmost settlements in the world are: Alert, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada 82°28 N — Pop. ... The southernmost settlements in the world, excluding research bases in Antarctica (there are already permanent settlements there), are: See also Northernmost settlements Extreme points of the world Category: ... This is a list of record weather events on earth for various categories. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Average conditions for Verkhoyansk from the BBC
  2. ^ Life Is a Chilling Challenge in Subzero Siberia from the National Geographic
  3. ^ Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 - Eureka

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